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The Ancient World Edit
imperial cult, Roman From its foundation by Augustus Caesar in 27 b.c.e., the Roman Empire saw a tendency to treat the emperor as a divine being. This phenomenon was neither completely government imposed nor entirely a spontaneous upwelling of devotion from the people of the empire. The divinization of the emperor was only partially reversed with the conversion of the empire to Christianity. Augustus himself built on elements in the earlier rule of his uncle Julius Caesar, who the Roman Senate declared a god posthumously with Augustus’s infl uence. Like Julius, Augustus took the ancient title of pontifex maximus, chief priest of the Roman state, a title that subsequent emperors would also take as part of their offi ce. This is consistent with Augustus’s general practice of using titles either sanctioned by Roman tradition or relatively modest, such as princeps, or fi rst citizen. Augustus’s reign saw the foundation of temples of “Rome and Augustus” throughout the empire. More temples of Augustus survive than of any other emperor, including the only imperial temples found outside the boundaries of the empire. The cult paid to the living Augustus was more like that of heroes and benefactors than that of the actual gods and was particularly strong in the Greek East, where it built on Greek and Near Eastern traditions of ruler cults. However, after his death in 14 c.e. the Roman Senate enrolled divus Augustus, divine Augustus, among the gods of the Roman state (following the precedent of Julius). There is also evidence for cults of other members of his family. Augustus’s successor, Tiberius, encouraged his cult, sponsoring an offi cial priesthood, although he himself declined divine honors when proffered. He and all subsequent emperors also took the names Caesar Augustus. The third emperor of the Julio-Claudian line, Gaius, or Caligula, contrasted with Tiberius in his lust for divine honors. A lust to be paid divine honors while still alive became a stereotypical quality of “bad” emperors in the writings of Roman historians. Enrollment of a dead emperor among the gods of Rome was an offi cial act of the Senate and as such was a political statement about the merits of the dead emperor. If a new emperor wanted to emphasize continuity, having the Senate declare his predecessor divine was an effective means. If a new emperor wanted to emphasize a sharp break with the past, leaving the dead emperor undeifi ed helped send that message. After the death of the emperor Claudius—the conqueror of Britain—a magnifi cent temple, the largest on the island, was begun at Colchester dedicated to the divine emperor. It was later destroyed by British rebels, led by Boudicca. The cult played a key role in Roman persecution of Christians, who were urged to perform a sacrifi ce to the emperor to avoid punishment. The most thorough persecution of the Christians, perpetrated by the emperor Diocletian, was part of an attempt to strengthen the imperial cult as a way of unifying the empire. Jews were usually exempt from this requirement on the condition that they prayed to their god for the emperor. Diocletian also reformed the protocol surrounding the emperor to make himself more remote from ordinary people, and I 209 abandoned traditional titles like princeps in favor of the more arrogant Dominus Noster, or “Our Lord.” Historians dispute whether the imperial cult was purely political, or whether the feelings it evoked were religious like those of the gods and heroes. Although the imperial cult varied tremendously between regions, there is some evidence that it was integrated into local religious life. Local associations could choose emperors or members of the imperial family as their divine patrons. After the conversion of Constantine the Great to Christianity, the emperor abandoned his pagan religious role and took on a new one as protector and arbiter of the Christian Church. The abandonment of the imperial cult was a slow process; the Christian emperors continued to use the title pontifex maximus until Gratian renounced it as part of a campaign against the pagan high aristocracy of the city of Rome. There are also some signs of the persistence of imperial priesthoods in the fourth century c.e. under Christian emperors. The emperors themselves were not ordinary Christians but retained an exalted and sacred status. The peculiar religious position of the Byzantine emperors, whose titles included isapostolon, or “equal of the apostles,” was partially an inheritance from the pagan Roman imperial cult. See also Julio-Claudian emperors; Roman Empire; Rome: government. Further reading: Fishwick, Duncan. The Imperial Cult in the Latin West: Studies in the Ruler Cult of the Western Provinces of the Roman Empire. Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1987– 2002; Friesen, Stephen J. Twice Neokoros: Ephesus, Asia and the Cult of the Flavian Imperial Family. Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1993; Gradel, Ittai. Emperor Worship and Roman Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002; Harland, Philip A. “Imperial Cults within Local Cultural Life: Associations in Roman Asia.” Ancient History Bulleti/Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 17 (2003); Price, S. R. F. Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. William E. Burns Indo-Europeans Indo-Europeans are representatives of a language family now widely distributed all over the world, with primary concentration in Europe, the Middle East, and northern Asia. Sir William Jones, who emphasized the similarity of Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Celtic, and the German language, introduced the term Indo-European in 1786. Primarily this term was used to mark the similarity detected in the languages of a major part of the population of Europe, Iran, and India. From the 18th to 19th centuries the focus of such studies was shifted to the detection of similarities in German and other languages, which is why in 1823 I. Kapport introduced the term Indo-German. This was quickly replaced by the term proposed by Max Muller, Arian (Aryan). Since the second half of the 20th century the term Indo-European has replaced other versions. CONTEMPORARY INDO-EUROPEANS The Indo-European family of languages in its contemporary understanding was designed in 1863 by August Schleicher as a peculiar genealogical tree, which refl ects its wide distribution and its process of inner development and disintegration into dialects and new languages. This scheme is based on the assumption that common Indo-European prelanguage was distributed fi rst only in a restricted area, and in the course of time its transmitters settled all over Eurasia (in modern times also in America, Africa, and Australia) disseminating their language and culture. Many contemporary linguists distinguish 10 branches in the Indo-European family of languages: Indo-Iranian, Slavonic and Baltic, Armenian, Anatolian, Albanian, Tokharian, Italic, Celtic, Germanic, and Hellenic. Every one of the aforementioned branches unites modern as well as “dead,” or extinct, languages used in the remote past by collectives known only by remnants of their artifacts and/or written sources, such as Sanskrit, Latin, Old Greek, Venetic, Old Persian, Lyd- Ruins of the temple of Augustus Caesar remain in Ankara, Turkey. More temples of Augustus survive than of any other emperor. 210 Indo-Europeans ian, and Mycenaean. Main branches of Indo-European languages are distributed unevenly in the contemporary world and sometimes could be subdivided into groups and subgroups with different numbers of languages. INDO-EUROPEAN HOMELAND IDENTIFICATION Searches for the place and time of origin of Indo- Europeans have been based on the assumption that linguistic and cultural similarity of the Indo-European family of languages is provoked by their connection with a common ancestor that lived in the remote past. Contemporary archaeology, cultural and physical anthropology, linguistics, and other neighboring sciences provide a wide variety of ideas and hypotheses, which can be divided into two groups: One tends to see common Indo-European ancestors as early agriculturists living mainly by land cultivation, while the second searches for the earliest Indo-Europeans among the nomadic population economy and mode of life based on cattle breeding and the exploration of domestic horses and wheeled vehicles. Since the late 1960s new insights into the Indo- Europeans’ ancient homeland imply the convergent development of a series of neighboring language transmitters, which practiced mutual borrowing of terminology connected with the main fi eld of their livelihood and subsistence (the so-called surge model). Another contemporary tendency of Indo-European homeland research tries to integrate a genealogical tree model with a theory of regional development of Indo-European languages. The latest developments are based on archaeological data. EARLY INDO-EUROPEANS AS NOMADS V. G. Childe put forward the North Black Sea hypothesis of an Indo-European homeland in the mid-20th century. In spite of an apparent difference of backgrounds and arguments, this hypothesis was illustrated with data from Neolithic settlements of the region, implying identifi cation of early Indo-Europeans as the fi rst nomads. This may be the only reasonable explanation of the rapidity and scale of pre-Indo- Europeans’ dissemination over the Eurasian steppe and foreststeppe region. Valentin Danilenko also regarded nomadic impact (connected with the Seredniy Stig culture of the Lower Dniper region) as a crucial factor for Indo-Europeans’ spread to inner territories of Europe and the diversifi cation of Indo-Europeans into several branches. In Ukraine Yuriy Rassamakin has also studied this, localizing a probable homeland for Indo-Europeans in the steppe zone between the Don and Danube Rivers. He identifi es creators of Seredniy Stig culture as early Indo-Europeans, who conducted progressive forms of a cattle-breeding economy of pastoralist genre and lived in a neighborhood with non-Indo-Europeans. Many representatives of Soviet archaeology (Alexander Bryusov, Biktor Gening, Dmitry Telegin) regarded the Caucasus and the steppe landscapes of the northern Black Sea region as the most probable homeland of early Indo-European pastoralists. Maria Gimbutas localized the Indo-European homeland in the Ural-Don steppes and tended to reference them with the so-called mound-grave culture circle, which includes different peoples with the only common feature in their funeral rites. She regarded Indo- Europeans as aggressive invaders whose attacks during the fi fth millennium b.c.e. caused the destruction of prosperous agricultural centers in the Balkans, Asia Minor, central Europe, and Transcaucasia and, later, in the Aegean and Adriatic region. John Mallory proposed recently an original interpretation of the creators of the Pit-Grave (Yamnaya) culture as the earliest proto-Indo- Europeans. On the rich and extensive empirical (archaeological and linguistic) database he has illustrated movements of the Pit-Grave population to Siberia; the Near East; southeastern, central, and northern Europe; and other regions of Eurasia. Most of the versions of nomadic interpretation of early Indo-Europeans are based on the assumption that dispersal of this population was relatively rapid and covered huge territories during a restricted period of time (fi fth–third millenniums b.c.e.). It implies the development of effective transportation (such as horseback riding with the use of wheel carts for heavy items and belongings) and sparse settlement, with the highly developed funeral monuments that refl ected complicated rites and customs. That is why traces of horse domestication, the origin of the wheel, and the construction of mound graves usually are regarded as the most reliable archaeological evidences of Indo-Europeans as nomadic. INDO-EUROPEANS AS EARLY AGRICULTURISTS Most of advocates of early Indo-Europeans as early agriculturists believe that the process of their formation should be viewed in a broad chronological frame beginning from the Mesolithic Period and transitioning to a productive economy. The spread is usually connected with the dispersion of farming skills, which implies the drawing of terminology and rites and customs, the sharing of the “oasis,” or monocentric, theory of a transition to land cultivation and cattle breeding, Indo-Europeans 211 and searches for the time and place of Indo-European origin in the origin of agriculture. One of the most widespread in contemporary prehistory and archaeology understanding of pre-Indo- Europeans as early agriculturists was proposed in the late 1980s by Colin Renfrew. Localizing Indo- Europeans in central and eastern Anatolia as early as the middle of the eighth millennium b.c.e., he distinguishes 10 diffusions of Indo-Europeans to adjacent and relatively remote territories (including the Black Sea steppe region). Such diffusions were caused by the necessity to ensure facilities for an agricultural mode of life (fi rst of all, land suitable for farming), which did not imply widespread human migrations: In Refrew’s understanding it was rather a gradual movement of individuals or their small family groups (approximately 1.6 miles per year), which caused a series of local hunter-gatherers to adapt to an agricultural mode of life. Soviet researcher Igor Diakonov, who localized the Indo-Europeans’ homeland in the Balkan and Carpathian regions, also indicated that their ancestors could have come from Asia Minor with their domesticated animals and plants. He dated this process at 5000–4000 b.c.e. Russian archaeologist Gerald Matyushin believed that the only common Indo-European traits that could be traced and proved archaeologically are microlithic industry and the origin of a productive economy (land cultivation and cattle breeding). The earliest displays of both of these traits he localized in the Zagros Mountains and southern Caspian region, suggesting that agriculture distribution in Europe should be connected with the expansion and migration of Middle Eastern inhabitants to the north. European hunter-gatherers adopted agriculture together with appropriate rituals, rites, and spells, which were pronounced using the language of pioneers of land cultivation, ensuring the linguistic similarity of Indo-European peoples. His hypothesis is based on the mapping of microlithic technology, and the temporal and spatial distribution was later proved by the linguistic studies of T. Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav the Ivanov. They suggest that the ancestral home of Indo- Europeans was located in the region of Lake Van and Lake Urmia, from whence they moved to Middle Asia, the northern Caspian region, and the southern Urals. One more version of the agriculturistic interpretation of early Indo-Europeans is the hypothesis that their origin lay in central Europe on the territory between the Rein, Visla, and Upper Danube. It was based on the correlation of Indo-European hydronimy with the distribution of the population connected with linear pottery culture, funnel beaker culture, globular amphora culture, and corded ware culture. G. Kossina, E. Mayer, P. Bosch-Gimpera, and G. Devoto shared this idea, which was actively discussed during the fi rst half of the 20th century, especially by the Nazis. This discussion resulted in identifi cation of pre-Germans (or pre-Indo-Germans) with Aryans who were regarded as transmitters of the highest cultural achievements in ancient civilization. This conclusion was broadly used by fascist propagandists as a justifi cation for the genocide of the non-Aryan population practiced in Europe during World War II. SYNTHETIC, OR COMPROMISE, IDEAS One of the earliest versions of a compromise was proposed in 1969 by Soviet archaeologist Vladimir Danilenko. He assumed that the roots of Indo-Europeans could be traced as early as 10,000–7000 b.c.e. on the border of Europe and Asia. By 5000 b.c.e., pre-Indo-Europeans (the population of Bug-Dnister, Sursko-Dniper, and linear pottery cultures) moved to the northwestern Black Sea region. He supposes the presence of at least two dialect zones in the pre-Indo-European homeland at that time: the western agricultural and eastern nomadic. Higher activity of the latter during the Neolithic had caused further disintegration of this dialectic unity and the relatively rapid spread of Indo-Europeans into the inner territories of Europe under the infl uence of the nomadic culture of Seredniy Stig. According to Danilenko, several branches of Indo-Europeans could already be traced at that time, among them the Tokharians (pit-grave culture), Indo-Iranians (Usatovo, Kemi-Oba, Lowe Mykhailivka cultures), proto-Thrakians, and proto-Daco-Mezians (representatives of the agricultural zone, including the Trypillie phenomenon). Russian researcher Viktor Safonov proposed an original version of the history of the Indo-Europeans, which he divided into four periods, each with a particular homeland: 1) boreal period (pre-9000 b.c.e.) with no apparent traces of Indo-European separation from other languages; 2) period of early Indo-European language (8000–6000 b.c.e.) with the homeland in the western and central part of southern Anatolia (Chatal-Hujuk culture); 3) period of middle Indo-European language (6000–5000 b.c.e.) with the homeland Danubian region (Vincha culture); and 4) period of late Indo-European language (5000–3000 b.c.e.) during seven stages of which the fi nal version of Indo-European homeland was shaped in the course of Lengyel and funnel beaker cultures dispersion. During the fi rst half of the third millennium b.c.e. he tracked disintegration of Indo- European language unity into different language branches with relatively independent and self-suffi cient histories. 