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The Ancient World Edit
The Expanding World 600 CE to 1450 Edit
Quetzalcoatl Quetzalcoatl evokes one of the great tales of Middle American (Mesoamerican) mythology. In Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs of Mexico, the name Quetzalcoatl can be translated as “feathered serpent.” There is in fact a quetzal bird, prized for its plumage and highly priced on the international bird market. However the fi gure of Quetzalcoatl is not just confi ned to Mexico, where the Spanish under Hernán Cortés overwhelmed the Aztecs in 1521. The Maya of Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula know Quetzalcoatl as Kukulcán, and their cousins the Quiché Maya of Guatemala know Quetzalcoatl as Gugumatz. There are three main interpretations to this profound myth. They are that Quetzalcoatl appears as the creator god, a civilizer coming from the east, and the last king of the Toltecs, the greatest warrior race in Mexico, before the advent of the Aztecs in Mexico in about 1100. The Codex Vaticano, one of the few surviving Aztec documents (most were destroyed by zealous Spanish priests and friars), remarks that the supreme god Tonacatecutli created Quetzalcoatl. The description of Quetzalcoatl is remarkably similar to that of the story of Christ in the New Testament, and one cannot discount that fact the friars or priests may have added to the Codex Vaticano their own interpretation in order to make Christianity more palatable to the Aztec people. The Codex Vaticano notes that Quetzalcoatl was “sent as an ambassador and announced this to a [virgin, much like the visit of the archangel Gabriel to Mary, announcing she would give birth to Jesus] in Tula. He said that he was sent to save the world with penance [for the people] since his father had created the world but all humanity had fallen into sin. And that Tonacatecutli (known also by the name of Citinatonali) had sent his son to save the world.” The idea of god-kings was as common among the Aztecs and Mayas as it had been earlier with the Egyptians and their pharaohs. Therefore the people of Middle America very easily accepted the idea that Quetzalcoatl could become king of Tula, a Toltec city. The Aztec emperors presided over the massive human sacrifi ces of their empire as the direct representative of the people with their gods. Mayan god-kings would shed their own blood by passing thorny twigs through their tongues in order to connect their people to the earth and the gods in the heavens by the sacrifi ce of their own blood. In Yucatán the pyramid dedicated to Quetzalcoatl, or Kukulcán, at the sacred site of Chichen Itza dominates the landscape. The most intriguing part of the legend of Quetzalcoatl is its ending. The people and priests turned against their god-king because of his attempts at reformation. Most of all, Quetzalcoatl had forbidden the practice of human sacrifi ce. (In the legends, he appears as a tall, white man, much different from the Indians of Middle America.) In the end his own people force him into exile and he leaves across the ocean to the east on a raft of his serpents, promising to return. When Hernán Cortés arrived at what is now Veracruz in Mexico in 1519, Moctezuma II’s scouts rapidly bore word of the appearance of this strange man—a white man—from the east. Moctezuma may have been reluctant to use force against the small band of Spanish adventurers because he thought that Cortés was Quetzalcoatl. See also Mesoamerica: Postclassic period; Mesoamerica: southeastern periphery. Further reading: Del Castillo, Bernal Diaz. The Conquest of New Spain. New York: Penguin, 1963; Prescott, William H. The History Of The Conquest of Mexico. New York: Modern Library, 2001. John F. Murphy, Jr. Quiché Maya Today’s Quiché Maya live in Chichicastenango, Chichi for short, in the part of Quiché located in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. They survive as one of Mesoamerica’s (Middle America’s) earliest developed cultures, the Maya. According to Michael D. Coe in The Maya, the fi rst organized agriculture in the Mayan region “was an innovation of the Preclassic period, which lasted from about 1800 b.c.e. to about 250 c.e.” Mayan culture would grow to encompass the Yucatán and Chiapas regions of Mexico, Guatemala, and even parts of El Salvador. The total area once occupied by the Maya was around 400,000 to 500,000 square kilometers and is referred to collectively as El Mundo Maya or in Spanish “the Maya World.” The Mayas, as with the later Aztecs, developed their own writing. This is in stark contrast to the earlier Olmec, from whom the Mayas may have been descended. Aside from their enigmatic monumental stone sculptures, with apparently African faces, little has been found to document the Olmec civilization. Unfortunately, as with the Aztecs, few of the Mayan written records, in books called codices, which were often made from deerskin or tree bark, survived the Spanish conquest. Only four known Mayan codices are known to have survived the Spanish destruction, the Dresden Codex, the Madud Codex, the Paris Codex, and the Grolier Codex. More permanent records were kept in the elegant stone hieroglyphic writing, featured on almost every public building, which defi ed Spanish efforts to destroy it. Today’s Quiché Maya in Guatemala occupy a land that before the Spanish conquest of the Mayas in about 1524 was the home to “by well over 25 different tribes or clans of natives who were direct descendants of the original ancient Maya. The most numerous, largest, and most infl uential of these tribes was the Quiché and the Cakchiquel (meaning ‘those from the red tree’).” As the Public Broadcasting System writes in Hernán Cortés Arrives in Mexico, “The fi rst land Cortes and his crew spotted was the coast of Yucatán, at one time the central nervous system of the Mayan empire. Although never a fully unifi ed empire, distinct groups of Mayans occupied these areas, all sharing cultural characteristics such as a highly developed calendar, a complex writing system, and sophisticated mathematics. Even today, the Maya occupy some of these same lands and heartily preserve their signifi cant cultures and languages. Meanwhile, General Alvarado, one of Cortés’s men who had traveled ahead, attacked a Maya temple. Cortés reprimanded the general: it was impetuous aggression like this that could bring their expedition to a disastrous and quick end. At Punta Catoche, Cortés came across Aguilar, a man who had survived a shipwreck and spent nine years as a slave to a warlord. Cortés enlisted the man; his knowledge of Maya would be invaluable to the explorer.” Pedro de Alvarado destroyed the Quiché capital city of Utatlán. Indeed, Alvarado was perhaps the most homicidal of Cortés’s “great captains.” While Cortés 338 Quiché Maya Researchers examine a Mayan artifact. Mayan culture encompassed regions of Mexico, Guatemala, and parts of El Salvador. was off in June 1520 to confront Pánfi lo de Narváez, who had been sent to capture Cortés, Alvarado carried out the massacre in the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán, the site of today’s Mexico City. The massacre led to a full Aztec revolt, which almost led to the destruction of Cortés and his entire army in La Noche Triste, “The Sad Night,” of July 1, 1520. The main source on Quiché history and culture is their book, the Popol Vuh. The author came from the Quiché Mayas, who were among those educated by