212 Indo-Europeans Mikhail Andreev, who used “linguistic paleontology” based on studies of F. de Saussure, proposed a similar version of Indo-European language development. In his version three global stages of Indo-European language formation are distinguished: boreal, in the Late Paleolithic; early Indo-European, in the Mesolithic; and late Indo-European. He traces the primary homeland of Indo-Europeans to the vast spaces of Eurasia along the 50th parallel from the Rein River on the west to Altay on the east. Other trends in the conceptualization of the Indo- Europeans’ homeland are connected with further development of needs to abandon the search for a narrow and strictly outlined territory where the earliest displays of Indo-European language and culture could be traced. Many linguists (Oleg Trubachev, Lev Gindin) as well as many archaeologists (Nikolay Merpert, Evgeniy Chernykh) believe in the possibility of the divergent and convergent development of languages, which does not necessarily imply the existence of any Indo-European prelanguage. Following the ideas of Nikolay Trubetskoy, Pizani, and others, the roots of contemporary Indo- European languages should be found in the environment of deeply interconnected dialects of the Neolithic—the Bronze Age, which gave birth to the primary Indo- European languages such as Greek, Sanskrit, Latin, and Celtic. In this sense all attempts to identify fi rst Indo-Europeans with any archaeological data are regarded as useless and contradicting with the basic principles of historical reconstruction. Contemporary studies in the fi eld of Indo- Europeans’ homeland are concerned mainly with the Neolithic population of the European steppe region and imply that the homogeneity of the early pre-Indo-European family of languages was destroyed during the fourth millennium b.c.e. See also Andes: Neolithic; Neolithic age. Further reading: Childe, V. G. The Prehistory of the European Society. London: Penguin Books, 1950; Krantz, G. Geographical Development of European Languages. New York: P. Lang, 1988; Mallory, J. P. In Search of the Indo- Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth. London: Thames and Hudson, 1989; Renfrew, Colin. Archaeology and Language: Puzzle of the Indo-European Origins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987; ———. “They Ride Horses, Don’t They? Mallory on the Indo-Europeans.” Antiquity (1989). Olena V. Smyntyna Indus civilization The Indus civilization is also called the Indus empire or Harappan civilization; the last name derives from Harappa, the fi rst site of this civilization excavated by modern archaeologists. Many similarities and striking homogeneity through the region warrant classifying the entire culture under one name. Its dates are approximately 2500–1500 b.c.e. The discovery and scientifi c excavation of Indus sites backdated the beginning of the Indian civilization by at least 1,000 years. Neolithic people began to build communities along the Indus Valley in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent around 5,000 years ago. Archaeological excavations began in 1921 under the direction of Sir John Marshall on the bank of the Ravi River (a tributary of the Indus) in Sind Province, where railway builders had discovered huge quantities of old fi red bricks. They led to the discovery of an ancient city called Harappa that gave its name to the entire civilization. In 1923 another expedition began to excavate a site called Mohenjo-Daro (meaning “mound of the dead”) on the banks of the Indus 400 miles from Harappa, uncovering another major fi nd. Since that time more than 1,000 sites covering approximately 300,000 sq. miles have been investigated. They include not only the area around the Indus and its tributaries but also northwestern India to Kashmir, the entire Arabian Sea shore including a large seaport called Lothal (which also means “mound of the dead” in the modern language of the region), and as far as Delhi to the east. Despite advanced agriculture and the use of draft animals to plow the land, the Indus was an urban and commercial culture. It is estimated that 35,000 people lived in Harappa. The towns had many characteristics in common: a central citadel on a mound surrounded by a brick wall, with a planned city located below, whose streets were laid out in a grid pattern oriented to the points of the compass. The cities were further divided into areas for stores, workshops, and residences. Working-class dwellings were two-roomed, whereas affl uent houses were two-storied centered around a courtyard, with fl ush toilets and individual wells. The streets had covered sewers, sentry boxes, and public wells on street corners. Lothal was excavated in 1954. Its specialty was bead manufacturing; a large factory measuring 5,380 sq. feet has been found that used locally produced and imported raw materials to make many sizes of beads for jewelry. The modern town near Lothal is still famous for producing beads for jewelry. It was also a Indus civilization 213 shipping center with docks and an extensive breakwater. Trade was important for the prosperity of Indus cities. Sumerian and Akkadian cuneiform tablets dating to between 2400 and 2000 b.c.e. mention a place called Dilmun or Telmun in the east that may have been the Indus region. Indus artisans practiced many crafts: pottery made on wheels, cotton cloths, bronze and copper weapons and tools, and artistic and utilitarian objects made from ivories, various stones, gold, and silver. Thousands of small, square, and round seals made from steatite have been found throughout the region. Each one has engraved on one surface several characters of pictographic writing together with engravings of animals, plants, or deity-like fi gures. Almost 400 separate pictographs have been identifi ed, but not deciphered, and even if they were, each inscription is too short to provide much information. The seals were likely used for sealing merchandise, and the words were probably the names of the merchants. No other examples of Indus writing have survived. Without a deciphered written script, the Indus civilization is classifi ed as prehistoric. Thus, modern people can only make guesses about many things that concern the Indus civilization. They may have been united into some sort of an empire, as evinced by the uniform size of the bricks used throughout the region. Since there were no signs of palaces or royal burial sites, the Indus people were probably not ruled by monarchs. Perhaps a college of priests ruled and used the great baths and assembly halls for religious and government ceremonies. Ritual baths associated with temples were characteristic of Hinduism in later India. Some seals depict a godlike fi gure with a horned headdress and sitting cross-legged. Some experts speculate that those images could be early images of the later Hindu god Shiva. Aside from a statue of a deity-like fi gure and what seem to be female fertility fi gurines, there are no indications of worship. However, in cemeteries the dead were buried facing the same direction, with artifacts, presumably to use in the next world. Because of the lack of written records the reasons for the end of the Indus civilization are unclear. What is clear is the decline during its last centuries. One cause of decline was extensive fl oods, probably caused by widespread deforestation and overgrazing. Forests were chopped down to provide fuel for fi ring the billions of bricks used in construction. Denuded land was susceptible to fl ooding by monsoon rains, which deprived the land of top soil and silted up rivers, raising the river beds and causing fl oods when rains brought down large quantities of water. Flooding was exacerbated by geological changes during the beginning of the second millennium b.c.e., which lifted up the coastline of the northern shores of the Arabian Sea. As a result, the Indus waters could not reach the sea and formed shallow lakes. These changes must have shattered the lives of farmers in the low-lying areas and ruined trade along the coast, which may explain the disappearance of the seals during the last years of the civilization. Flooding also explains the embankments and layers of silt found around Mohenjo-Daro. In time the fl oodwaters spilled over the barriers, and the river returned to its course to sea. The process was repeated several times, which must have worn out the people and wrecked the economy, evident by the poorer quality housing and falling civic standards in the last layer of Mohenjo-Daro. Around 1900 b.c.e. the Indus River changed course and a parallel river, the Saravasti, dried up entirely. The walls and fortifi cations at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa also show massive reinforcements during their last phase. The skeletons found scattered helter-skelter at a couple of locations indicate catastrophe, whether human-made or natural. Harappa and other settlements that had not suffered from previous decline were suddenly abandoned. The last layer of materials excavated from Harappa show poorer quality pottery ware and the cremation of the dead rather than burial, as practiced earlier. The last layer of habitation at another Indus city called Chanhu-Daro showed fi replaces and chimneys in the houses, a novelty in the Indus Valley, perhaps indicating the culture of newcomers from colder lands. Beginning around 2000 b.c.e. and for unknown reasons, Indo-European-speaking, seminomadic people from the Eurasian plains began to move from their homelands in a quest for new homes. One group calling themselves Aryans would move through the mountain passes of modern Afghanistan to the Indus Valley to settle in India. By c. 1500 b.c.e. the Indus civilization had perished and the Aryan age had begun. See also Aryan invasion; Hindu philosophy; Sumer; Vedic age. Further reading: Rao, S. R. Dawn and Devolution of the Indian Civilization. New Delhi, India: Aditya Prakashan, 1991; Wheeler, Sir Mortimer. Civilization of the Indus Valley and Beyond. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966. Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur 214 Indus civilization Israel and Judah From the beginning the Jewish scriptures focus on the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac (Ishmael), Jacob, and Joseph. The reason for this attention is that from them came the “covenant,” the divine choice that favors the people of the Bible. Abraham was promised the land of Canaan (present-day Israel). His grandson was named Jacob but after a divine encounter was renamed “Israel.” From this patriarch came 12 sons, which became the line of the tribes that dominate the rest of the Bible. Corporately the tribes are known as Israel, named after their forefather. SAUL, DAVID, AND SOLOMON The time of the Patriarchs likely occurred in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages. The earliest mention of Israel comes from the Merneptah Stela of c. 1200 b.c.e. in Egypt. The stela simply states: “Israel has perished; its seed is no more.” As for the tribes’ existence and the traditions surrounding them, the historical record is totally silent. Their way of life as described in the Bible is consistent with what can be hypothesized from the scanty archaeological record. These tribes fi rst are migratory and go down to Egypt during a time of famine. From there Moses leads them back to the brink of the land where Abraham had lived. Once they enter the land, it is clear that they lack political cohesion and stability, for charismatic heroes known as Judges are required to take charge periodically and give military deliverance to the tribes. Finally, the tribes unite to select several kings, at fi rst Saul and then David and his son Solomon. The separate identity of Israel and Judah probably began to take shape in the time of the Judges. Israel referred to the land of Ephraim of the northern hill country, where the other tribes deferred to Ephraim as the largest and most powerful. This confederation of the northern tribes then came together to choose the fi rst king, Saul, and the few southern tribes probably gave limited support. When Saul died, the southern tribes rallied around David, a representative from the southern confederation from the tribe of Judah. David then sought to bring the northern tribes into the alliance by choosing as his capital city, Jerusalem, “the City of David,” outside the north or south, a foreign stronghold. In spite of this, resentments were still rampant in the north, and regional rebellions broke out. When Solomon died, even the Bible could not repress a negative view of the heavy taxes that were imposed on the north to pay for David and Solomon’s public works. JEROBOAM, REHOBOAM, AND AHAB The net effect of this tension was that the northern 10 tribes seceded from the southern two tribes as soon as Solomon died. Jeroboam, who had earlier led an Israel and Judah 215 Ancient Jerusalem is pictured in 65 C.E. in this lithograph from 1887. David sought to bring the northern tribes into his alliance by choosing Jerusalem, or“the City of David,” as his capital city. unsuccessful insurrection against Solomon, led them. Meanwhile, crown prince Rehoboam led the south and is portrayed as a stubborn and haughty king. The split, however, left both sides vulnerable to popular discontent and external threats. Whatever prestige they had from the “empire” of David and Solomon was lost when they often clashed with each other on the battlefi eld. Israel, though bigger, was weak until the time of Omri, who was succeeded by his capable son and daughter-in-law, Ahab and Jezebel. They established their capital city of Samaria, and the country boomed under their leadership. The archaeological records tend to confi rm this judgment. Judah continued to decline, although the interpretation of the Jewish scriptures is that it was more legitimate because it was the home of David and the location of the Temple and Jerusalem. Meanwhile, prophetic criticism mounted against Israel because of its idolatrous worship, its persecution of true religion, and its wealth disparities. Three recently discovered stela (Mesha Stela in Moab, Tel Dan Stela, and Shalmaneser III Stela) all confi rm the involvement of Israel with foreign powers, including Moab, Damascus, and Assyria during the reign of Ahab. Ahab and Jezebel also had to contend with external opposition, and eventually they succumbed to the Assyrians. Their ruler Tiglath-pileser III (744–727 b.c.e.) was especially interested in the wealth of Israel, and the alliance Israel had made with the Aramaeans proved feeble in the face of the invaders. The cruel Assyrians not only took all the people of the north into captivity, but they erased their culture from history. Thereafter, the northerners were never heard from again and came to be called “the lost tribes of Israel.” A small remnant today claims to be offspring of the northern Israelites, the Samaritans, who live near Nablus on the Palestinian West Bank. UNIFIED ISRAEL AND JUDAH Judah meanwhile was rarely mentioned in the early books of the Bible but came into its own with its dashing king David and enigmatic successor Solomon. When Jereboam rebelled against Rehoboam, the land of Judah was all that Rehoboam had left of his father’s expanse. Such a small area at fi rst came to be dominated by Egypt. After 40 years of bloody clashes with Israel, fi nally a truce brought the two fraternal kingdoms together. Royal intermarriages even brought them into an alliance. According to the Jewish scriptures, Israel also brought its corruptions to Judah, as well as its hapless allies, the Aramaeans. The reunion of Israel and Judah defi nitely was too little and too late to do anything about the invading Assyrian forces that swallowed up the north and nearly did the same in the south. At fi rst the Assyrians simply turned Judah into a client state. Then their general Sennacherib challenged King Hezekiah to surrender. The Bible reports that a divine intervention turned back the invaders before they could overrun the walls of Jerusalem. None of this can be substantiated, though it is true that Judah was the only relatively independent state to escape Assyrian hands in the eighth century b.c.e. FOREIGN RULE OF BABYLONIANS AND ROME Josiah (c. 648–609 b.c.e.) then tried to expand Judah’s sphere of infl uence, but the Egyptian pharaoh came to Assyria’s help and killed him. With Josiah’s death the vision of restoring the throne and territory of David and Solomon also came to an end. Even though the Assyrians were fi nally put down at the Battle of Carchemish (605 b.c.e.), a new conqueror, Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, now completed what Sennacherib failed to do. He marched on Jerusalem and deported its citizens in 597 b.c.e. and then in 587 b.c.e. sacked the city. Judah languished in Babylon for several generations. Even when many returned around 525 b.c.e., they did not have political sovereignty again until the time of the Maccabees. This family claimed to be heirs of the Judaean kingdom and successfully rebelled against the Hellenized Seleucids around 164 b.c.e. They were able to maintain independence until Pompey established Roman dominance 100 years later. When the insurrectionist Bar Kokhba tried to expel the Romans in 132 c.e., he seems to have laid claim to the same vision of Judah. The prophets of the Bible all along had prophesied that the “lost tribes” would one day return. Theologically, many later groups laid claim to a spiritualized Israel as a religious concept, latching on to the prophetic vision. Groups as diverse as the Qumran community, the apocalyptic Jews of the Pseudepigrapha and the Apocrypha, early Christianity, and the early Judaism of the rabbis all took stock in the idea of Israel, meaning the unity of the northern and southern kingdoms. See also Bible translations; Diadochi (Successors); Jewish revolts. Further reading: Bright, John. A History of Israel. 2d ed. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1972; De Vaux, Roland. The Bible and the Ancient Near East. London: Darton, Longman, and Todd, 1972; Wright, A. G., et al. “A History of Israel.” In New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990. Mark F. Whitters
The Expanding World 600 CE to 1450 Edit
Ibn Batuta (1304–1368) traveler and writer Ibn Batuta (also Ibn Battuta), Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd Alah, born in Tangier, Morocco, was one of the greatest Arab travelers in the 14th century. A descendant of a scholarly family that produced many judges, he was educated in Tangier. As other travelers from Morocco, he began his travels by undertaking a pilgrimage to Mecca and to centers of learning in Egypt and Syria. But he soon became restless and wished to explore other parts of the world. For some 28 years Ibn Batuta traveled to many countries in the Islamic world, to Armenia, Georgia, the Volga region, Central Asia, Constantinople, India, the Maldives, Indonesia, parts of China, and East and West Africa. He performed his pilgrimage to Mecca four different times. It is from Ibn Batuta’s journals that we know so much of these lands in his time. During his travels he became acquainted with sultans and rulers in many parts of the world. At times he held important positions in foreign lands and became an infl uential judge in Delhi during the rule of Muhammad Tughluq. He also played an important role in the Maldives. In 1353 he returned to Morocco. At the request of the sultan he dictated his book Rihla to a writer by the name of Ibn Juzzay, who died in 1355 after having completed and edited the text. At the end of his life Ibn Batuta served as a judge in a Moroccan town and was buried in Tangier. Since someone else wrote Ibn Batuta’s travel account, it is diffi cult to ascertain at times his own voice or character. It is likely that Ibn Juzzay was not altogether faithful to what he heard from his interlocutor; furthermore, one must be careful about the traveler’s memory in reconstructing past events, episodes, and dates. Ibn Batuta’s travel account is a major medieval document that sheds light on the historical, cultural, and social life in many parts of the world, particularly India, the Maldives, Asia Minor, and East and West Africa. See also Tughlaq dynasty. Further reading: Defrémary, C., trans. Voyage d’Ibn Batoutah. Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1853–58; Gibb, H. A. R., ed. and trans. The Travels of Ibn Battuta. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society at the University Press, 1958–2000; Ross, E. Dunn. The Adventures of Ibn Battuta: A Muslim Traveler of the 14th Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. Samar Attar Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406) intellectual, historian, and sociologist ‘Abd al-Rahman Ibn Muhammad Ibn Khaldun was born in Tunis and died in Cairo. The greatest Arab historian, he developed the philosophy of history and laid the foundation of sociology in his masterpiece, the Muqaddima. He was also a politician and diplomat. According to his autobiography, Al-Ta’rif bi Ibn Khaldun, his family was originally from Yemen and settled in Spain after the Arab conquest. They played an important political role in Seville during the ninth century. Just before the fall of the city they moved to Tunis in 1323 and continued to hold important administrative posts. Here Ibn Khaldun was born and educated. In 1349 his parents died during a great plague. After working for the court in Tunisia, Ibn Khaldun moved to Fez to serve the sultan of Morocco. But he fell into disfavor and moved to Granada, Spain, where Ibn al-Khatib, a renowned writer and statesman, was vizier. Ibn Khaldun was sent on a mission to Seville to conclude a peace treaty with Pedro I the Cruel of Castile. In Granada his enemies intrigued against him and he was forced to return to North Africa. He changed employment several times but then became weary of the dangers posed by political life. In 1375 he spent four years in the castle Qal’at ibn Salama in Algeria, where he wrote his fi rst draft of Muqaddima, or introduction to history, and part of the book, Kitab al-‘ibar, the best source on the history of North Africa and the Berbers. Illness and the necessity to check sources in urban centers forced him to return to Tunis. In 1382 he sailed to Egypt, settled in Cairo, and began teaching at al-Ahzar, the famous, Islamic university. The Mamluk ruler of Egypt, Barquq, appointed him chief judge of the Maliki rite but he again had trouble with the ruler. The most signifi cant event of his life occurred in 1400 when he accompanied the new sultan of Egypt, Faraj, to Syria at the time of the Mongol invasion. When the sultan had to return hastily to Cairo to quell a revolt, Ibn Khaldun was left behind in besieged Damascus. He was lowered from the city wall by rope and went to meet with the Tatar conqueror, Timurlane (Tamerlane), and spent seven weeks in his camp. In spite of Ibn Khaldun’s efforts, Damascus was sacked and its great mosque was burned; however, Ibn Khaldun was given permission to return to Egypt. As a theorist on history Ibn Khaldun identifi ed economic, social, political, psychological, and environmental factors as key in the rise and fall of all states. He analyzed the dynamics of group relationships and demonstrated how social cohesion fortifi ed by a religious ideology can help a group ascend to power. History is seen as a science that examines the social phenomena of human life. It seeks causes and effects and probes the complexities of human nature. Ibn Khaldun showed that by applying scientifi c principles it is possible to formulate general laws and to predict trends in the future. Arnold Toynbee, the late British historian, described the Muqaddima as the greatest work of its kind. Further reading: Fischel, Walter. Ibn Khaldun and Tamerlan: Their Historic Meeting in Damascus, 1401 a.d. (803 a.h.). Berkeley: University of California Press, 1952; Khaldun, I., and A. Cheddadi. Peuples et nations du monde: extraits des ‘Ibar. Paris: Sinbad, 1986; Mahdi, Muhsin. Ibn Khaldun’s Philosophy of History. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press, 1964; Rosenthal, Franz, trans. The Muqaddimah. New York: Pantheon Books, 1968; Schmidt, N. Ibn Khaldun: Historian, Sociologist and Philosopher. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967. Samar Attar Ibn Sina (980–1037) Muslim philosopher, scientist, and doctor Abu ‘Ali al Husayn Ibn Sina, or Avicenna, was born in northern Persia (present-day Iran) and as a youth studied both mathematics and medicine and expressed a keen interest in philosophy. His fi ve-volume al-Qanun fi ’l tibb, translated into Latin with lists of known diseases, treatments, and medicines, was the standard medical reference work in the Christian and Islamic worlds for several centuries. Ibn Sina not only was a clinician, but also sought to synthesize the entire body of medical knowledge of the age. He approached the study of medicine as a science, not just as a practical profession. Ibn Sina’s vast oeuvre, mostly in Arabic but also in Persian, dealt with philosophy, psychology, musical theory, autobiography, and even two short stories. Although Ibn Sina and other Muslim philosophers often did not know classical Greek, they were familiar with the classics through translations made by Christian Arabs. Ibn Sina accepted much of Platonic thought and attempted to harmonize it with eastern belief systems in a form of Neoplatonism. In this regard Ibn Sina carried on the approach of Abu Nasr al-Farabi (c. 878–950), an earlier Muslim philosopher to whom Ibn Sina paid homage. As part of a chain of Islamic scholars, Ibn Sina’s ideas were expanded and reworked by Averroës. In his encyclopedia of philosophy, Kitab al-shifa, Ibn Sina argued for the need to understand the natural world and supported the application of rational thought. Nor, he argued, were rational thought and religious belief necessarily contradictory. He disagreed with accepted Islamic thought regarding cosmology and 192 Ibn Sina expressed a low view of the intellectual ability of society in general. Ibn Sina and other Muslim philosophers accepted the Qur’an as the holy revealed text of Islam but believed it was open to interpretation (bid’a) and that every word need not be accepted literally. Many Sunni scholars accepted Ibn Sina’s approach and his works had a long-term impact in Islamic thought. Others, in particular the later Ibn Taymiyya, vehemently denounced Ibn Sina’s approach. In the last years of his life, Ibn Sina served as a wazir (minister) to the Buyid dynasty that gained control over parts of the Muslim territory as the Abbasid dynasty in Baghdad disintegrated. In Europe, Ibn Sina’s ideas and his review of Aristotle’s work in Kitab al-shifa had an impact during both the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. See also Islam: science and technology in the golden age. Further reading: Leaman, Oliver. An Introduction to Medieval Islamic Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985; Gohlman, W. E., ed. The Life of Ibn Sina. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1974. Janice J. Terry Ibn Taymiyya (1263–1328) Islamic theologian Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyya was born in Syria and spent most of his life in Damascus. His father was an Islamic scholar and Ibn Taymiyya became a teacher in Islamic law and tradition when he was still a young man. Ibn Taymiyya followed the puritanical Hanbali school, the most conservative of the four major schools of Islamic law. In direct contrast to Averroës and even al-Ghazzali, earlier Muslim scholars, he rejected rationalism and the study of philosophy. Ibn Taymiyya thought that Islamic schools of law had become too rigid but he also argued that they had been corrupted by outside infl uences, particularly those of classical Greece and Sufi sm (Islamic mysticism). Ibn Taymiyya lived in an era when Islamic society was threatened by external enemies, particularly the Mongols, and internal political divisions. He championed a pure application of Islamic practice based on faith and rejected innovation (bid’a). He also exhorted true Muslims to wage jihad (holy war) to fi ght internal and external enemies. In The Correct Answer to Those Who Have Changed the Religion of Christ, a huge book of over 1,000 pages, Ibn Taymiyya used textual exegesis to challenge the divinity of Christ. Because of his more extreme polemics and vocal opposition to many common Muslim practices, for example, veneration of saints’ tombs, authorities jailed Ibn Taymiyya several times and he died in prison in 1328. However, his numerous writings on the Qur’an and Islamic law (fi qh) continued to infl uence Muslim scholars and political leaders, including Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the founder of the Wahhabi puritanical sect that emerged in the Arabian Peninsula in the18th century. Modern-day Saudi Arabia is founded on Wahhabism with its strict application of the letter of the law. Ibn Taymiyya is often viewed as the spiritual mentor of 19th and 20th century Islamists. Further reading: Michel, T. F., trans. A Muslim Theologian’s Response to Christianity. New York: Caravan Books, 1984; Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1991; Memon, Muhammad Umar. Ibn Taymiya’s Struggle Against Popular Religion. The Hague and Paris: Mouton, 1976; Makari, Victor E. Ibn Taymiyya’s Ethics: The Social Factor. Missoula: Scholar’s Press, 1983. Jance J. Terry iconoclasm Iconoclasm (Greek for “image-smashing”) was a religious movement against icons (religious portraits) in eighth–ninth century Byzantium. Christian art proliferated in the fourth century because of the patronage of newly Christian emperors and aristocrats. While the majority of Christians accepted this tendency, a minority, infl uenced by the biblical injunction against “graven images,” was in opposition. Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea, for example, author of the fi rst work of church history (Ecclesiastical History), was in the latter group and rejected the depiction of Christ in art. This movement, called iconoclasm, expanded in the seventh century when it emerged in Armenia and reached its largest phase in the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire in the eighth and ninth centuries. (The West experienced its own iconoclastic crisis during 16th century Protestant Reformation.) Icons vastly increased in popularity in Eastern Christendom in the sixth and seventh centuries, a period when the empire was wracked by Slavs and Bulgars who removed much of the Balkans from imperial control, and iconoclasm 193 by Muslims who seized Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and North Africa. Imperial prestige was greatly reduced and imperial power was weakened by coups, civil strife, and theological controversy. In this period, people turned for help not to the hapless emperor, but to the icon (a portrait of a saint, angel, or Jesus) found in churches, monasteries, as well as private homes. Icons were often credited with miraculous powers, such as healing from illness or keeping a city safe from enemies. In the eighth century two bishops in Asia Minor condemned this proliferation of icon prestige among Christians. Emperor Leo III (717–741), who had stopped the Muslims in their siege of Constantinople in 717–718, championed their cause. Believing that God had given him success and a warning (when a volcanic explosion devastated the island of Thera), he removed the icon that hung before the imperial palace, appointed an iconoclastic patriarch in 730, and issued an edict calling for the destruction of images. His son and successor Constantine V (741–775), also successful on the battlefi eld, pressed the iconoclastic cause by persecuting opponents, particularly monks. He also sought to establish a fi rmer theological basis for iconoclasm by summoning a church council in 754. Monks like John Damascene, abbot of St. Sabbas Monastery in Palestine, who wrote several treatises defending icons, led opposition to the iconoclasts. The emperor could not arrest John since he lived under Muslim control. John explained that before Jesus, God could not be represented in an icon, but once God became fl esh in Jesus, he could be depicted. Moreover when the icon is used in devotion, the matter is not venerated, but the God of matter who made it. John also distinguished between worship (latreia), which is reserved for God alone, and veneration (proskynesis), which Christians can give to saints and angels. He explained clearly that icon veneration was not idolatry, but true Orthodox practice. Every pope also opposed iconoclasm. This caused a break of relations between Constantinople and Rome. Emperor Leo III failed in his attempt to arrest the pope but succeeded in removing southern Italy and the Balkans from papal jurisdiction, transferring them to the patriarch of Constantinople. During this tense period, Rome could not turn to Constantinople for military support against the German Lombards who threatened it. The pope now turned to the Franks, forging an important German-papal alliance that would infl uence much of the Middle Ages. In 800 the pope established the precedent of proclaiming the emperor by crowning Frankish king Charlemagne as Roman emperor. Byzantium opposed this act since it viewed the Roman emperor as reigning in Constantinople and crowned by the patriarch. The fi rst phase of iconoclasm came to an end when Irene, widow of Leo IV (775–780), ruled for her young son Constantine VI. Irene was an iconophile (supporter of icons) and summoned the Seventh Ecumenical Council in Nicaea (787), which declared icons Orthodox. Iconophile emperors ruled from 780 to 813, a period marred by military defeat that led many to believe that God was revealing that iconoclasm had been the “true” doctrine. An iconoclast general (Leo V) seized the throne and in 815 began the second phase of iconoclasm, deposing the patriarch and summoning a council to restore iconoclasm. Once again the iconoclasts were militarily triumphant. In 820 a coup brought Michael II to power, establishing the Amorian dynasty (820–867). His son, Theophilos (829–842), was the most educated and passionate of the ninth-century iconoclasts. The great challenge to ninth-century iconoclasm was not foreign adversaries, but internal monastic opposition. Monks were now well organized and they were popularly viewed as heroes. The leading fi gure was Theodore the Stoudite, abbot of the Stoudios Monastery in Constantinople, whose 1,000 monks were loyal and obedient. Theodore’s network of support spanned the empire and he worked ceaselessly against iconoclasm. Emperors exiled, beat, and imprisoned him but could not silence him. He died in 826, just prior to the restoration of icons for which he had fought. The fi nal restoration came in 843 when Empress Theodora ruled as regent for her young son Michael III, successor of Theophilos. By this time the link between iconoclasm and victory had been shattered by a military defeat late in Theophilos’s reign. Theodora appointed Methodios as the new patriarch, and together they restored adherence to the Seventh Ecumenical Council. This is commemorated each year in the Orthodox Greek Church as “Orthodox Sunday,” on the fi rst Sunday of Lent. The iconoclast controversy stimulated a revival of learning as iconoclasts searched for manuscripts of the Fathers of the Church to defend their position, while iconophiles, like John Damascene and Theodore the Stoudite, wrote their own treatises. It also led to monasticism’s increased prestige, as monks became the premier champions of Orthodoxy. The period did—in the end—increase imperial power inasmuch as iconoclast emperors had stabilized the empire against foreign threats and strengthened imperial power domestically. Finally after iconoclasm, 194 iconoclasm the resources for and against iconoclasm, imperial and monastic, respectively, were united together in a great age of missionary activity in central Europe, the Balkans, Russia, and beyond. See also Cyril and Methodios. Further reading: Hussey, J. M. The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987; Martin. E. A History of the Iconoclastic Controversy. New York: AMS Press, 1978; Pelikan, J. Imago Dei: The Byzantine Apologia for Icons. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery Art, 1990; Alexander, P. The Patriarch Nicephorus of Constantinople. New York: AMS Press, 1980. Matthew Herbst Île-de-France The history of the Île-de-France, the true heart of Paris, began in the third century b.c.e. when a group of Gallic Celts built a settlement there for safety. They surrounded their settlement with a wooden palisade, at least one gate, and watchtowers. Buildings were made of wood, or wattle, mud, and sticks, and had either wooden or thatched roofs; thus fi re was a constant danger. In 52 b.c.e. in his wars against the Gauls, Julius Caesar established a base there. By the third century c.e. barbarian tribes forced the abandonment of the settlement on the Left Bank of the Seine, forcing people to seek refuge on the Île-de-France as their ancestors had nearly six centuries earlier. In 451 during the decline of the Western Roman Empire, the Île- de- France and the growing city of Paris faced its worst threat. In that year Attila the Hun attacked the Western Roman Empire with a huge army. The city of Metz was sacked as he entered France, and Paris, according to legend, was only spared the same fate by the intervention of Saint Genevieve. By the time Attila laid siege to Orléans, the main Roman fi eld army led by Aetius confronted him with Visigoth allies, enemies of the Huns. During the Battle at Châlons the Huns were turned back. In 476 the last Roman emperor of the West, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed, and Paris was left to look after its own defenses. The Frankish tribe was one of the German tribes to invade France during the Roman Empire’s decline, and in 508 Clovis, king of the Salian Franks, captured Paris. He converted the Franks to Christianity after winning a battle over a rival tribe, the Alamanni, sometime between 495 and 506. Paris suffered an era of decline when Charlemagne decided to make Aachen, Aix-la-Chapelle, the capital of his Holy Roman Empire, when he was crowned emperor in 800. In the ninth century Vikings from Scandinavia began their onslaught on western Europe, and they sailed up the Seine to imperil Paris. In 911 in order to relieve the threat, King Charles III granted the land around Rouen to the Viking leader Rollo. Since “northmen,” normand in French, was another term for Vikings, this was the beginning of Normandy, from which Duke William would sail to conquer England in 1066. In 978 Hugh Capet became king—because he usually wore a cape, or capa, his line became known as the Capetian dynasty. One of the greatest of all Parisian landmarks, the Cathedral of Notre Dame, was established in 1163. King Philip II Augustus, who reigned from 1179 to 1223, did much to develop the Île-de-France and Paris. He built walls around the growing city, including the settlements on the north and the south bank. By a royal charter for the University of Paris (1200), he stated that Paris was now a city of three parts, the Left Bank, the Île de Paris (now known as the Île de la Cité), and the Right Bank. In 1200 Philip began construction of a fortress on the Seine, built to defend against the English, that would later become the famed museum of the Louvre. In 1301 King Philip IV built a royal palace on the Île de la Cité, reaffi rming its position as the heart of Paris, although by this time the history of the Île de la Cité had merged into the history of the entire city of Paris. Further reading: Gibbon, Edward. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Everyman’s Library, 1993. John F. Murphy, Jr. Innocent III (c. 1160–1216) pope Innocent III was born into the noble family of Scotti and named Lothar. Aided by his familial ties to Pope Clement III, Innocent rose rapidly through the curia. The popular debate regarding the pontifi cate of Innocent III can best be summed up in the title of a series of essays edited by James M. Powell regarding the life and pontifi cate of Innocent III entitled Vicar of Christ or Lord of the World. While the reign of Innocent is viewed as the high point of medieval papal power, both religious and secular, the debate continues as to whether Innocent’s involvement in the secular world was for his own benefi t, or because of his own view of papal authority. Innocent III 195 The young Lothar received the scholastic education expected of young nobles of his day, studying in Rome, Paris, and Bologna before being elevated to the rank of cardinal-deacon at the age of 29. Innocent was elected pope on the very day, January 8, 1198, that Pope Celestine III died. The Orsini Celestine III, in a display of family politics that dominated medieval Rome, campaigned from his deathbed against the potential candidacy of Innocent. Political uncertainty because of the recent passing of Emperor Henry VI led many cardinals, who were concerned for their own personal safety, to abandon the dying Celestine III in the Lateran for the more secure Septizonium of Septimius Severus, the site of the papal election. Legend has it that cardinals concerned that Innocent III was too young were reassured when a white dove landed on his shoulder during the voting. Innocent’s consecration ceremony was delayed seven weeks until the deacon could be ordained into the priesthood and then installed as a bishop. Innocent provided the 13th century with a model of an active, reforming pope. Innocent turned his reforming intention fi rst to the curia, where he reduced the size of the bureaucracy and the luxurious lifestyle of its members. In response to concerns over the quality of men appointed to the episcopate, Innocent excluded candidates for being too young or for lacking an adequate education. He also enforced the strict observance of celibacy and, in order to bring an end to the accumulation of multiple benefi ces by priests, enforced residency requirements. Innocent may be best remembered for recognizing new religious orders such as the Franciscans and the Dominicans during his reign. Innocent did not reserve his reforming zeal simply for the religious. In an age where rulers routinely requested the dissolution of marriage vows to rid themselves of an inconvenient spouse, Innocent refused to dissolve marriage vows for the rulers of France, Castile, Bohemia, and Aragon. Innocent was the author of several treatises both before and after his election to the papacy. As a scholar his interest in the Eucharist resulted in the treatise De sacro altaris mysterio (On the Sacred Mystery of the Altar) and in the adoption of the doctrine of transubstantiation at the Fourth Lateran Council. Innocent also decreed that a Catholic must perform the sacraments of Holy Communion and confession at least once a year. The largest area of controversy surrounding the reign of Innocent III lay with his views of the papacy regarding secular affairs. A few months prior to his election, the seat of the emperor was left vacant by the death of Henry VI. Early in his papacy Innocent asserted the right of the pope to evaluate the merits of the two leading candidates for emperor: Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick. Innocent’s involvement in election politics would continue for most of his papal reign. As the guardian to Frederick, son of Henry VI, Innocent aligned himself with King Philip II Augustus of France against Emperor Otto III in support of Frederick’s claim to the throne. Innocent’s strong assertion of papal supremacy in secular affairs continued the policy of popes Nicholas I and Gregory VII. Innocent based his view of the papal role in secular affairs on the belief that bishops were in part responsible for the souls of their kings and that the pope was successor of Peter and vicar of Christ. Innocent asserted papal temporal authority in several fi elds including the appointing and deposing of kings, the right to intervene in kingly confl icts that potentially involved the commission of a sin, to protect the interests of widows andssion orphans, to protect crusaders, to confi rm agreements between rulers, and to hear appeals from persons in the absence of appropriate temporal courts. The notion of the pope’s hearing appeals led Innocent to hold public hearings three times a week. The continued existence of heresy in southern France combined with the unwillingness of local rulers to deal with the issue led Innocent to call for the Albigensian Crusade in 1208. Innocent would die in 1216 before he had the opportunity to fully implement his reforms, and while remembered as the most powerful pope of his era, he would not be granted the title of “great” by the church. See also Crusades; heresies, pre-Reformation; Lateran Councils, Third and Fourth. Further reading: The New Catholic Encyclopedia. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale, 2003; Brentano, Robert. Rome Before Avignon. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990; Powell, James M. Vicar of Christ or Lord of the World. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1994; Tillman, Helene. Pope Innocent III. Trans. by W. Sax. Bonn: North Holland, 1980. Abbe Allen DeBolt Inquisition From the time of Charlemagne (800–814) and beyond, the peoples of Europe were united by the teachings and practices of the Western (Latin) Church. So deep and abiding was this consensus that any deviation from the 196 Inquisition common faith was felt to be a serious threat to the community itself. From time to time individuals rejected this heritage and preached separatist religious doctrines and canons. This break with the status quo would be seen as not only an attack on the church but also an attack on society. Usually these individuals formed no organized sects and their followers dispersed after their deaths. To the extent that they denied articles of the Catholic faith they were termed “heretics.” By the early 12th century the Western Latin Church had a fi rm basis for defi nition of orthodox belief, and the laws of the state provided sanctions against those who deviated from it. In the second half of the 12th century, however, there appeared two groups that seriously challenged the basic tenets of Christendom. The Albigensians, or the Cathari, believed in Christian dualism (gnosticism) where there were two gods, one good and one evil. The good god made the spiritual world including the human soul and the evil god made the material world, including the human body. The group rejected certain basic institutions of the status quo, including the sacrament of penance, the liturgy, and prayers for the dead. A second group, the Waldensians, maintained basically a Christian position. They were fundamentally interested in spreading Christianity, dedicated to living the Gospel in poverty. They did reject, however, prayers and liturgies for the dead and the authority of the Roman Church and taught that unordained people have the right to preach. The Inquisition originated with Pope Gregory IX (1227–41). The Inquisition was an extraordinary court established by the papacy to investigate and adjudicate persons accused of heresy. The purpose was to bring order and legality to the procedure for dealing with heresy, since there was much inconsistency in the prosecution of religious scandals and misconduct. On the one hand, the attitude in southern France was one of benign indifference or even approval of heresy, while in the north, on the other hand, particularly in Germany, there was the tendency for mobs to burn alleged heretics without the aid of a court. In the course of their investigation of the presence of heresy in the regions designated by their appointment, the inquisitors interviewed literally thousands of people. After the actual trial had been completed, the evidence was weighed. The local bishop was given the record, and he and the inquisitor agreed on an appropriate penance, if the accused accepted it. If not, then the person was declared contumacious and his property was confi scated. The penances handed down were such things as pilgrimage to a famous religious shrine, the wearing of yellow cloth crosses (the most used penance), ritual fl agellation, fi nes, demolition of houses and confi scations, and imprisonment. Shame and humiliation were the preferred methods of discipline, though the death penalty was invoked in special cases. The inquisitor tried to explain the true doctrine and to correct erring members. If, however, individuals refused to repent, the church formally recognized its inability to bring about change. Then it would declare erring members heretics, withdraw its judicial protection, and abandon them to the secular authority, which proceeded to apply its own law. This secular punishment involved mutilation and death in various forms. The most extensive and infl uential inquisitorial investigation took place in Toulouse, France, 1245–46. Actions were drawn up against 5,471 men and women; only 207 verdicts were issued by the judge-delegates, of which 23 were given “life sentences” (usually seven years’ imprisonment), and the rest were given yellow crosses to wear on their clothing. No one was executed, and no property was confi scated. Toulouse served as model for later and more concentrated inquisitions. At various times sensational inquisitions arose against particular individuals or groups. These cases include Joan of Arc, Meister Eckhardt, Galileo, and the Jews of Spain who had converted to Catholicism. The most serious injustices were infl icted against the Jews, where perhaps at least 2, 000 were burned. Nonetheless, it should not be forgotten that safeguards and conditions of prisoners in inquisitional investigations were superior to those of secular courts. The controversy and notoriety surrounding the Inquisition far exceed what historians have been able to uncover as facts surrounding its actual exercise. Founded in 1542 by Pope Paul III with the Constitution Licet ab initio, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith was originally called the Sacred Congregation of the Universal Inquisition as its duty was to defend the church from heresy. The congregation promotes in a collegial fashion encounters and initiatives to spread sound doctrine and defend those points of Christian tradition that seem in danger because of new and unacceptable doctrines. Pope Pius X in 1908 changed the name to the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Offi ce. It received its current name, Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, in 1965 from Pope Paul VI. Its duty is to promote and safeguard the doctrine on the faith and morals throughout the Catholic world. Inquisition 197 For further reading: Shannon, Albert Clement, O.S.A. The Medieval Inquisition. Washington D.C.: Augustinian College Press, 1983. Rev. Thomas Urban & Mark F. Whitters Irene (1088–1124) princess of Hungary Irene of Constantinople (also referred to as Princess Piroska) was the daughter of King Ladislas of Hungary, who ruled from 1077 c.e. He was the son of Béla I of Hungary and Richeza, princess of Poland. Ladislas astutely used the political divisions of 11th century Europe to carve out a position of importance for his kingdom. His daughter Princess Irene of Hungary became the wife of the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Emperor John II (1087–1143) of the Komnenus (Comnenus) dynasty, whose father was Emperor Alexios I. John II became emperor on the death of his father in 1118. Irene was born in 1088 in Esztergom, Komarom, Hungary. After her father died, his brother Kalman (Koloman) succeeded him on the throne. King Kalman continued the expansion of Hungary begun by his brother and annexed Croatia to his dominion in 1097. He arranged Irene’s marriage to John II of the Byzantine Empire, gaining immense reputation from the match. The marriage was beneficial to both states, as it formed an alliance against the Seljuk dynasty of the Turks, who had posed a dangerous threat to the Byzantine Empire since their victory over a Byzantine army at Manzikert in 1071. When Irene went to Constantinople for her royal marriage, she converted from Roman Catholicism to the Greek Orthodox Church in order to marry the emperor. Afterward, she was often referred to as Irene Prisca, which was the name of an earlier saint in the church. She gained a great reputation for piety toward pilgrims on their way to the Holy Land, especially those coming from her native Hungary. She and her husband founded the church of Saint Savior Pantocrator. The church they built became the largest in Constantinople after the Hagia Sophia. When Irene was empress the Holy Land was in great peril from the Turks, and Pope Urban II called the First Crusade in 1096 to save Jerusalem. The Byzantine forces of Emperor John, after an initial struggle with the crusaders coming from western Europe, provided invaluable support to them with the large Byzantine navy and their knowledge of siege warfare. The crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099. The crusaders established their own states in the Holy Land and often were in conflict with Emperor John II. In 1137 and 1142 he entered the crusader kingdoms, reaching as far as Antioch, in a show of force to assert his power over them. By the time of Empress Irene’s death in 1124, only the southern part of the Pantocrator was built, and there she was buried. The Greek Orthodox Church noted her care of pilgrims, and she would be canonized as Saint Irene. The role that Irene played in Byzantine history was recognized when she was placed in a mosaic portrait with her husband and her son, the future emperor Manuel I, in the Hagia Sophia. See also Byzantine Empire: political history; Crusades. Further reading: Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. Hagia Sophia. Scala Books, 2003; Mayer, Hans Eberhard. The Crusades. Trans. by John Gillingham. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. John F. Murphy, Jr. Irish monastic scholarship, golden age of The golden age of Irish monastic scholarship spans the sixth through ninth centuries’ flourishing of art, literature, calligraphy, manuscript preservation, and research that transpired primarily in the newly established monastic schools following the fifth-century advent of Christianity in Ireland. During this same period, the collapse of the Roman Empire and the so-called barbarian invasions into Europe by such tribes as the Goths, Huns, Lombards, and Burgundians caused the Continent to experience a tremendous decline in learning and culture. Not only was the Irish church the brightest spot culturally in the West at this time, but many historians postulate that the great heritage of Western civilization, ranging from the Greco-Roman classics to Jewish and Christian works, would have been utterly vanquished were it not for the religious women and men of Ireland. The golden age is best known for the scriptorium, in which biblical manuscripts were preserved, copied, and beautifully illuminated. Because of the medieval development of the Bible into an object of veneration and point of contact with divine power, the copying of Scripture became a favored avenue for creativity. Illuminated man- 198 Irene uscripts accompanied the sacred text with colorful and detailed graphic representations of the events being narrated and were bound in ornately tooled covers of precious metals, inlaid with jewels. Remarkable poet-historians synthesized the nation’s pagan histories with its new faith, by retelling these legends in light of Christian theological concepts, especially providence, grace, and redemption. Moreover the missionary scholar Adamnan of Iona (624–704) prefi gured England’s Venerable Bede (673–735) as among the fi rst writers in the new genre of critical history and biography, which made distinctions between primary (fi rsthand or eyewitness) and secondary (based on fi rsthand or eyewitness) sources and employed criteria of authenticity that attempted to separate fact from fi ction. Although Christianity furnished the institutional catalyst that triggered the golden age, the potencies for its radiant growth of art and literature lay already embedded in the pre-Christian Celtic veneration for people of learning. In Celtic mythology, the god of literature, Ogma, attracted humans with golden cords fastened to his tongue. Ancient Irish customs stipulated that the benevolent or malicious power of the poet should be respected above weaponry, and that the education of a prince in the skills of the mind was as important as his training in the art of warfare. The respect for the written word in no way diminished with the rise of Christianity; rather, the new religion transmitted the two priceless treasures of a written language and the legacy of Greco-Roman classical culture. Scholars from Europe began immigrating to the island in the early sixth century to escape the “barbarian” invaders, and Ireland came to enjoy a Continental reputation as a refuge where beleaguered academics could fi nd all the customary comforts of civilization. In exchange for this wholehearted welcome, the immigrants brought a great wealth, their books, to their