the priests and friars who accompanied the Spanish. As with those who faced the Aztecs, some of them realized the value of the indigenous Middle American cultures they had encountered and dedicated their lives to preserving what had been spared in the wreckage that accompanied the conquest and its immediate aftermath. See also Mesoamerica: Postclassic period; Mesoamerica: southeastern periphery. Further reading: Coe, Michael D. The Maya. London: Thames and Hudson, 2005; Collier, John. Indians Of The Americas. New York: Mentor Books, 1947; Hernan Cortes Arrives in Mexico, www.pbs.org (November 2005); Popol Vuh. The Defi nitive Edition Of The Mayan Book Of The Dawn Of Life And The Glories Of Gods and Kings. Dennis Tedlock, ed. New York: Touchstone, 1996. John F. Murphy. Jr. Qur’an The Qur’an, the holy book of Islam, contains the revelations from Allah to the prophet Muhammad. The Qur’an was revealed in Arabic, a language that therefore holds a special place of respect and admiration for all Muslims. The Qur’an contains instructions for governing every aspect of human life. Under the caliph Omar the suras, or verses, were codifi ed and arranged in order of ascending length with the shortest fi rst. The longer ones, usually revealed in Medina, tend to pertain to matters of civil government and law; thus the Qur’an does not separate matters of religion from those of the state. The Qur’an’s main focal point is the existence of one God who is omnipotent. Muslims accept all of the prophets of the Old and New Testaments with Muhammad as the last and greatest of the prophets. Qur’anic injunctions are a combination of forgiveness and obedience. The Qur’an deals with proper modes of behavior for all humankind including dietary laws (pork and alcohol are forbidden), adultery (four witnesses are necessary), and slavery (Muslims are to treat slaves kindly and laws are set down for the manumission of slaves). Women are given specifi c rights, including the right to own and inherit property, rights that women did not achieve in the West for many centuries. Although women are not considered as equals to men in matters of property or divorce, Islam improved the lot and rights of women from those of the era. The caliph Uthman declared one text of the Qur’an as the one and only defi nitive copy and all others were suppressed; because of both Omar and Uthman there is therefore only one accepted text of the Qur’an, unlike the numerous texts of the Bible. For millions of Arabic speakers, Muslims and non-Muslims alike, the language of the Qur’an remains the model for grammar, syntax, and literary beauty. Muslims also consider the Sunna, the collection of the customs of the Prophet, as guidelines for proper behavior. The Hadith, the collection of sayings and traditions of the prophet Muhammad, is another guideline for the community. Several different texts of the Hadith exist. Some hadiths are considered more reliable than others. Reliability is gauged by who transmitted the saying or deed of the Prophet and his companions. Firsthand accounts are considered more valid than those passed on by third or fourth parties or by those whose veracity is held in doubt. The chain of transmission is known as isnad. In general, the Shi’i criteria for validating hadith are somewhat more fl exible and broader than those of the majority, orthodox Sunnis. Muslim scholars have produced massive volumes on the Hadith with various interpretations of given sayings and traditions. See also Caliphs, fi rst four; Shi’ism. Further readings: Burton, John. An Introduction of the Hadith. Edingburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1995; Esposito, John L. ed. The Oxford History of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999; Renard, John, ed. Windows on the House of Islam: Muslim Sources on Spirituality and Religious Life. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998; Stowasser, Barbara Freyer. Women in the Qur’an, Traditions, and Interpretation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994; Watt, W. Montgomery, and Richard Bell. Introduction to the Qur’an. Edinburgh: Edinburgh at the University Press, 1970, reprint 1994. Janice J. Terry
The First Global Age 1450 to 1750 Edit
Qing (Ch’ing) dynasty, rise and zenith The Qing (1644–1911) was China’s last imperial dynasty and the second of nomadic origin that ruled the entire Chinese world. Its success is due to capable and wise founders and their long-reigning immediate successors, whose admiration for Chinese culture led them to assimilate rapidly, and to retain most of the existing government institutions with few modifications. The dynasty remained prosperous and dynamic until the end of the 18th century. The Qing is also called the Manchu dynasty. The Manchus were nomads descended from the Jurchen tribal people who lived in northeastern China (Manchuria). They had conquered and ruled northern China under the Jin (Chin) dynasty (1115–1234) but had retreated to their original homeland when the dynasty ended. They forgot their short-lived written language and reverted to a life of hunting, fishing, and raising livestock. Manchuria was part of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and became an area of mixed residence of Jurchen and other nomadic tribal people amid the sedentary Han Chinese. Jurchen and other tribal people were responsible to Ming officials in Manchuria and went to Beijing (Peking) at stipulated times to render tribute to the Ming court. The decline of the Ming dynasty coincided with the rise of strong leaders among the Jurchens, the first a minor tribal chief named Nurhaci, who began significant reforms and innovations that would lead his people to power. They included the creation of a written language and the militarization of all Jurchens into a banner system whereby all males were organized into fighting units and given land to farm and administer. As a result of successful campaigns, the defeated people became serfs, liberating the bannermen into full time warriors and administrators. Nurhaci created a state called the Later Jin, which his son Abahai changed to Qing (which means “pure”) 1635. Abahai also changed his people’s name from Jurchen to Manchu. Continuing his father’s ambitious policies Abahai expanded the banner system to include units of Mongols and Han Chinese, conquered most of Manchuria, subdued Korea and forced it to change allegiance and tribute relations from the Ming to Qing, and began attacking Ming territories near the Great Wall of China. Abahai died in 1643 and was succeeded by a young son, but his work was continued by his capable brother Dorgon, who acted as regent. Formation of A national dynasty A great stroke of luck catapulted the frontier Manchu state to a national Chinese dynasty. In 1644, rebel bandits attacked and captured the Ming capital, causing the emperor to commit suicide. In the ensuing confusion Wu Sangui (Wu San-kuei), a Ming frontier general guarding the eastern extremity of the Great Wall, requested Manchu assistance to drive out the rebels, with which Dorgon happily complied. After liberating Beijing and while Wu’s forces chased the rebels to their destruction Dorgon placed his nephew on the vacant Ming throne and proclaimed the Qing as a national successor dynasty to the Ming. He won over many people in northern China by burying the last Ming emperor and empress with honor, restoring order, and keeping most of the Ming institutions and officials in place. Ming loyalists resisted in southern China and warfare continued until 1683, when Taiwan, the last Ming loyalist bastion, was captured. Dorgon died in 1651 and his nephew the emperor Shunzi (Shun-chih, r. 1644–61) continued his policies but had little impact because of the brevity of his reign. Then came three great emperors: Kangxi (K’ang-hsi, r. 1662–1722), Yongzheng (Yung-Cheng, r. 1723– 35), and Qianlong (Ch’ien-lung, r. 1736–1796). These three reigns totaled 134 years, during which traditional Chinese culture enjoyed its last great flowering and Chinese power attained great heights. Capable rulers Kangxi was seven when he ascended an as yet insecure throne. A remarkably intelligent, ambitious, and hardworking boy, he freed himself from the tutelage of his regents at age 13 and began his personal rule, which was noted for its success in war and peace. Frugal in personal habits and in administration he repeatedly reduced taxes and permanently fixed them at a low level. He also took a personal interest in agricultural improvements, introducing early ripening strains of rice to promote food production. He advocated vaccination against smallpox, a dreaded childhood disease that he had recovered from, and quinine (called Jesuit bark) against malaria. He also took several tours of inspection to be personally acquainted with his realm. He worked long hours personally reading and responding to reports and memorials of officials and conscientiously fasting before reviewing capital cases, showing respect for life and the awesome responsibilities that were vested in him. He finished the work of suppressing Ming loyalist revolts and the formidable revolt of the Three Feudatories. He campaigned against the Mongols and negotiated a treaty with Russia that defined part of the borders between the two empires and put part of Outer Mongolia under Qing control. He also installed a friendly cleric as the Seventh Dalai Lama, thus extending Qing authority over Tibet. Although personally friendly with Jesuit missionaries, some of whom were his teachers and employees, he rejected the papacy’s attempt to claim authority over Chinese Catholics and definition of what rites Chinese Catholics should follow. The defeat of the Jesuits’ position on Chinese rites by their opponents in the Catholic curia ended over a century of cultural exchange between China and Europe. Kangxi was both a keen student and a patron of the arts and learning. He sponsored numerous projects that included the compiling of a multivolume history of the Ming dynasty, a comprehensive dictionary, and other publications. His court was filled with literary men and artists. Although his last years were clouded with problems of finding a worthy successor among his many sons, Kangxi’s long reign ended with the Qing dynasty firmly established. To many of his subjects, he approached the ideal ruler. Emperor Yongzheng (r. 1723–1735) was Kangxi’s fourth son and his successor. Because he was already 44 when he ascended the throne, his reign was a short one. Like his father, Yongzheng was able, conscientious, and hardworking. He focused on making his government efficient by weeding out incompetence and corruption and making all officials accountable. The civil service, recruited on merit through exams, enjoyed high morale under his reign. He concentrated military power in his own hands and personally commanded all the Manchu banner units, sidelining the Manchu tribal and clan chiefs and imperial princes. Although he did not personally command campaigns, Yongzheng continued to consolidate his empire’s borders with expeditions against the Mongol tribes that had not submitted, and by a second treaty with Russia that completed the drawing of borders between the two empires. Yongzheng’s legacy was a more efficient and tightly controlled empire than the one he inherited and one that was institutionally stronger. Yongzheng was followed on the throne by his fourth son, then aged 24 and well prepared for his role, who reigned as Emperor Qianlong, a keen student of history. His paragons were Taizong (T’ai-tsung, r. 627–47, statesman and general) and his grandfather Kangxi, and he abdicated in 1796 so that his reign would not be longer than that of his revered grandfather. Qianlong excelled in war, personally leading some campaigns. Under him Qing arms finally reduced the troublesome Olod Mongols and Turkic tribes, extending Chinese control into Central Asia as had the great Han, Tang (T’ang), and Yuan (Mongol dynasty) dynasties. Peace and prosperity prevailed, education and culture flourished, and the civil service exams recruited capable men to serve the government. As had his grandfather, Qianlong made numerous tours of inspection throughout his realm, and as had both his predecessors, he lavishly patronized the arts, including many Jesuit artists and architects who gathered at his 322 Qing (Ch’ing) dynasty, rise and zenith court. He was also an avid collector, who added a vast array of arts to the imperial collection. A great literary project that distinguished his reign was the compilation of the Complete Library of the Four Treasuries. It contained more than 36,000 volumes consisting of 10,230 titles divided into four categories: the classics, history, philosophy, and belles-lettres. Seven complete sets of the compilation were printed and deposited in different libraries throughout the realm. However the emperor also had an ulterior motive in sponsoring this project—to weed out works that were hostile to the Manchus. Qianlong’s reign both saw the culmination of Qing greatness and was the forerunner of dynastic decline because of corruption during his later years. He abdicated in 1796 but continued to wield power until his death in 1799 even as his son was nominally in control. The long and successful reigns of three great and ambitious emperors took the Qing dynasty and China to the height of power and prosperity. While the monarchs were of nomadic Manchu origin, they had almost totally assimilated to and identified with Chinese culture. The Manchu written script, proclaimed as one of two official languages of the empire (together with Chinese), was soon relegated to the background. All of the three rulers considered themselves cultured Chinese rulers and patrons of the arts. Despite certain favoritism shown to Manchus in the highest ranks of government, Chinese occupied the bulk of the civil service positions and most gradually became reconciled to Manchus for sharing and honoring their culture and traditions. However splendor bred complacency that led to degeneration. By the beginning of the 19th century, changing world conditions and the accumulation of domestic problems would lead to rapid decline of the Qing dynasty. See also Jesuits in Asia; Kaikhta, Treaty of; Ming dynasty, late; Nerchinsk, Treaty of; rites controversy in China. Further reading: Crossley, Pamela K. The Manchus. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1997; Ho, Ping-ti. The Ladder of Success in Imperial China: Aspects of Social Mobility, 1368–1911. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962; Hsu, Immanuel C.Y. The Rise of Modern China. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000; Kahn, Harold L., ed. Monarchy in the Emperor’s Eyes, Image and Reality in the Ch’ien-lung Reign. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971; Peterson, Willard J., ed. The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9, Part 1, The Ch’ing Empire to 1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur Qing (Ch’ing) tributary system The Chinese tributary system dated to the Han dynasty (202 b.c.e.–220 c.e.). It reflected the Chinese worldview that China was the center of the civilized world, and that all lands desiring relations with China must be tributary states. The Qing (Ch’ing) tributary system was inherited from its predecessor Ming dynasty (1368–1644) with additions and modifications. The basis of the tributary system was acceptance of Chinese cultural superiority. Non-Chinese or barbarians, if willing to travel to court and perform the prescribed rituals, could be accepted into the Confucian sphere of states. Rulers or envoys of vassal states offered tribute or gifts and received in return the Chinese emperor’s seal of recognition and return gifts, generally much in excess of the tribute. There were four main functions of the tribute system. First, it maintained the preeminence of China among the peripheral peoples. Second, it was a political means of self-defense. Third, it was a means of trade. Fourth, it was a way of conducting diplomacy. Through early Ming China’s strength on land and sea it became the suzerain of many tributary or vassal states. They included Korea, the Ryukyu Islands, Annam (Vietnam), Burma, Siam, and a host of other states in Southeast and Central Asia from Bengal to the Philippines to Samarkand. The Reception Department, a bureau of the Chinese government, regulated the size, frequency, and reception of the tribute missions that depended on each’s importance to and distance from China. For example Korea paid tribute four times a year; Annam once every two years; Siam every three years; and Laos and Burma every 10 years. While in China, all expenses of the tribute missions were paid by the Chinese government. Regulations also governed the number of merchants and amount of trade allowed to accompany each tribute mission. As the Ming dynasty declined, the newly established, and as yet regional Qing or Manchu dynasty set up an office called Lifanyuan (Li-fan Yuan) or Court of Colonial Affairs in 1638. Its mission was to manage affairs relating to Mongolia, Tibet (including dealing with the Dalai Lama), the Western Regions (presentday Xinjiang [Sinkiang]), and Korea. It kept track of titles and defined the domains of Mongol chiefs to prevent tribal wars and regulated the Mongols’ relations with their spiritual leaders in Tibet. After 1644, its functions were enlarged to supervising the semiabsorbed tribal peoples of southwestern China in Yunnan, Guizhou (Kweichow), and Sichuan (Szechuan) provinces. Qing (Ch’ing) tributary system 323 In short the Lifanyuan dealt with frontier peoples and ethnic minorities in the Qing empire outside the Chinese style of civil administration. Europeans who traveled to China via sea during the Ming dynasty encountered this system of international relations. Although Western nations were not formally enrolled among the tributary states because of their great distance from China, envoys from Portugal, the Netherlands, and Russia were received at the Qing court as tribute ambassadors. Between 1655 and 1795, 17 missions from Western nations were received by the Qing monarchs, and all except the last, the British ambassador Lord Macartney, performed the kowtow before the emperor. This style of international relations between China and Western nations ended in 1842 after Great Britain defeated China in the First Anglo-Chinese War, although it persisted between China and its traditional vassal states until the late 19th century. See also Abahai Khan; Great Wall of China; Ming dynasty, late; Qing (Ch’ing) dynasty, rise and zenith. Further reading: Fairbank, John K., ed. The Chinese World Order: Traditional China’s Foreign Relations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968; Fairbank, John K., and Têng Ssu-yü. “On the Ch’ing Tributary System.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 6, no. 2 (1941); Fairbank, John K. “Tributary Trade and China’s Relations with the West.” The Far Eastern Quarterly 1, no. 2 (1942). Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur Quietism Quietism refers to a Christian movement that was characterized by a mystic approach to God, consisting of an absolute passivity combined with a spiritual tranquility. It began in Spain and extended into Italy and France. Condemned as erroneous by various church leaders, it nevertheless had many adherents, including nobility in all three countries. While there were other quietist movements and proponents throughout the centuries, the originator of the Quietist movement was a pious Spanish priest named Miguel de Molinos. Molinos was born in 1628 and grew up poor. His intellectual brilliance gained him admission to Jesuit schools, eventually earning a doctorate in theology. Molinos was a popular preacher in Valencia and gained a following throughout Spain and Italy that included many future leaders. He radiated a confidence and spiritual authority that were combined with an expressed humility, declaring that “his one desire was to be annihilated for Jesus and condemned by all.” In 1675, Molinos published a book titled Spiritual Guide to express his views. He wrote of the tranquility of the soul absorbed in God, dead to all other thoughts and feelings. One should have no desires, and even expressions of outward piety (devotion to Mary or the saints) were harmful. This mystical, inward way was the way to life in God. Initially his book was positively received, in part because Pope Innocent XI and several cardinals were impressed with Molinos as a preacher and a godly man. Molinos arrested In 1685, Molinos was arrested and put on trial by the Spanish Inquisition. Accused of heresy, he never protested against his accusers but rather agreed with them readily and quickly recanted all his errors (giving a certain ironical proof of his views that the inward soul was far more important than the outward). He was sentenced to imprisonment in a monastery in 1687 and spent the last nine years of his life in quiet prayer and contemplation. By the time of Molinos’s arrest, his writings and views had spread to France. A French Barnabite priest named Father Lacombe had studied and popularized Molinos’s works and eventually met a wealthy French widow named Jeanne-Marie Guyon. Madame Guyon had married young but almost immediately expressed regret that she had not become a nun. She was a voluble and intense individual, full of mystical experience, claiming to have been given an “invisible ring of mystical marriage” by the Child Jesus. When Father Lacombe met Madame Guyon around 1680, the two began a spiritual journey that attracted many devout disciples, both men and women. For a time, both stayed in the French city of Thonon, where Madame Guyon lived at an Ursline convent. Madame Guyon had a crisis in 1683 when she became convinced that she either was carrying the Child Jesus or was the pregnant woman referred to in the book of Revelation. This served only to intensify the circle of the devout. Eventually around 1685, the two traveled to Paris, where many noble women were added to the circle of their devotees. When Molinos was arrested in Italy in 1685, the archbishop of Paris had Father Lacombe arrested as well on account of his “scandalous behavior.” While charges of misconduct against Lacombe were never conclusively proved, he spent the rest of his life in prison, by some accounts becoming increasingly insane. 