new home, which became the foundation of Irish monastic libraries. Disavowing the European ecclesiastical fear of the pagan classics, manifested by the decree of the 436 Council of Carthage that no believer should study Gentile writings, Irish monks instilled their students with both an appreciation of the Greco-Roman poets and philosophers and a well-rounded worldview that integrated the theology of Scripture and the church fathers with the ethics of Aristotle and metaphysics of Plato. This produced a new breed of scholars characterized by a Scholastic mindset and a formidable accumulation of classical knowledge that was treasured and utilized in their civic and ecclesiastic endeavors. These humanists imported many Latin grammatical structures and syntactic devices into the Irish language, thereby vitalizing a literary tradition in desperate need of renewal. For instance, while the pre-Christian method of writing, ogam, was so cumbersome that it was scarcely used outside of carved funerary or ceremonial inscriptions, an updating of the alphabet based on Latin script rendered writing easy and motivated educated people to transcribe their native lore and create new masterpieces. The result of the linguistic revisions was that secular learning thrived alongside religious, and a monumental corpus of Irish vernacular literature developed that painted a portrait of an ancient pagan civilization unmatched elsewhere in the West. Not only was this recording of the oral tradition historically signifi cant, but a further consequence of the confl ation of Christian and pagan learning in Ireland was the rise of a new type of literature. Eventually the imaginative spirit gripped the scribes, who were responsible for meticulously copying Christian and classical works but subconsciously absorbing their concepts and themes in the process, leading them to formulate their own tales enriched by indirect infl uence from these ancient sources. The traditional voyages to seek Tir na n’Og (the Land of Youth, which greatly resembled the new heaven and new earth in New Testament thought) were supplemented by borrowings from Homer and given substance with the current geographical information to yield the famous Christian epic The Voyage of St. Brendan. Furthermore the intimate and touching poetry devised by monk-poets furnishes modern historians with a unique and introspective vision of the lives of cloistered anchorites, encompassing their love of nature and animals, the mystical nature of their religious experience (Latin unio mystica, or mystical union with God), the stringency of their communal discipline, and even their irritated boredom. Although the monastic schools were indebted to the European body of knowledge bestowed by refugee scholars, a far greater infl uence was exerted by the long indigenous tradition of education. In Ireland, learning found its mythological origin in Connla’s Well, a fountain in Tipperary over which grew nine hazel trees that simultaneously sprouted fl owers and crimson nuts. Mastery of the fi ne arts and poetry gave substance to the fl owers, while the nuts were fi lled with knowledge of all the sciences. Instituted upon this primordial foundation, the pagan schools required 15 years of study and were run by poets and historians of the fi lid class (an order of historians, lawyers, eulogists, and satirists) and the druids. Members of the fi lid class migrated with their students from village to village while the druids were sedentary in key cultic centers. They shared a common method of pedagogy: Teachings and folk tales were transmitted in Irish monastic scholarship, golden age of 199 fi xed oral forms governed by patterns in style and meter, and repetitions of words and sentence structures that facilitated memorization. In addition a reciprocal relationship of compassion was fostered between teachers and students: Teachers corrected students without harshness and provided their physical sustenance (food and clothing), while students adopted a lifelong obligation to protect their teachers from poverty and support them in old age. The conjunction of instructional method and empathetic teacher-student bonds supplied the necessary motivation for students to master a dizzying array of disciplines, including grammar, law, genealogy, history, astronomy, geography, and metrical composition. After St. Patrick converted the majority of Celts from the druid religion to Christianity and established monasteries to oversee each new believing community between 432 and 461, pagan schools were transformed into monastic schools, retaining the same teaching techniques and quality of humaneness between masters and pupils. The biblical doctrine of Christian equality as sisters and brothers before God in spite of class distinctions introduced an element of democracy into education. Although early medieval Ireland could by no means be identifi ed as a democratic nation, the bishops established laws through which all people, women as well as men, could earn money to attend monastic schools regardless of the capacities of their families. One such law stipulated that a child whose parents could not afford the expenses of a school could pay one’s way by waiting on the children of the wealthy, who were obliged to accept such service and fi nance the child’s education. These laws fostered a demographic reversal from the pagan schools, such that most students at the monastic schools came from the lower and middle classes instead of the wealthy farmers and chieftains. The 15 years of study were split into two segments: a fi ve-year general education track, consisting of literature, history, law, and science, and an ensuing 10-year track for advanced students who wished to pursue the “Seven Orders of Wisdom.” Most students ceased education after the fi rst fi ve years, while those wishing to pursue either a career in the church, greater learning, or both proceeded to the Orders. These included a comprehensive and detailed knowledge of the Bible, the essentials of Christian theology, mathematics, astronomy, and the three technicalities of written composition (grammar, criticism, and orthography). Since most graduates of the academic Seven Orders embraced their spiritual counterpart—holy orders—and later served as teachers themselves, the church procured a monopoly of Irish scholars while perpetuating its educational institution. So many students were attracted to the monastic schools that there was not accommodation for them, and they were forced to erect huts outside the monastery walls. Gathering out of doors, the teacher, who typically sat or stood on a knoll, alternated his reading, translating, and expounding from books in distinct memorizable forms— which students would learn by rote—with questions that assisted students in understanding what they recited. In addition to the monks and nuns, students at the monastic schools worked for varying lengths in the scriptoria proportional to their level of training. The beginner practiced with a metal-pointed stylus on long narrow tablets of yew wood coated with wax, which could be fl attened clear and used repetitively. After the copying was completed, the student bound the tablets together with a pivot pin at one end so they could be opened and closed like a fan. The student then wound leather thongs around the tablets, leaving the ends of the cords dangling for use as a handle. Skilled scribes made their reproductions on parchment (cow, sheep, or goat skin) and vellum (the younger and fi ner skin of these animals). They copied seated with the writing material resting on the knees or, if engaged in elaborate illumination, on a table. For calligraphy the pen was a quill made from the wing of a goose, swan, or crow. The inkstand was made from part of a cow’s horn, and the ink was composed of thick and time-defying liquid carbon—characters on the medieval codices are still piercingly black today. Completed books were sheathed in leather, labeled, and hung on pegs on the walls of the monastery library. The more precious, such as the renowned Book of Kells and Lindisfarne Gospels (both lovely illuminated manuscripts of the Gospels in Latin), were encased in elegantly tooled leather covers and decorated, jewel-encrusted containers. The greatest legacy of the golden age lay in the missionary activity of its monastic scholars, who spent as much time teaching within the Irish schools as traveling abroad to share the humanity of their education with the Continent and the Christian Gospel with their pagan neighbors. Irish philosophers, scientists, and classicists were sought after by the courts of Europe and returned to the West disciplines of learning that had been obscured during the “barbarian” centuries of cultural stagnation. Under infl uences from Columba’s monastery, St. Aidan (590–651) carried the Christian message to the Northumbrians of the northeast coast of England. He became friends with the Anglo-Saxon ruler Oswald, who had spent time in exile among the Irish and grown attracted to the life of these Celtic Christians. With Oswald’s cooperation, Aidan then journeyed to the people of Northumbria in 635 and founded a monastery on the island of Lind- 200 Irish monastic scholarship, golden age of isfarne, thereafter styled as Holy Island, which became a center of evangelism that fi rmly established Christianity in northern England by the mid-seventh century. See also Celtic Christianity. Further reading: Cahill, Thomas. How the Irish Saved Civilization. New York: Anchor, 1995; Cairns, Earle E. Christianity through the Centuries. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996; González, Justo L. The Story of Christianity. San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco, 1985; Mould, Daphne D. C. Pochin. The Monasteries of Ireland. London: B.T. Batsford, 1976; Ryan, John. Irish Monasticism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1972; Scherman, Katharine. The Flowering of Ireland: Saints, Scholars, and Kings. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Company, 1981. Kirk R. MacGregor Islam Islam emerged out of the Arabian Peninsula (modern-day Saudi Arabia) in the seventh century. Prior to this, Arabian tribal peoples had practiced a wide variety of pagan beliefs, living in a time Muslims called jahiliyya or ignorance. The Ka’aba (probably a meteorite) in Mecca was one of the early sites of religious pilgrimage for Arabian tribes and the merchants of Mecca had long made lucrative livings off the trade generated by the pilgrims. The Ka’aba became the holiest site in the Muslim world and the center for the annual pilgrimage or hajj to Mecca. Although Muslims accept the validity of all of the Old and New Testament prophets, including Jesus, they believe the prophet Muhammad is the last and the greatest of the prophets. As strict monotheists Muslims do not accept the resurrection of Jesus because that would have made him divine and for Muslims God or Allah is indivisible. However Islam, as the third major monotheistic religion, forms part of the Judaic-Christian- Islamic tradition. The Muslim holy book, the Qur’an, contains the words of Allah as revealed to the prophet Muhammad. The Qur’an places great emphasis on knowledge and the fi rst word in the Qu’ran is Iqra or “read.” The Hadith and Sunna, traditions and sayings of the Prophet, also provide guidance for proper behavior and practice. Muslims follow the Five Pillars of belief and practice and are called to prayer fi ve times a day by the muezzin from the minaret, a tall tower, attached to a mosque. The mosque serves not only as a place of worship but often as a center for social gatherings and as a school. On Friday, the Muslim holy day, the imam delivers a sermon to the faithful. Unlike Christianity, orthodox Sunni Islam does not have an established clergy. Any devout believer can serve as an imam. However, the mullahs form an established, hierarchical clerical caste in Shi’a Islam. The community of believers is known as the umma; religious scholars or ulema continually provide interpretations and reinterpretations of religious texts and practice. As with Judaism and Christianity, Islam began as a patriarchal society. However Islamic law improved the lot of women, who were granted extensive legal and property rights. Polygamy was permitted as with most of the world at the time. A Muslim male could have four wives at one time but he must treat each equally in terms of lifestyle and the time spent with her. Thus only the wealthy could usually afford more than one wife. As the number of Muslim converts grew under Muhammad’s charismatic leadership, the established wealthy merchants in Mecca began to persecute the new believers. Led by Muhammad the Muslims migrated (or made a Hijra) from Mecca for Medina in 622. In Medina the Muslims had extensive interactions with three Jewish tribes; although the prophet Muhammad had fairly cordial relations with some of these tribes he failed to convert them. Some of these tribes also openly sided with the rival Meccans and even joined forces with them in military battles. Consequently the Jewish tribes were either expelled from Medina or killed. Muhammad created a new religious and political society heavily infl uenced by tribal practices in Medina. In 624 the Meccans were defeated at the Battle of Badr but they retaliated by winning the Battle of Uhud in 625. In a third confrontation, Muhammad’s strategy of building a large ditch to stop the Meccan cavalry helped the Muslims to defeat the Meccans at the Battle of the Trench in 627. Muhammad then negotiated a treaty between two cities, but after the Meccans violated the settlement, Muhammad led over 1,000 Muslim forces against the city. He took Mecca without bloodshed or forced conversions in 630. Muhammad returned to Mecca as the unquestioned leader of a growing and dynamic new community. Within two years Muslim campaigns had incorporated much of the Arabian Peninsula and had taken several Byzantine centers near the Gulf of Aqaba, north of Medina. Recognizing the growing power of the Muslims, other Arabian tribes soon sent envoys to negotiate alliances or conversions with Muhammad at Mecca. Muslims also moved into Yemen and along the Persian Gulf in the east. Islam 201 In 632 Muhammad died and since he had left no chosen successor the community gathered to select by consensus a new leader or caliph to represent the Muslims. Under the next four “righteous” caliphs, the Muslims embarked on one of the most dynamic expansions in human history. Within 100 years the Islamic/Arab empire expanded from the banks of the Indus River in the east to northern Africa and Spain in the west. Much of the spread of Islam in Asia and Africa occurred not through warfare but trade. The Muslim annual pilgrimage to Mecca was another extremely effective way for the vast community of believers to establish trade and business relationships with one another and to exchange ideas and new technologies. Although religious tolerance was practically unknown at the time, Islam enjoined its believers to treat people of the book (Jews, Christians, and usually Zoroastrians) kindly and not to force conversions unless they took up arms against the Muslims. As an open, universal religion that stresses the equality of all believers, Islam continues to hold great appeal and in the 21st century remains one of the world’s fastest growing religions. See also Five, or Six, pillars of Islam; Caliphs, fi rst four; Shi’ism; Islam: art and architecture in the golden age. Further reading: Armstrong, Karen. Islam. New York: Random House, 2000; Esposito, John. Islam the Straight Path 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998; Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1991. Janice J. Terry Islam: art and architecture in the golden age Islamic art and architecture is that of the Muslim peoples, who emerged in the early seventh century from the Arabian Peninsula. The Muslim empire reached its peak during the golden age of Islam from the eighth to the 13th century. Literary and archaeological evidence reveals that the early architecture of the Muslim communities in Medina and Mecca, presented through the prophet Muhammad’s mosque and residence in Medina and through other smaller mosques, continued the indigenous building style based on a rectangular structure with an open internal courtyard and a covered area. Older structures such as the Ka’aba in Mecca continued the ancient Arab architectural style found among the Nabataeans in Petra, Palmyra, South Arabia, and Hatra in Mesopotamia. In pre-Islamic times, the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula and its surrounding regions lived in scattered minority communities of Jewish, Christian, and Zoroastrian peoples among a majority of pagans or polytheists. To these people, great legendary architectural palaces, castles, temples, and churches were still-vivid memories signifying power and prestige. They were recorded in poetry and other literary forms and associated with famous cities such as Petra, Palmyra, Hatra, Hira, Madain Salih, Kinda, Najran, Marib, and Sana. Pre-Islamic records and literary evidence attest to the existence of visual art forms, especially sculpture and painting, which were employed primarily to disseminate copies of icons and sculptural depictions of the many deities and idols worshipped in the region. For example monumental statues of major deities like Hubal, Allat, Al-Uzza, and others were still standing in public locations and temples on the eve of the advent of Islam prior to 630. Small-scale statues and fi gurines were abundantly available among the pre-Islamic population, and makers of images were active in such cities as Mecca and Taif. Wall paintings from the early Islamic secular buildings in Syria, Jordan, and Iraq reveal important examples of a blending of Mesopotamian, Sassanian, Hellenistic, and indigenous Arab styles. Architectural planning of early Muslim mosques in Egypt and North Africa reveals borrowing from ancient Egyptian architecture. EARLY ISLAMIC ART AND ARCHITECTURE The prophet Muhammad died in 632 and within a few years the newly emerged Islamic state expanded quickly and swiftly claimed the realms of both the Sassanian and Byzantine Empires. In less than 100 years the new politicoreligious model reached the steppes of Central Asia and the Pyrenees in Europe. As the Muslim community expanded, the need for a central place of worship emerged and was realized by the development of the mosque—a French distortion of the word masjid or “place of prostration.” Islam, a nonclerical, nonliturgical faith, does not employ ritualistic surroundings and the fi rst mosque was actually the open courtyard of the house of the prophet Muhammad in Medina. It functioned as a meeting place and community center. Later this tradition