32 4 Quietism Madame Guyon was also confined to a convent for a time but never repented of her views. She was eventually released through the influence of some of her noble friends. Around 1686, Madame Guyon met the young pious bishop François de Sali gride and de la Mothe Fénelon, who quickly became convinced of the genuineness of her spirituality. Bishop Fénelon became a promoter of a less radical form of Quietism, one characterized more by indifference than the total passivity promoted by Molinos and Madame Guyon. All was relatively quiet until the elderly Archbishop Bossuet, long a defender of the faith, was asked to look into the views of Lacombe and Guyon. Because of Guyon’s continued popularity with many members of the French court, she was never condemned publicly but rather agreed to retract her views. In 1696, Bossuet sent a written work to Fénelon for his comment and approval. In it Bossuet condemned once again the views of Guyon. Rather than agreeing, Fénelon wrote and published a work of his own that defended the centrality of religious experience. Some historians view the controversy as unnecessary, as the two theologians were not so far away from agreement. Nevertheless, the controversy boiled over, as Bossuet appealed to the king for justice against Fénelon, who refused to debate the elderly theologian. Eventually Fénelon appealed to the pope in Rome, offending King Louis XIV, who, while unable to remove Fénelon from his office, forbad him to be present at the royal court. In 1699, under pressure from Rome, Fénelon repudiated his views. After Madame Guyon’s death in 1717, Quietism itself slowly died away. Yet it left its mark on the church in France, Spain, and Italy, and later evangelical Protestants. See also Ferdinand V and Isabella I of Spain; Jesuits in Asia; Loyola, Ignatius of, and the Society of Jesus. Further reading: Daniel-Rops, H. The Church in the Seventeenth Century. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1963; Fénelon, François. Fénelon: Meditations on the Heart of God. Orleans, MA: Paraclete Press, 1997; Guyon, Jeanne. Union with God. Jacksonville, FL: Seedsowers, 1981. Bruce Franson
Age of Revolution and Empire 1750 to 1900 Edit
Crisis and Achievement 1900 to 1950 Edit
The Contemporary World 1950 to the Present Edit
Qaddafi, Muammar (1942– ) Libyan leader Muammar Qaddafi was born in the desert region of Sidra (Sirte), Libya, in 1942. He was the youngest child from a nomadic Bedouin family. Qaddafi attended the Sebha preparatory school in Fezzan, where he formed a secret society, the Free Officers, patterned on gamal abdel nasser’s group in Egypt that championed the causes of pan-Arabism and Arab socialism. In 1961 Qaddafi was expelled from Sebha because of his political activism. In April 1963 Qaddafi became a trainee officer at the military academy in Benghazi and began to work his way up through the army officer corps. In 1966 he volunteered to go and study with the Royal Corps of Signals in Britain, where he learned radio electronics and telecommunications. He was able to develop a code that the secret Free Officers group used to maintain contact with one another throughout libya. Qaddafi and his close friends from Sebha became the core of the revolutionary group that overthrew King Idris and removed Italian influence from Libya. Qaddafi called off the projected coup against the king twice before going ahead with it on September 1, 1969. While Idris was out of the country, the Free Officers arrested the king’s leading supporters in a bloodless coup. The first objective was to take control of the main barracks and the radio station. After securing the radio station, Qaddafi gave an impromptu speech announcing that the monarchy had ended and that Libya had been given back to the people. Qaddafi was appointed president of the Revolutionary Command Council, the main governing body of the country. The Free Officers promptly refused to renew agreements with Britain and the United States for their military bases in Libya; they also emphasized Arab unity. They nationalized most banks and other business and declared Islam the religion of the state while stating that religious freedom would be accorded to all other faiths. In the midst of the cold war, the Western nations,—particularly the United States—were hostile to these changes and Qaddafi’s fiery brand of Arab nationalism. In hopes of creating a pan-Arab state, Qaddafi proclaimed the Federation of Arab Republics (Libya, Egypt, and Syria) in 1972, but the three countries could not agree on specific terms. In 1973 Qaddafi talked for the first time about his third universal theory, an economic and political philosophy that was neither capitalist nor communist. At this time he also nationalized all foreign petroleum assets. Increased revenues from petroleum during the 1970s enabled Qaddafi to initiate massive programs of domestic development and to build a modern infrastructure. At the same time, Libyan forces occupied the 60-mile-wide Aouzou Strip on the border of Chad. The skirmishes between Libya and Chad continued sporadically for years to come. Qaddafi gave massive amounts of financial aid to African nations and was a prominent figure in the Organization of African Unity. In 1974 Qaddafi gave up all his political and administrative functions, but still remained head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. On March 2, Q 1974, Qaddafi proclaimed that Libya was to be known as the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahariya. He subsequently stepped down from all public offices but remained the real ruler of Libya from behind the scenes. In 1975, Qaddafi published the first of three documents called The Green Book, which expounded his personal philosophy and political belief translated into a program of action. The Green Book became part of every Libyan’s life and was studied in schools; extracts were broadcast daily, and its slogans were publicized throughout the nation. Part one of the book, The Solution of the Problem of Democracy—The Authority of the People, concentrated on the political structure of Libya and rejected the concept of parliamentary democracy. Part two, published in 1977 and entitled The Solution of the Economic Problem—Socialism, discussed the weaknesses of both communism and capitalism. Part three, published in 1981 and entitled The Social Basis of the Third Universal Theory, dealt with a wide range of issues including nationalism and the status of minorities and women. Qaddafi’s hostility toward Israel and the West brought him closer to the Soviet Union. Western governments also blamed him for a series of terrorist attacks against civilian targets. In 1981 U.S. and Libyan air forces clashed over the Gulf of Sidra. Hoping to stop terrorist attacks, President ronald reagan authorized a bombing raid to assassinate Qaddafi in 1986. Although his adopted daughter died in the attack, Qaddafi survived this and other attempts on his life. During the 1990s, Qaddafi began to adopt a more moderate approach to the West and provided financial compensation for some terrorist victims in order to repair diplomatic relations. Although domestic opposition to his regime continued to mount, he remained in power and seemingly began to groom his son as his successor. Further reading: Cooley, John. Libyan Sandstorm. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1982; Tremlett, George. Gaddafi: The Desert Mystic. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1993. Brian M. Eichstadt al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (Arabic for “the base”) is a worldwide Sunni Islamist militant insurgent group. Founded by Osama bin Laden in 1988 in Afghanistan, al-Qaeda is now dedicated to driving the United States out of the Middle East specifically and out of Muslim countries generally, to destroying Israel, and to toppling pro-Western governments in Islamic countries and replacing them with Islamic fundamentalist governments. These three goals lead to the organization’s ultimate goal, which is the reestablishment of the caliphate, a nation uniting Muslims and spanning the Islamic world. The organization is believed to be highly redundant, both financially and operationally. While the various cells that make up the organization are accountable to higher-level leadership, operations appear to be left to the individual cells, while higher levels provide material and logistical support. Ideas and targets coming from the upper echelons filter down to the individual cells responsible for coordinating and executing the attacks. This redundancy increases the organization’s resiliency; when cells are destroyed or captured, the losses can be contained more effectively than if al-Qaeda were a more linear organization. 352 al-Qaeda This propaganda poster featuring al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden was found by U.S. troops in Afghanistan. Al-Qaeda’s training camps are likewise well organized. The extent of the training and organization is best seen in the group’s multivolume Encyclopedia of Jihad. Several thousand pages in length, the encyclopedia details the bureaucratic workings of the group. Covered topics include guerrilla warfare, assembling booby traps, tactics for fighting against armored or aerial combat units, urban warfare, intelligence security, data gathering, and chemical weapons tactics. The group has been linked to or accused of taking part in terrorist acts across the globe beginning in the early 1990s. A list of the attacks against U.S. interests attributed to al-Qaeda includes the 1992 hotel bombings in Aden, Yemen; the February 6, 1993, bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City; attacks carried out on U.S. military forces in Somalia in 1993 and 1994; the June 25, 1996, truck bombing of the Khobar Towers residential compound in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; the near-simultaneous bombings of U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, on August 7, 1998; the suicide bombing of the USS Cole in Yemen on October 12, 2000; and the September 11, 2001, airline hijackings and attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center. The United States is not the group’s only target, however. Al-Qaeda also is linked to the April 2002 bombing of the El Ghriba synagogue in Tunisia; the October 2002 nightclub bombing in Bali, Indonesia; the November 2003 bombings of synagogues and a British bank in Istanbul, Turkey; the March 11, 2004, train bombings in Madrid, Spain; and the July 7, 2005, London transit bombings. Al-Qaeda is most often represented and understood in regard to its founder, Osama bin Laden (aka Abu Abdallah). Bin Laden was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, on March 10, 1957. When he was six months old, his father, Muhammad bin Laden, the Yemeni immigrant who established the Saudi Binladin Group, relocated to Jeddah, where Osama grew up. The Soviet Union’s December 1979 invasion of Afghanistan galvanized the Muslim world in defense of Afghanistan and provided the West with a proxy war through which to combat the Soviet Union. Bin Laden, who had studied economics at King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah, was one of many spurred to action in defense of Afghanistan. He made his first trip to neighboring Pakistan in 1980, where he sought ways to contribute to the jihad. Bin Laden made several monetary contributions to the mujahideen, but quickly began looking for other ways to contribute. Bin Laden joined with Palestinian cleric Abdullah Azzam to found the Services Bureau (Makhtab al- Khidimat, or MAK) in Pakistan in 1984. Azzam, who had taught at King Abdul Aziz University while bin Laden studied there, was indispensable in recruiting. In addition to providing relief to war victims in Afghanistan, the MAK organized and coordinated the volunteers, donations, and weapons coming into Pakistan and Afghanistan in support of the jihad. Azzam believed that the young Arab men streaming to Pakistan to participate in the jihad should be scattered among the Afghan functions. Azzam felt that such a mixing of Arabs among the local forces would reap benefits both in Afghanistan and abroad. Bin Laden saw the situation differently and sought to create his own separate Arab fighting force. He believed that such a force would be a superior fighting unit compared to local Afghan forces. Bin Laden broke with Azzam and established training camps for his Arab force near Jaji, in eastern Afghanistan. From this base, which they dubbed al-Masadah (the Lion’s Den), bin Laden’s “Arab Afghans” engaged the Soviets in the battle of Jaji in the spring of 1987. It was at this time that bin Laden grew closer to the Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) and one of its most prominent members, Ayman al Zawahiri, who would become bin Laden’s deputy in al-Qaeda. When the Soviets announced their planned withdrawal in April 1988, bin Laden began preparations to perpetuate and expand his forces. He began by moving his unit to the area around Jalalabad, Afghanistan, which became known as al-Qaeda; bin Laden would later say that the name remained with the group by accident. Following the Soviet withdrawal in 1989, bin Laden returned to Saudi Arabia. When Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990, bin Laden, who had consistently expressed his contempt for the “atheist” Hussein and his Ba’athist government, approached the Saudi king with a plan to use his Arab Afghans to drive Hussein’s forces from Kuwait. The Saudi government sought to restrict his movements within the kingdom. Bin Laden obtained permission in early 1991 to travel to Pakistan on the pretext of checking in on some business interests and never returned to Saudi Arabia. In early 1992 bin Laden and al-Qaeda moved to Sudan, where they remained until 1996. Al-Qaeda and the National Islamic Front (NIF), the ruling party in Sudan, enjoyed a symbiotic relationship. The NIF granted al-Qaeda a safe haven and freedom of movement, while bin Laden made substantial investments in Sudanese industry and agriculture and undertook several large-scale construction projects to develop the infrastructure and agricultural and industrial production capacity of Sudan. al-Qaeda 353 While in the Sudan, bin Laden directed his forces in actions against the communist government of South Yemen. The Arab Afghans also were sent to Bosnia, where they had a substantial impact on that conflict. Bin Laden dispatched al-Qaeda forces into Somalia in response to the buildup of U.S. forces. In December 1992 President george h. w. bush sent 28,000 U.S. troops into Somalia on a humanitarian mission in support of United Nations (UN) relief efforts. Bin Laden and al-Qaeda dismissed all humanitarian claims and interpreted the U.S. presence as a way of putting pressure on Islamic regimes and as an effort to establish another base from which to attack Muslim nations. Al-Qaeda regarded Yemen as a major victory. First, even though the hotels bombed in Yemen did not house U.S. personnel, the transfer of U.S. troops out of Yemen shortly after the hotel bombings indicated to al-Qaeda that they had been successful in driving the Americans from Yemen. Bin Laden also claimed that the militarily superior U.S. forces were driven from Somalia by a poor, ill-armed people whose only strength was their faith. In his 1996 fatwa declaring war against the United States, bin Laden claimed that the most important lesson to be learned from Somalia was that the United States would flee at the first sign of resistance. The year 1994 was a watershed for bin Laden. He survived two assassination attempts and in April was stripped of his Saudi citizenship in response to the growing threat he represented to the regime. A final step in his radicalization came in August, when the Saudi government imprisoned clerics Salman al Awdah and Safar al Hawali, who were among the first and most prominent of the clerics circulating cassettes of their sermons against the continued U.S. presence in the Arabian Peninsula, and whose imprisonment bin Laden would later mention in his 1996 fatwa. Bin Laden and al-Qaeda left Sudan in 1996 and returned to Afghanistan, a move prompted by several factors. In addition to the assassination attempts, bin Laden faced international pressure on the NIF and its de facto leader, hassan al-turabi. The United States and Saudi Arabia sought to have bin Laden silenced and his activities curtailed, and al-Turabi found it increasingly difficult to maneuver and protect bin Laden. When Sudan started pressuring bin Laden, he returned to Jalalabad. There bin Laden and al-Qaeda entered into a symbiotic relationship with the Taliban (“the students”), who were in the process of consolidating their control over much of the country. This relationship was similar to that with the NIF in Sudan; bin Laden and his organization gained considerable freedom of movement and protection, while his benefactors benefited from agricultural, infrastructural, and industrial investment and development. It was during the period between bin Laden’s return to Afghanistan and the 1998 fatwa that civilians became targets. Both the 1996 fatwa and bin Laden’s 1997 CNN interview spoke of civilians as collateral damage, not as legitimate targets in and of themselves. By 1998 this had changed, and the fatwa issued February 22, 1998, explicitly stated that Americans and their allies, civilians and military alike, were now al-Qaeda targets anywhere they could be found. Communications from al-Qaeda repeatedly stress their belief that Western governments oppress Muslims and Muslim nations and are engaged in a war against Islam. Bin Laden describes the presence of U.S. forces in “the Land of the Two Holy Places” (Saudi Arabia) as the greatest insult and threat faced by the Islamic world since Muhammad’s lifetime. In addition to decrying U.S. support for Israel, the group condemns U.S. support for what it considers “apostate regimes,” particularly Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Bin Laden also points to the sanctions imposed on Iraq following the Gulf War as one reason to reject any human rights arguments coming from the West. Al-Qaeda’s idea of the ummah (community of believers; the Islamic world) in opposition to the world derives from the teachings of two prominent Islamic scholars. Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328) was a 14th-century Islamic scholar who taught that jihad is the duty of each individual Muslim when Islam is attacked, that the Qu’ran should be interpreted literally, and that all Muslims should read the Qu’ran and Hadith (the sayings of the Prophet) for themselves and not rely on a learned clergy. A second influence on al-Qaeda was sayyid qutb (1906–66), an Islamist associated with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. Describing the world as existing between states of belief (Islam) and unbelief (jahiliyya), Qutb condemned Western and Christian civilization. Urging jihad against all enemies of Islam, Qutb believed that there is no middle ground and that all Muslims must take to jihad when Islam is threatened. These influences are apparent in al-Qaeda’s activities and rhetoric. Bin Laden believes that since the Christians, Jews, and Hindus have nuclear weapons, it is only fitting that Muslims obtain them as well. Bin Laden also echoes Ibn Taymiyyah in his assertions that the Saudi government is aiding the “crusaders” in plundering the wealth of the ummah, the vast Middle 354 al-Qaeda Eastern oil reserves, and by acting to keep oil prices below fair-market value. Al-Qaeda’s leadership cadre is well educated. Bin Laden has a university degree in economics, and his inner circle contains doctors; agricultural, civil, and electrical engineers; and computer scientists, but no religious scholars. Rahman’s fatwa echoed the call to attack the United States and its allies—civilian and military, anywhere in the world—and contained exhortations to sink ships, shoot down airplanes, and burn corporations and businesses. Two separate attacks on U.S. warships were made in subsequent years, with the USS Cole attack following an unsuccessful attack on the USS The Sullivans one year earlier. On September 11, 2001, the plot masterminded by Ramzi Binalshibh and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who were arrested in Pakistan in 2002 and 2003, respectively, proceeded along the lines of Rahman’s fatwa. See also islamist movements; terrorism. Further reading: Bergen, Peter. The Osama bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of Al-Qaeda’s Leader. New York: Free Press, 2006; Bin Laden, Osama, et al. “Text of Fatwa Urging Jihad against Americans.” Institute for Counter-Terrorism. www. ict.org.il/articles/fatwah.htm (cited February 2006); “CNN March 1997 Interview with Osama bin Laden.” FindLaw.com. files.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/binladen/ binladenintvw-cnn.pdf (cited February 2006); Scheuer, Michael. Through Our Enemies’ Eyes: Osama bin Laden, Radical Islam, and the Future of America. Washington, DC: Brassey’s, Inc., 2002. “Transcript of Bin Laden’s October Interview.” Cable News Network LP. LLLP. www.cnn. com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/south/02/05/binladen.transcript (cited February 2006). Anthony Santoro Quebec sovereignty movement Canadian history has been plagued by issues of national identity since 1763, when Britain conquered New France in the French and Indian War. Britain’s Québec Act of 1774 recognized the rights of French-speaking Roman Catholics. The British North America Act of 1867, the basis for Canada’s constitution, is premised on a doctrine of “two founding nations” in which the English-speaking and French-speaking cultures are recognized as equal partners. Because the two national identities exist in a country that has traditionally favored Anglophones, Quebec (Québec), the heart of Francophone Canada, and its leaders have tried to assert their nationalism as a distinct cultural community within Canada. The modern sovereignty movement is a product of the 1960s. It is a demand for political independence for Quebec combined with economic association with the rest of Canada. It was introduced by René Lévesque, a former Liberal cabinet minister and popular broadcast journalist who organized the Parti