expanded to the establishment of a central mosque called al-Masjid al-Jami—“the great mosque”—in every major city. With it developed the characteristics of the mosque and its components: an 202 Islam: art and architecture in the golden age open courtyard (sahn); a roofed area for prayer (musallah) with a dome (qubba); a niche in the wall of the prayer area (mihrab) to indicate the direction of prayer (qibla) toward the Ka’aba in Mecca; an elevated platform (minbar), from which the congregational leader delivered the sermon; a tower (minaret), from which the call to prayer (adhan) was issued; and an ablution place for performing the ritual washing before each prayer (wudhu). This basic arrangement of functional space found in early mosques in Basra, Kufa, and Wasit in Iraq, and later in the Great Mosque of Damascus and the Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, and elsewhere, became the prototype of traditional Islamic mosque architecture. The rapidly growing state demanded a new Islamic architectural style that developed gradually, acquired new forms, and incorporated diverse methods of visual expression. During the golden age of Islamic civilization a blend of architectural designs and motifs from South and North Arabian, Byzantine, Hellenistic, Indian, Chinese, and other origins was employed in a new building program throughout the Islamic world. Whatever the variety of its components, the fi nal result always presented a unique Arab Islamic style, especially in the early period, where the architecture and art were unifi ed by strong Arab characteristics that can be detected in the art of the Umayyads in Syria, the Andalus in Spain, the Abbasids in Iraq, and the Fatimids in Egypt. The Arabic language, derived from the Semitic Aramaic language, played a decisive role in the formation of Islamic culture and art. Arabic was the offi cial and original language of the Qur’an, the holy book of Islam. Arabic was a powerful cultural and literary vehicle with which to disseminate Arab culture throughout the new and diverse Muslim communities in the recently expanded regions of Central Asia, Anatolia, the Mediterranean coasts, Sicily, and Spain. Verses of the Qur’an were inscribed in elegant Kufi c and Thulth calligraphic styles on the interior and exterior of major mosques in Jerusalem, Damascus, Basra, Fustat, Tunisia, Sicily, and Spain in a variety of techniques such as stucco, wood carving, and ceramic tiles. The mosque thus became a unifying architectural form and symbol of the monotheistic concept of Islam. Islam adopted an aniconic style in art that does not promote fi gurative representation. In the Qur’an, the sunna (manners, ethics, behavior, and social practice of the prophet Muhammad), and hadith (collection of sayings of Muhammad pertaining to a variety of topics, and everyday life situations), depiction of living forms is discouraged and according to certain interpretations is banned altogether, especially in religious environments such as mosques. Sunni orthodox interpretation of fi gurative representation characterized it as an act of defying the power of God, who alone was ascribed the ability of creation. Furthermore the depiction of human beings was also thought to be reminiscent of and an encouragement of pre-Islamic idol worship. These sanctions prompted Muslim artists to create a new form of expression based on the use of Arabic calligraphy—literal meaning and visual composition—and decorative ornamentations. The corroboration of these two powerful visual vocabularies with the already developed conventional Islamic components characterized Islamic art distinctly and continuously. UMAYYADS: 661–750 c.e. Borrowing, blending, and modifying motifs, forms, and techniques from Byzantine and Sassanian sources and incorporating them into the indigenous Arabic style characterize the art and architecture of this formative period. This approach was presented through the architectural planning and iconographic design in major buildings, both religious and secular. In the eastern Mediterranean region a new blend of styles and motifs was incorporated in the early Umayyad buildings. Mosaic decoration, a preferred Byzantine medium, is evident in the case of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, completed in 692; the Great Mosque of Damascus, completed in 715; and the desert palaces in the Syrian regions. Presentation of power, triumph of the new religion, and the emphasis on Islamic theology in early Islamic art were realized through the use of monumental architectural forms, calligraphy, and the ornamental aniconic patterns as in the case of the Dome of the Rock, or the fi gurative representations in painting and sculpture at the desert palaces Qusayr Amra, Khirbat al-Mafjar, and Mshatta in the Syrian region, and during the early Abbasid period in palaces in Samarra and Baghdad in Iraq. ABBASIDS: 750–1258 c.e. Beginning around the 10th century the synthesis of Islam and Arab culture was modifi ed by the emergence of decentralized, mostly non-Arab political powers such as the Samanids in Iran and the Ghaznavids in Afghanistan, the Seljuk dynasty in Anatolia, the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt and Tunisia, and the Almoravid Empire (al-Murabitun) and Almohads (al-Muwahhidun) in the western areas of Islamic lands. These dynasties and mini independent states contributed to the spread of Islam and consolidated their political power in the Andalus in Spain and established bases in the heart of Islam: art and architecture in the golden age 203 India with the Delhi Sultanate in 1206. Traders and merchants carried Islam as a religion and culture deep into Africa and Central Asia, and across the sea routes to Indonesia. These new political powers with their cultural trends added new riches to the diverse collection of Islamic science, literature, art, and architecture. Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid dynasty, became the center of knowledge and scientifi c development. THE ISLAMIC RENAISSANCE The Islamic renaissance, which witnessed tremendous advances in every fi eld, prompted architects, visual artists, calligraphers, and artisans of all sorts to collaborate in the production of a vast body of monuments, masterpieces, and manuscripts. A great number of these manuscripts were embellished and illustrated with fi ne visual presentations, such as the 13th century Maqamat al-Hariri illustrated by Mahmoud bin Yehya al-Wasiti, whose style set a standard for what is conventionally known as the Baghdad school of al-Wasiti. The diverse cultural input of new ethnic groups from Iran, Anatolia, Central Asia, India, and the Mediterranean region enriched the Islamic art repertoire. Figurative illustrations gradually populated manuscripts, especially those of a literary or scientifi c nature. Figurative representation was used during the Abbasid, Fatimid, Seljuk, Mamluk, and later periods as well. It is important to note that depictions of human fi gures, although employed by both Shi’i and Sunni artists and patrons, were most common with Shi’i and Sufi art. In architecture, a blend of new elements from the recently acquired territories was incorporated in the design of mosques, hospitals (maristan), schools (madrasat), Sufi foundations (khanaqah), tombs, shrines, palaces, and gardens. This incorporation furthered and enhanced the defi nition of a distinct Islamic 204 Islam: art and architecture in the golden age The interior of the al-Aqsa Mosque, built in 708 in Jerusalem. A blend of new elements from the recently acquired territories was incorporated in the design of mosques, hospitals, schools, tombs, shrines, palaces, and gardens. style. Muslim architects developed and employed the pointed arch as early as 776 at the al-Ukhaydhir palace in Iraq and the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem in 780. The pointed arch concentrates the thrust of the vault on a narrow vertical line, reducing the lateral thrust on foundation and allowing for higher walls. The double tier arch and the horseshoe arch were developed and used in the Great Mosque of Damascus in 715 and transmitted later to the Andalus in Spain and employed in the Great Mosque of Córdoba. The square minaret appeared for the fi rst time at the Great Mosque of Damascus and was transmitted later to North Africa and Spain. The pointed arch, horseshoe arch, and the square minaret impacted European architecture and were adopted in Romanesque churches and monasteries and especially in the Gothic cathedral and its towers. Much of the Islamic golden age achievement passed on to Europe through Sicily, Spain, Jerusalem, and other important centers in the Islamic world. Muqarnas is probably the most distinct and magnifi cent architectural decorative element developed by Muslim architects around the 10th century, simultaneously in the eastern Islamic world and North Africa. Muqarnas is a three-dimensional architectural decoration composed of nichelike elements arranged in multiple layers. Soon after its appearance, muqarnas became an essential architectural ingredient in major buildings of the Islamic world in Iran, India, Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Sicily, North Africa, and Spain. Muqarnas structures, augmented with the elegant Arabic calligraphy, fl oral design, and geometric patterns typically called arabesque, produced a dazzling visual composition that characterized the beauty of such places as the interior of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem or the Masjid al-Jami’ in Isfahan, among other examples. This composition, accentuated by bands of the Kufi c and Thulth styles of Arabic calligraphy, added spiritual and poetic dimensions to the adorned buildings and objects. Qur’anic texts usually cover the exterior and interior of religious buildings with verses and chapters at various locations in the building. Poetry, proverbs, and celebrated sayings may cover secular buildings and nonreligious objects such as dishes, plates, and jewelry boxes. The continuous patterns and repetition of ornaments covering walls and ceilings, running along naves, arcades, and archways, echo a rhythmic tone that originates from one pattern and multiplies in endless, complex, repeated, and variant patterns. It defi nes the unity in multiplicity of Islamic decorative style. This attractive visual system was so impressive that some early Renaissance artists could not resist copying and imitating bands of Kufi c inscriptions to decorate the clothing of the fi gure of the Virgin Mary and other biblical fi gures and angels in paintings of the period. The golden age of Islam witnessed the emergence of elegant visual art and magnifi cent architectural achievements that had a major infl uence on succeeding periods, with its characteristics echoing throughout the Safavid, Mogul, and Ottoman periods. See also Islam: literature and music in the golden age; Shi’ism; Umayyad dynasty. Further reading: Bloom, Jonathan M., ed. Early Islamic Art and Architecture, Vol. 23. London: Ashgate Publishing, Limited, 2002; Ettinghausen, Richard, and Oleg Grabar. The Art and Architecture of Islam, 650–1250. New York: Penguin Books, 1987; Grube, Ernst J., ed. Architecture of the Islamic World: Its History and Social Meaning. London: George Michell, 1984. Hashim al-Tawil Islam: literature and music in the golden age Arabic literature developed and dominated the Islamic cultural scene during the eighth to the 13th century and beyond, from Baghdad to Córdoba in the Andalus. Arabic language, the youngest and the most widely spoken of the ancient Semitic languages, is the language of the Qur’an—the sacred book of Islam that culturally unifi ed not only the Arab people, but also non-Arab Muslims. Islamic teaching presented in the text of the Qur’an and the Hadith, the sayings of the prophet Muhammad, encouraged learning and praised learned people and the quest for knowledge. The Arabic language has a peculiar regularity and coherent grammatical and structural system that lend to it the ability to express in creative and diverse literary forms such as Shir (poetry), Nathr (prose), Adab (a genre of socioethical literature), Balaghah (eloquence), and Maqamah (assembly). In pre-Islamic times the Arabic language was the medium of communication especially in the transmission of oral tradition, poetry, and stories. As early as the fi fth century, odes or Qasidah (plural Qasaid) were composed and the most celebrated were called Al-Muallaqat (the suspended), for they were honored and recognized by being displayed on the walls of the Ka’aba in Mecca. Famous among the pre-Islamic poets are Imru al-Qays, Tarafa ibn al-Abd, Zuhayr ibn abi Salma, Labid, Amr ibn Kulthum, Antara, and al-Harithah ibn Hillizah. Islam: literature and music in the golden age 205 During the early Umayyad dynasty celebrated poets emerged with diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds who composed masterpieces of Arabic poetry such as Al-Akhtal, Jarir, and al-Farazdaq. With the expansion of the Islamic empire during the Umayyad and throughout the Abbasid dynasty, Arabic became the literary language of the era, the liturgy language of Islam, and a powerful literary vehicle to disseminate Arabic culture. Many talents contributed to the legacy of Arabic literature; scholars, linguists, writers, and poets of Arab and nonArab descent wrote in the Arabic language. During the Umayyad and Abbasid periods scholars gathered and collected the sources for Qur’anic studies and the collections of the Hadith. Ibn Ishaq (d. 767) wrote Sirat Rasul Allah (Life of the messenger of God), which was later revised by Ibn Hisham (d. 834). UMAYYAD PERIOD LITERATURE With the expansion of Islam the Arabic language was refi ned, fi rst during the Umayyad era with Abu al-Aswad al Duali (d. 688), who founded the Arabic grammar and diacritical color-coded points Tashkeel. The dotting system and vowels signs developed by Al- Khalil ibn Ahmed al-Farahidi (d. 786) soon replaced that system. Al-Farahidi was the fi rst Arab philologist who compiled the fi rst Arabic dictionary; he was credited with the formulation of the rules of Arabic prosody. His major work was Kitab al-Arud (Book of prosody). His student Sibawayh (d. 793) codifi ed grammatical rules. Later Al-Mubarrad (d. 898) wrote al-Kamil fi al-Lughah wa al-Adab, which was an invaluable collection of references to Arabic philology through poetic quotations. His rival al-Thaalibi also contributed to this fi eld with his major work Yeteemat al-Dahr, a bibliography of poets and writers of Arabic. Another outstanding scholar in this fi eld was the Andalusian linguist Ibn Malik (d. 1274), who composed the famous Alfi yah in which he compiled and analyzed all Arabic grammatical rules in 1,000 verses of poetry composed in a single poetical masterpiece. Other scholars worked on the subjects of jurisprudence, theological discourse, fundamentals of Arabic grammar, lingual terminology, rhetoric, and adab. Bayt al-Hikmah in Baghdad was the departing center for the quest of Hellenistic and Eastern knowledge in science, mathematics, philosophy, geography, astronomy, and literature. Historians and biographers worked diligently on documenting the history of the Islamic state, pre-Islamic period, and ancient civilizations. Early transmitters of accounts are Kab al-Ahbar, Hammad al-Rawiyah, and Wahb ibn Munabbih from the eighth century. The list of important early historians includes Ibn al-Kalbi (d. 820) and his major work Kitab al-Asnam (Book of idols); Al-Waqidi (d. 823), who was affi liated with the Abbasid court in Baghdad and who wrote Kitab al-Maghazi (Book of the raids of the prophet); Ibn Sad (d. 845) was al-Waqidi’s secretary and wrote a major biographical dictionary called Kitab al-Tabaqat (The book of classes [of persons]); Al-Azraqi (d. 865), a native and historian of Mecca, wrote an extensive history of Mecca, Akhbar Mecca. Al-Bukhari (d. 870) was a historian and the famous Hadith compiler and interpreter. His major work was the collection of the sayings of the prophet Muhammad known as al-Jami al-Sahih; Al-Baladhuri (d. 892) was a great historian and companion of the Abbasid caliph al-Mutawakkil and wrote many treaties; the most famous was Futuh al-Buldan (History of the Muslim conquests). Al-Yaqubi (d. 897), a historian and geographer, wrote a history of the world known as Tarikh al-Yaqubi, and Kitab al-Buldan (Book of countries). Al-Tabari (d. 923) was another noted historian, lexigrapher, and scientist. His major work is Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk (History of the world); Al-Masudi (d. 956) was born and lived in Baghdad and traveled widely; most of his works were lost and only one survived: Muruj al-Dhahab wa Maadin al-Jawhar (Fields of gold and mines of jewels), which was a short history of the world down to the end of the Umayyad period; Ibn al-Nadim (d. 990) was the son of a book dealer born in Baghdad. His massive work al-Fihrist was intended to be an index of all books written in Arabic from early Islam up to Ibn al-Nadim’s time. The vast majority of the books mentioned in his Fihrist are given with information on the authors and subjects. Ibn Khaldun was perhaps the most famous Arab historian and sociologist, who changed the course of interpreting historical events and set the mode for modern methodology in historiography with his infl uential book al-Muqaddimah (Introduction). Arabic prose fl ourished in Baghdad with Ibn al- Muqaffa (d. 757), who translated many Pahlavi works and was famous for his Kalila wa Dimna, a collection of didactic fables in which two jackals offered moral and practical advice. Originally derived from the Sanskrit Fables of Bidpai, Kalila wa Dimna was the inspirational source for La Fontaine’s Fables. From Basra came Al-Jahiz (d. 869), who developed Arabic prose into a literary vehicle of precision and elegance and was one of Baghdad’s leading intellectuals. He wrote over 200 works; the most famous of them were 206 Islam: literature and music in the golden age Kitab al-Hayawan (Book of animals), al-Bayan wa al- Tabyeen, and al-Bukhala. Equally important was Abu al-Faraj al-Isbahani (d. 967), also called al-Isfahani, who was an Arab historian, intellectual, and poet. His monumental book Kitab al-Aghani (Book of songs) is an anthology of songs and poems from the earliest epoch to the author’s own time. These were especially those were popular in Baghdad during Harun al-Rashid’s reign. ABBASID PERIOD LITERATURE The early Abbasid period witnessed the birth of new genres in poetry where politics, eroticism, and blasphemy mingled. The emergence of a political trend geared toward undermining the dominant Arab culture in what came to be called Shuubism, or anti-Arabism, led to a new genre of literature. An adamant leader in this trend was the