Québécois (PQ) in 1968. PQ gained support when the 1969 Official Languages Act seemed to trivialize Quebec’s demand for special status. In the October Crisis of 1970, a radical fringe group called the Front de Libération du Québec kidnapped James Cross, the British trade commissioner in Montreal, and Pierre Laporte, Quebec’s minister of labor and immigration. Quebec soon asked the Canadian armed forces to intervene, and the next day the federal government banned the FLQ under the War Measures Act. Laporte’s body was found October 17, and a group holding Cross released him in return for safe passage to Cuba in early December. A federal inquiry later ruled that the suspension of normal civil liberties had been illegal. In 1976, the PQ gained control of Quebec’s government and promised to consult the people of Quebec before taking any steps toward independence and secession. Four years later, majority-French provincial voters soundly rejected a referendum to authorize sovereignty negotiations with Ottawa. Even so, the PQ was reelected in 1981, and in 1982 it refused to accept A patriotic motorist displays the flag of Quebec, known as the Fleurdelisé, which resembles an ancient French military banner. Quebec sovereignty movement 355 the new Canadian constitution. When the PQ removed sovereignty-association from its party platform in 1985, the Liberal Party regained control of the Quebec assembly. Reorganized under the leadership of former finance minister Jacques Parizeau, the PQ again promised to declare Quebec independent after the voters of Quebec voted oui in a referendum. The Meech Lake Accord, which agreed to conditions that Quebec had placed on its acceptance of the national constitution, collapsed in 1990 due to opposition. A subsequent package of constitutional reforms, presented to voters in a 1992 national referendum, was also defeated. By 1994 the Bloc Québécois, a national party devoted to Quebec sovereignty, had won enough votes to become the official opposition party in Ottawa. Another sovereignty referendum in 1995 lost narrowly. Canada was startled in November 2006 when Conservative prime minister Stephen Harper proposed a resolution, passed overwhelmingly by Parliament, stating that the 7 million “Québécois form a nation within a united Canada.” Although this recognition was called “symbolic,” it was unclear whether it might spark a renewed push for Quebec’s independence. See also trudeau, pierre. Further reading: Laforest, Guy. Trudeau and the End of a Canadian Dream. Translated by Paul Leduc-Brown and Michelle Weinroth. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press,  1995; McRoberts, Kenneth. Misconceiving Canada: The Struggle for National Unity. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1997; Taucar, Christopher Edward. Canadian Federalism and Québec Sovereignty. New York: P. Lang, 2000. David Miller Parker Qutb, Sayyid (1906–1966) Egyptian Islamist theoretician Sayyid Qutb was born in an Egyptian village in 1906. Although the family was poor, Qutb’s father was educated and was an early supporter of the Egyptian nationalist movement. As a boy Qutb attended the local religious school (kuttab), where he reputedly had memorized the Qu’ran before his teenage years. He attended a teacher’s college in Cairo and in 1933 earned a degree from Dar al-Ulam, the prestigious secular Egyptian university established in the late 19th century. After graduation Qutb worked for the Ministry of Education. A prolific writer, Qutb wrote fiction, poetry, and news articles during the 1930s. Qutb studied for a master’s degree in education in the United States on a scholarship from 1948 to 1950. Qutb’s enmity toward the West seems to date from his stay in the United States, where he was infuriated by the racism, materialism, and casual social exchanges between the sexes that he observed there. After traveling through Europe, he returned to Egypt and resigned from the Ministry of Education. In 1953 he joined the Muslim Brotherhood and was appointed director of the brotherhood’s propaganda section. In the early 1950s Qutb may have been the brotherhood’s go-between with gamal abdel nasser’s Free Officers Group; he initially supported the 1952 revolution and the overthrow of the corrupt monarchy of King Farouk. But after Nasser refused to institute an Islamic state, the brotherhood opposed him. After a failed assassination attempt on Nasser in 1954, members of the brotherhood were persecuted, and Qutb was imprisoned and tortured. He observed other brotherhood members being tortured and killed and concluded that violence was justifiable to overthrow Muslim leaders and regimes that were unjust and did not adhere to the sharia and Islamic precepts. While in prison Qutb wrote a commentary on the Qu’ran and an Islamic manifesto, Ma’alim fi al-Tariq (Milestones). He became more radical as the repression of the brotherhood intensified. Qutb condemned Western civilization as primitive and materialistic and argued that Muslim leaders who adopted or cooperated with the West were in conflict with Islamic culture and tradition. He warned of jahiliyyah (ignorance), which he believed was imposed by the adoption of Western culture. He rejected the ideologies of Charles Darwin, Sigmund Freud, and Karl Marx, asserting that Marxism resulted in the enslavement of mankind. Qutb held an ultraconservative view of the role of women in society. He argued that although the Qu’ran mandated the equality of all humans the role of women was to maintain family values, with men as the head of households. For Qutb the Qu’ranic text, and to a lesser degree the Hadith, were the sources of all law; be believed that the Qu’ran provided a comprehensive guideline for the conduct of all aspects of human life. Authority emanated from God and the Qu’ran; therefore jihad, or holy war against the modernization of the West and against unjust, corrupt Muslim rulers was the duty of true believers. He advocated the creation of committed cadres of devout 356 Qutb, Sayyid believers to teach Muslim youth and to struggle against “ignorant” or unjust regimes in the Islamic world as well as against the West. Qutb was released from prison in 1964, but shortly thereafter was imprisoned again on charges of sedition and terrorism. Although in Milestones he had fallen just short of advocating the overthrow of Nasser’s regime, he was found guilty after a public trial. Qutb was executed in 1966 and promptly became a martyr for members of the brotherhood and a myriad of breakaway Islamist organizations. For Qutb a theocracy was an ideal, and he envisioned the creation of a new society and government. He was a major force in 20th century islamist movements. His books were translated into many languages and influenced a wide variety of contemporary Islamist movements in Tunisia, Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, and Iran. Qutb’s brother taught in Saudi Arabia, where he also influenced future Islamist radicals. The Egyptian Ayman Zawahiri followed Qutb’s precepts and in turn became a theoretical mentor to osama bin laden. Qutb’s works have also remained a major force for the Muslim Brotherhood, an important factor in Egyptian politics until the present day. See also al-qaeda. Further reading: Khatab, Sayed. The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb. London: Routledge, 2006; Qutb, Sayyid. Social Justice in Islam. North Haledon, NJ: Islamic Publications International, 2000. Janice J. Terry