renowned blind poet Bashshar ibn Burd (d. 783). Other poets also excelled in various genres such as Muti ibn Iyas (d. 787), Abbas ibn al-Ahnaf (d. 808), Muslim ibn Walid (d. 823), Abu Nuas (d. 813), and ibn al-Rumi (d. 896). Many poets revived classical Arabic poetry such as Abu Tammam (d. 843), al-Buhtari (d. 897), al-Mutanabbi (d. 956), and al-Maarri (d. 1057). The art of the genre Maqamat, an assembly of rhymed prose of amusing anecdotes narrated by a vagabond who made his living by his wit, was associated with two famous names, al- Hamadhani (d. 1008), who invented the genre, and al-Hariri (d. 1122), who elaborated on the style and excelled in composing linguistic virtuosity where the literary form was more important than the content. The talented visual artist Mahmoud bin Yehya al-Wasiti, who established a distinct and infl uential artistic style in 13th century Baghdad, illustrated al-Hariri’s Maqamat. Storytelling literature had fl ourished since the early period of Islam. Storytellers were street preachers who used old Arab folk tales mixed with religious fl avor; they spoke to enthusiastic and attentive audiences in mosques and other public places. Remains of this folk art are found in the form of al-Hakawati in present-day Cairo, Damascus, and Marrakesh. A favorite literary subject of these storytellers was the epic tale of Arab bravery presented in such work as Sirat Antara. Out of this type of oral tradition and sometime around the 15th century evolved the most famous Arabic literary work in the West: Alf laylah wa Laylah (Thousand and One Nights, or Arabian Nights). It revealed a blend of legends, fables, and fairy tales derived from many cultures such as the Mesopotamian, Persian, Greek, Indian, Chinese, Turkish, and Arabic, traditions integrated and reintroduced through tales and legacies correlated with Abbasid times. In the western part of the Islamic state al-Andalus, a similar cultural revolution took place and built widely on the eastern Islamic prototype. One particular form of literature was distinctly Andalusian, al-Muwashshahat, which was a love poem performed with singing and music. Among the brilliant names associated with this art are Ibn Sahl, Ibn al-Khatib, and Ibn Hazm. As early as the 12th century Muslim Spanish academies, similar to Bayt al-Hikmah in Baghdad, were opened for translating Arabic into Latin. Scholars from France, England, Germany, and northern Europe converged in the Andalus to study Arabic literature and other subjects. As early as the second half of the ninth century a new type of literary work emerged throughout the Abbasid Empire, that is, geohistorical writing accentuated with traveler observations and accounts. Major examples of this type were Ibn Fadhlan, Abbasid ambassador to the Viking kingdom, and his account Rihlat ibn Fadhlan (Travels of Ibn Fadhlan) in 922; in Baghdad, Ibn Hawqal (d. 969) wrote Surat al-Ardh (Description of the Earth), where he described Spain, Italy, and the Byzantine territories. In 1154 Al-Idrisi was commissioned by the Norman king Roger II in Palermo and composed a geographical account of the world called Nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al-Afaq also known as Kitab Rodjar. Yaqut al-Hamawi (d. 1229) wrote a major geographical dictionary, Mujam al-Buldan, which contained signifi cant biographical, cultural, and historical data on the known world. Al-Qazwini (d. 1383) wrote in Baghdad his cosmographic work Ajaib al-Makhluqat wa Gharaib al-Mawjudat (Marvels of things created and miraculous aspects of things existing). The book was very popular and was translated into Farsi and Turkish and was often illustrated lavishly. Al-Qazwini also wrote an important geographical account. Ibn Batuta traveled extensively through Africa, Europe, and Asia and recorded his accounts in his Rihlat Ibn Batuta (Travels of Ibn Batuta), a classic in Arabic literature. The Arabs learned papermaking technology from the Chinese in the eighth century and substituted mulberry bark and other organic matter with linen as raw materials, and the fi rst papermaking factory was established in Baghdad in 793. This was a turning point in the spread of education and the development of Arabic literature throughout the Islamic world. Expensive parchment and fragile papyrus were replaced by paper that was affordable, practical, and durable. Libraries were common and were open to the public. Booksellers gathered around Islam: literature and music in the golden age 207 major mosques and markets with their shops stocked with volumes of desirable works; shops became popular gathering places for scholars and writers. Specialized workshops of manuscript copying were manned with professional and effi cient copyists, calligraphers, illustrators, and linguists. The fall of Baghdad to the Mongols in 1258 marked the beginning of the decline of the golden age of Arabic literature as well as other scientifi c activities. However the massive destruction of books by the invading armies of Genghis Khan, Hulagu Khan, and later Timurlane (Tamerlane) prompted Arab scholars to compile, digest, codify, and abridge major encyclopedic and collection works, hence preserving Arabic literary heritage with such authors as Al-Qazwini, Yaqut, Ibn Malik, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Batuta, Abu al-Fida, and Al-Zabidi. See also Islam: art and architecture in the golden age; Islam: science and technology in the golden age; Muslim Spain. Further reading: Allen, Roger. An Introduction to Arabic Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000; Duri, Abd al-Aziz. The Rise of Historical Writing among the Arabs. Ed. and trans. by Lawrence I. Conrad. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983; Faruqi, Ismail. The Cultural Atlas of Islam. New York: Macmillan Press, 1986; Young, M. J. L., et. al., eds. The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature: Religion, Learning and Science in the Abbasid Period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Hashim al-Tawil Islam: science and technology in the golden age Science, technology, and other fi elds of knowledge developed rapidly during the golden age of Islam from the eighth to the 13th century and beyond. Early Abbasid caliphs embarked on major campaigns seeking scientifi c and philosophical works from eastern and western worlds. Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Empire, became the center of intellectual and scientifi c activity. The fi rst academy, Bayt al-Hikmah (House of Wisdom) was established by the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid and was expanded by his son the caliph al-Ma’mun (d. 833). By the ninth century, Baghdad had become a center of fi nancial power and political prestige and intellectual pursuits fl ourished in numerous colleges, schools, hospitals, mosques, and libraries. Baghdad attracted visitors, ambassadors, and students from all parts of the empire. THE BEGINNING During the seventh century the Arab empire and Islamic domain included the realm of the old Persian Empire and most of the Byzantine Empire. This resulted in access to the wealth and heritage of both Hellenistic and Eastern philosophy and knowledge. During the immediate pre-Islamic period (fi fth–seventh centuries), Hellenistic science and knowledge passed to the Arab people through Alexandria in Egypt, Nasibis in Syria, and Antioch and Edissa in northern Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Through these centers much Greek philosophy and science was preserved by Coptic, Nestorian (Eastern Orthodox), and Jacobite Christians. In Persia, Jundi-Shapur was another important pre- Islamic center for the quest of scientifi c knowledge. It was established during the Sassanian period and was located in Khuzistan, not far from the Abbasid capital of Baghdad. Home to many Nestorian and Zoroastrian scholars, it was conquered by the Arabs in 636. Abbasid caliphs summoned many of these scholars to serve on the faculty of the newly established Bayt al-Hikmah. Harran was another important intellectual center. Situated in eastern Anatolia, Harran was a center for Sabaeans, a pre-Christian monotheistic Semitic people who preserved both Babylonian and Hellenistic heritages. Therefore several agencies worked to develop and extend Hellenistic and Eastern heritage. QUEST FOR LEARNING During the seventh and eighth centuries as Arabs conquered new lands they preserved, assimilated, and transformed the cultures of their subjects. Beside the Arabic speaking scholars there were also Nestorians with knowledge of Greek and Syrian languages (dialect of Aramaic), Sabaeans who spoke a dialect of Aramaic, Zoroastrians who used Pahlevi (an old Persian language related to Aramaic), Indians knowledgeable in Sanskrit, and Jews fl uent in Hebrew. However Arabic was the literary language of both the Umayyad and Abbasid Empires as well as the liturgy language of Islam. Hence Arabic became the literary and scientifi c lingua franca of the time. By virtue of its root relation to the different Aramaic dialects, Arabic unifi ed the collective intellectual effort of scholars into one dialect. Furthermore, the new Arab/Islamic authority related easily to these diverse groups and shared many of the same cultural values. Records indicate that Nestorian scholars translated Greek philosophical treatises to Syriac 208 Islam: science and technology in the golden age and Arabic during the Umayyad period in the eighth century; they also studied Aristotelian logic, metaphysics, and medical and scientifi c works. Empowered by the new Islamic state and fueled by the quest for knowledge that was encouraged by many Qur’anic verses and Hadiths advocating the pursuit of knowledge, Caliphs Harun al-Rashid and al-Ma’mun sponsored envoys to Byzantine and Christian authorities in Europe to gain access to Greek manuscripts, hitherto kept in basements and attics of churches and monasteries. Countless manuscripts, especially in Greek, were collected and stored at Bayt al-Hikmah. Early scholars went to Baghdad from diverse areas and backgrounds and enjoyed considerable respect and religious tolerance from their Muslim colleagues. Caliph al-Ma’mun encouraged the translation of Greek and other texts into Arabic. The caliph surrounded himself with learned men, legal experts, rationalist theologians, lexicographers, and linguists. Yuhanna bin Masawayh (d. 857) and his student Hunayn ibn Ishaq (d. 874) and a host of others headed the program at Bayt al-Hikmah. Works of Greek philosophers such as Porphyry, Aristotle, Galen, and Hippocrates were translated to Syriac and then to Arabic. The bulk of these materials were exhaustively analyzed and consequently codifi ed and reintroduced with a particular Islamic Arabic identity. In 751 the Arabs learned the technology of papermaking from the Chinese; the fi rst paper mill was established in Baghdad around 793. The knowledge soon spread to Jerusalem, Egypt, and the Andalus in Spain, which was instrumental in transmitting the technology to Europe. Bayt al-Hikmah developed a vast library and a systematic program of translation and study. For the next 300 years, Baghdad remained a center of knowledge. Córdoba in Spain was an equally active scientifi c center. SCIENCE AND MEDICINE Islamic scholars expanded on the works of Greek physicians such as Galen. Al-Razi (Rhazes, d. 925) was an alchemist, physician, and clinician who wrote the fi rst medical description of smallpox and measles; he combined psychological methods with physiological explanations. He also developed the discipline of pharmacology, found treatment for kidney stones, and used alcohol as an antiseptic. In his medical encyclopedia he included 50 contraceptive methods for women. The Latin version of his work was published and used as a text in Milan, Venice, and Basle. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) was a philosopher, poet, and physician who wrote a vast canon of medicine. Ibn Sina’s writing was held in high repute in Europe and was appreciated by Saint Thomas Aquinas and Roger Bacon. In Spain, Ibn al-Khatib (Ibn al-Jatib, d. 1375) of Granada composed a treatise on the theory of infection. Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar, d. 1162) of Seville was another prominent physician. Al-Zahraw (Alzahravius, d. 1013), a famous surgeon, left the fi rst descriptive account of hemophilia. Ibn al-Nafi s (d. 1288) was the fi rst to describe the anatomy of the pulmonary vessels; his medical writing was translated to Latin. Ibn al-Haytham al- Khazin (Alhazen, d. 1039) wrote The Book of Optics, in which he gave a detailed treatment of the anatomy of the eye and correctly deduced that the eye receives light from the object perceived, thereby laying the foundation for modern photography. PHARMACOLOGY In the fi eld of therapeutics, Yuhanna bin Masawayh (d. 857) started a scientifi c and systematic method in Baghdad. Hunayn outlined methods for confi rming pharmacological effectiveness of drugs by experimenting with them on humans. He also emphasized the importance of prognosis and diagnosis of diseases. Other famous names in this fi eld were al-Biruni and Ibn Butlan. Pharmacies were open in towns and cities and were regulated by the government. Much of the repertoire of modern pharmaceutical and chemical terminology derives from Arabic, including alchemy, alkali, alcohol, elixir, saffron, zenith, and zero. Famous Arab scientists in this fi eld include Ibn al-Bitar (d. 1248), who was born in Malaga, worked in Damascus, and served as chief inspector of pharmacies in Egypt. Arab scientists introduced Greek medicine to India and Central Asia in the ninth century and that knowledge fl ourished under dynasties following the Mongol invasion through the 17th century. Islamic medical practice transformed the theological and superstitious and talismanic rituals inherited from medieval culture to methodical hospitals equipped with educated and certifi ed physicians. Hospitals in Baghdad, Damascus, Jerusalem, Cairo, and Córdoba were equipped with pharmacies and libraries; they incorporated innovations such as fountains to cool the air, storytelling to ease pain, and the sound of music to treat mental illness. Throughout the Islamic world mental institutions were built and were equipped with baths, drugs, music therapy, and occupational therapy. APPLIED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY The wealth of knowledge and scientifi c achievement spread to different centers in the Islamic world and Islam: science and technology in the golden age 209 was refl ected in the lifestyle, public education, health service, commercial activity, and military as well as in art and architecture. Schools, libraries, hospitals—both permanent and mobile—courthouses, shopping centers, parks, and public baths were regular features of life in medieval Arab and Muslim cities. Observatories, textile factories (Tiraz), metal and copperware manufacturing centers, and manuscript production centers were widespread. The astrolabe, pendulum, clock, sphere, and many other engineering tools and mechanical devices were commonly used. In the fi eld of science and mathematics, the three brothers Banu Musa—Muhammad, Ahmad, and al-Hasan—were pioneers and were the fi rst to translate Greek mathematics in the ninth century. They extended their patronage to others and their work was later translated into Latin. Jabir Ibn Hayyan (Geber, d. 815) was a pioneer in the fi eld of applied science and was considered the father of chemistry. Among the achievements of Muslim scholars during this period were the invention of spherical trigonometry and advances in optics. Famous scholars in this fi eld were Averroës (Ibn Rushd) and Al- Kindi (Alkindus, d. 873). Al-Farabi (Alpharabus, d. 950) made notable contributions in the fi elds of mathematics, medicine, and music. Al-Khwarizmi (d. 840), with a Zoroastrian background and knowledge of Sanskrit, made major contributions in the fi elds of trigonometry, astronomy, and cartography. He founded algebra and developed the concept of algorithms (which are named after him) and introduced the Arabic numeral system to the world. Al-Idris (d. 1166) was born and educated in the Andalus and was famous as a botanist, geographer, and medical scientist. He worked as the personal scholar for the Norman king Roger II and produced advanced maps of the world as well as an important geographical encyclopedia. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING The Arabs also developed two types of mechanical inventions: for everyday use things such as mills, water rising devices, and war machines; and automat, devices for pleasure, novelty, and wonder. The latter category included innovations such as self-trimming lamps, multifl uid dispensers, musical fountains, and calculating devices. Water clocks were major technological inventions. In this fi eld, the 13th-century scientist Al-Jaziri is well known for his book The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices. He also researched the development of steam engine and pumping machinery. Waterwheels to lift water from ground level to higher levels, based on the manipulation of the pressure of the water, were common in Syria, Egypt, and Spain during the golden age of Islam. Elaborate underground water channels, qanats, were widespread. Islamic inventions and knowledge, along with artistic and architectural knowledge, passed to Europe though many channels. Inventions like paper, the silk loom, astrolabes, compasses, waterwheels, and windmills, as well as agricultural crops like cotton (qutn), sugar (sukker), rice (ruzz), oranges (burtuqal), tea (shai), and coffee (qahwa), were transmitted to Europe. The collective efforts of Muslim scholars helped pave the way for scientifi c development in photography, gunpowder, marine warfare, and mechanical engineering. In 1258 the Abbasid Caliphate ended when the Mongols, under Genghis Khan’s grandson Hulagu Khan, conquered all of Central Asia, Iran, and Iraq. The Mongols massacred tens of thousands of people including many scientists; they destroyed Baghdad with its libraries, schools, mosques, and residential quarters. The coming of the Mongols marked the end of the golden age of Baghdad as a center of scientifi c and literary achievement of the Muslim world. But the echoes of that renaissance continued to reverberate in other parts of the Islamic world. Much of the Arab- Islamic scientifi c heritage passed to Europe through the crusaders, the Normans in Sicily, and the Mozarabic (Musta’rabeen) in Spain. Arab-Islamic science, medicine, mathematics, and technology were transmitted to Europe in written forms, especially the translation of the Greek heritage into Latin that was generated by Arab scholars in Salerno, Palermo, Toledo, Seville, and Córdoba. See also Maimonides. Further reading: Hayes, John R. ed. The Genius of Arab Civilization: Source of the Renaissance, 2nd ed. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1983; O’Leary, DeLacy. Arabic Thought and Its Place in History. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1922, reprinted Dover Publication, 2003; Rosenthal, Franz. The Classical Heritage in Islam. London: Routledge, Chapman and Hall, 1994. Hashim Al-Tawil Islamic law Shari’a is the collection of Islamic law that developed and was enlarged upon over a number of centuries. In Islamic society, fi qh, jurisprudence, was considered the queen of sciences and was held in extremely high esteem. 210 Islamic law Under the Abbasids Shari’a evolved as a codifi ed system of Islamic law. The Shari’a was based on the word of God as given through the Qur’an, Hadith, and Sunna. The compendiums of law included aspects of customary tribal law as well as religious law as given in the Qur’an. In spite of variations in interpretation, the Shari’a united Muslims across continents and infl uenced every aspect of their lives. Much of the law dealt with family matters (marriage, divorce settlements, inheritance) but also provided guidelines for the treatment of slaves, business matters, usury (forbidden), and the oversight of waqf (plural awqaf), or religious foundations. The law implied, in varying degrees, some measure of ijtihad, human judgment or interpretation. In Islam as in Christianity, scholars and theologians debated the degree of independent thinking allowed. Some permitted a greater degree of human interpretation while others argued that the sacred texts were to be implemented literally word by word. The ulema, Muslim scholars, provided interpretations of the texts based on extensive research and study. Qadis, well-trained judges, were appointed by local rulers to pass judgments and issue verdicts on specifi c cases. When jurists could not agree on an issue or case the muftis or a so-called Sheikh al-Islam delivered fatwas or legal pronouncements. The issues dealt with in fatwas varied from weighty theological matters to matters of dress or the legality under Islam of drinking coffee. Muslim scholars were divided over when or if the gates of ijtihad closed. Many held that by end of the 12th century ijtihad was no longer permissible; however, others argued that independent thought was an ongoing process and that the law was constantly being reinterpreted and reassessed. Qadis often engaged in taqlid or imitation of earlier judgments. By the 1300s there were four recognized schools of Sunni law. The Shafi ’i, named after Muhammad Idris ibn al-Shafi ’i (d. 820), was applied in Southeast Asia and much of Syria, Palestine, and Jordan. The Maliki, after Malik ibn Anas (d. 795), was fairly conservative in its interpretations and became prevalent in Egypt and North Africa. The Hanbali, after Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 833), was the most conservative and mandated the strict adherence to the letter of the law. It became the law applied in modern Saudi Arabia. The Hanafi , after Abu Hanifah al-Muman ibn Thabit (d. 767), was considered the most liberal of the schools of law. Hanafis used ra’y, or opinion, and questioned many of the Hadiths; it was adopted by the Ottoman Empire and became the most widely applied school of law. Technically a Muslim could choose any one of the four schools but in practice nationlstates tended to apply a single one and individuals usually followed the one applied in their nation-state. The Shi’i in Iran evolved their own legal codes implemented through mullahs, the established clergy. Among Shi’i scholars, as within the Sunni community, there was a lively debate over ijtihad. Among the Shi’i the debate continued into the 17th century with the community generally following the guidance of the imams on issues of interpretation and practice. See also Islam; Shi’ism. Further readings: Schacht, Joseph. The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. Oxford: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1950; Schacht, Joseph. An Introduction to Islamic Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974; Stewart, Devin J. Islamic Legal Orthodoxy: Twelver Shiite Responses to the Sunni Legal System. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press, 1998; Esposito, John L. Women in Muslim Family Law. New York: Syracuse University Press, 1982. Janice J. Terry Isma’ilis The Isma’ilis are a sect within Islamic Shi’ism. Also known as Seveners, the Isma’ilis split from the Twelver Shi’i in 765 when they chose to follow Isma’il, the second son of the sixth imam. Early Isma’ilis were avid proselytizers and revolutionaries who attacked and sometimes even killed Sunni leaders. To protect themselves from prosecution from the ruling Sunni government they practiced taqiyya or dissimulation to conceal their true beliefs and affi liation. Some other Shi’i sects also used taqiyya to protect themselves and their communities. In 909 the Isma’ilis established the Fatimid dynasty, which ruled large areas of the Muslim world from their new capital Cairo in Egypt. In the 16th century, Shah Ismail of the Safavid dynasty in Persia also claimed to be a Sevener imam. The Assassins were a much dreaded offshoot of the Isma’ilis. Based in a fortress stronghold on Mt. Alamut in northern present-day Iran, the Assassins were led by the socalled Old Man of the Mountain or Grand Master. They assassinated Abbasid leaders and the fear they aroused in both Muslims and Christians gave rise to numerous legends regarding their prowess and secret society. In the 1800s the Isma’ili imam acquired the honorary title of Aga Khan through a marriage alliance and moved to India. The present-day Aga Khan, Prince Karim Aga Isma’ilis 211 Khan IV, is the 49th imam in the chain of Isma’ili leaders. Believed to be continuation of the living imam, he continues to interpret Islam to fi t present-day needs. Although there are scattered communities in Africa and elsewhere around the world, most present-day Isma’ilis live in India, where they form a rich merchant class. Further readings: Daftary, Farhad. A Short History of the Ismailis: Traditions of a Muslim Community. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 1998; Nanji, Azim. The Nizari Ismaili Tradition in the Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent. New York: Caravan Books, 1978. Janice J. Terry Italian city-states The history of Italy is the history of cities. This was especially true in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance when Italian cities gained such economic and political prominence that, independently of one another, many were considered actors on the European political stage. Generally defi ned, city-states were cities that had won their independence from the Holy Roman Empire or the papacy. Instead of recognizing the pope or emperor as the highest authority, they held popular sovereignty as a guiding principle. They tended to prioritize controlling the region surrounding the city, called the contado, such that some eventually became large territorial states. The Italian city-states of the 14th and 15th centuries are recognized today for the profound infl uences that they had on the development of the Western political, economic, artistic, and literary tradition. Throughout the Middle Ages the Italian peninsula (especially its northern half) was one of the most urbanized areas of Europe, with up to 30 percent of people living in cities. Some such as Rome, Naples, Florence, Milan, and Venice were larger, while others such as Perugia, Siena, Pisa, Ferrara, Urbino, or Verona were small. In the Middle Ages almost all these cities owed allegiance and taxes either to the Holy Roman Emperor or to the papacy. Imperial cities generally adhered to the Ghibelline party, and papal cities, to the Guelf. The emperors’ and popes’ repeated demands for military and fi nancial support for endless wars exhausted city dwellers and spurred movements for independence. The fi rst great victory for the cities came in 1183, when the German emperor Frederick I at the Treaty of Constance recognized the independence of the northern Italian cities. The papacy’s 14th-century departure for Avignon in southern France allowed many disgruntled cities to proclaim independence. The city-state was a phenomenon of northern Italy. It did not appear in the south, as both Naples and Sicily remained fi rmly under the power of the royal houses of Aragon and Anjou. In the north, the major city-states to emerge were Florence, Venice, and Milan. Rome achieved a similar status in the 14th century while the papacy was in Avignon but in the 15th century was brought again under papal control. After throwing off the traditional lordship of pope or emperor, many cities turned to ideas of popular sovereignty at the expense of traditional elite prerogatives. They developed complex political processes to bar elite families from governing. New advances in commerce and banking, such as the concepts of credit, insurance, and bookkeeping, aided the development of an urbanized merchant class. These new sources of wealth reduced the dependency on land and, as a consequence, the power of the traditional landed nobility. These changes were bolstered by developments in legal theory. The 1293 Ordinances of Justice, for example, prohibited elite participation in Florentine politics. In Rome, the popular leader Cola di Rienzo (c. 1313–54) led a movement aimed at curtailing the privileges of the city’s noble families. Although 19th-century historians liked to see in the Italian city-states nascent forms of democratic rule, pop- 212 Italian city-states Padua was an Italian city-state—a region controlled usually by one family, centered around a major metropolitan area. ular regimes were hardly ever open to the lower echelons of society, or the popolo minuto. Most were in fact headed by what was often termed the popolo grasso—the educated lawyers, successful merchants, and nonnoble landowners with the fi nancial and social wherewithal to bring them to the forefront of the political stage. Only isolated occasions such as the 1378 Ciompi revolt in Florence brought the popular minuto to power, and their political lifespans were inevitably short. Despite efforts at curtailing noble power, elite families were never entirely sidelined from most civic governments. In Venice, for example, participation in government was reserved for the hereditary elite. Some families, such as the Visconti, and later the Sforza in Milan, the Carrara in Padua, and the della Scala in Verona, became the de facto lords of the city. Even Florence, arguably the most republican, had by the 1430s in all but rhetoric accepted the Medici as the city’s primary power. In response to the complex diplomatic conditions of the time, political thought in the Italian city-states fl ourished. Thinkers such as the notary Bruno Latini (c. 1220–94), Marsilius of Padua (c. 1275–1343), and the jurist Bartolus of Sassoferrato (1314–57) all elaborated political theories that justifi ed and paid tribute to republican government. Others such as the Florentines Coluccio Salutati (1331–1406) and Leonardo Bruni (1370–1444) wrote highly rhetorical pieces aimed at illuminating the ideological struggle between what they saw as virtuous republican government and the champions of tyranny in the signoria of other cities such as Milan. And Niccolò Machiavelli, whose political acumen derived from observing the civic strife of Florence and her neighbors at the turn of the 16th century, left an indelible imprint on Western political thought with his theories of republican and princely government. Art and architecture fl ourished as well in the Italian city-states. Economic prosperity allowed for great public building projects such as cathedrals, libraries, and government palazzi, all of which proclaimed the city’s greatness. Artists like Ambrogio Lorenzetti illustrated the benefi ts and ills of good and bad government in his 1338–39 frescoes in Siena’s Palazzo Pubblico. Venice from the late 15th century on was at the forefront of printing press technologies, while Rome in the same period served as a center for a mature humanistic culture. See also Genoa; Italian Renaissance. Further reading: Black, Antony. Political Thought in Europe 1250–1450. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992; Jones, P. J. The Italian City State: From Commune to Signoria. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997; Martines, Lauro. Power and Imagination. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1979. Alizah Holstein Italian Renaissance As the opening two phases of the grand cultural and intellectual rebirth (literal meaning of the French term Renaissance) of the late medieval period, the Italian Renaissance, or Quattrocentro (Italian for 1400s), and early northern renaissance sparked tremendous achievements in literature, art, architecture, and music that were inspired by creative interaction with rediscovered sources of classical antiquity. Launched from Florence, the Italian Renaissance concentrated its energies in the northern regions of Italy before moving south to Rome, where its spirit was embraced by the Renaissance popes. It reached its zenith in the late 15th century prior to its dissolution, aggravated both by an ecclesiastical backlash against its perceived secularism and sensuality and by the series of Italian Wars, or foreign invasions against Italy, starting in 1494. The Renaissance fervor was not to be extinguished, however, as its ideals migrated northward to France, then to the Low Countries and Germany, and fi nally to England and Scandinavia by the close of the 16th century. Most common people of the time were unaffected by these innovations and did not view their age as distinctive. Producers of its main aesthetic streams, such as authors, artists, and their patrons, willfully rejected the culture of the preceding era (the Middle Ages) and set out to create a new one. Sensing only a limited attraction to the courtly motifs of the medieval secular literary tradition and disillusioned by the elaborate argumentation of Scholasticism, the sophisticated urban ruling classes searched for a new culture that would enable them to cope with the quandaries of human existence and empower them to deal with and even manipulate other people. Perfectly suited for this aim was the literature of ancient Rome, with its strongly political and ethical outlook and the prominence it placed upon oratorical and rhetorical training. To gain a deeper understanding of Latin literature, the urban elites were quickly drawn to the Greek literature that Roman authors frequently cited and presupposed of their readers as background knowledge. Hence the classical Latin and Greek texts of antiquity served as a common springboard for the era’s multifaceted and interdisciplinary cultural shift. Italian Renaissance 213 SOCIAL ORIGINS While formally beginning in the 15th century, the social origins of the Italian Renaissance can be traced back to the economic, social, and political developments in Italian society during the 12th through 14th centuries. The 12th and 13th centuries comprised an age of expansion and prosperity directed by the capitalistic noble classes, or grandi, who often resided in the cities and invested in business but whose cultural traditions were military and feudal, giving preference to the chivalric and courtly literature of France. This changed in the late 13th century when the nonnoble classes, led by rich businessmen, seized control of many town governments and drove the grandi from power. However the 14th century experienced a series of disasters that, paradoxically, modifi ed the structural foundations of Italian society so as to promote the fl ourishing of artistic and literary endeavors. Amidst the Hundred Years’ War between England and France, King Edward III of England disclaimed his debts in 1345, leading to the collapse of the two largest Florentine banks, owned by the Bardi and Peruzzi families. From 1347 to 1350 the Black Death, or bubonic plague, exterminated one-third of Europe’s population, which triggered an economic depression followed by a lengthy period of stagnation. While these events prevented the founding of new fortunes, they left the wealth of established rich families largely intact, creating a new social condition. Since the relatively high degree of social mobility that kept business enterprise open to new talent and preoccupied with acquiring new wealth had evaporated, the dominant business class was converted from a group of self-made men to a group of men who had inherited their wealth and who had been raised in luxury that they intended to preserve but they could largely take for granted. Rich businessmen, who retained their active participation in politics to defend their material interests from radical movements spawned by working-class agitation, now devoted an equal amount of time to public affairs, especially the patronage of art and literature. Looking to Greco-Roman antiquity as a model of administrative effectiveness and intellectual genius, the thinkers, writers, 214 Italian Renaissance The hand of God almost touching the hand of Adam, a detail from Michelangelo’s frescoes on the Sistine Chapel in Rome. The Sistine Chapel stands as perhaps the single greatest work of High Renaissance painting. and authors of the age, collectively known as humanists, founded a new approach to scholarship, the mission of which was to restore “true” civilization in place of the prevalent “barbarous” civilization. This view of history was spearheaded largely by Petrarch (1304–1374), who proceeded to synthesize it with his new anthropology, or doctrine of humanity, that humans were rational and sentient beings, intrinsically good by nature, with the power to think and choose for themselves. With this blatant denial of the Christian doctrine of Original Sin, the humanists provoked fresh insights about reality that questioned the church’s philosophical perception of the universe and the role of humanity within it. Before the 13th century, Italian was not the language of literature in Italy, as most works were composed in Latin, French, or Provençal. However, in the late 13th and early 14th centuries before the rise of Renaissance humanism, a number of masterpieces in the vernacular catalyzed the transition of Italy from a cultural backwater to the leader of European culture. The nation’s first great literary figure, Dante Alighieri (1265–1321), wrote his magnum opus, La divina commedia (The Divine Comedy), in Italian, which reflected the social and political life of the Florentine people and amassed great popularity. Petrarch became the second great figure of Italian vernacular literature through poems capturing the attention of both refined courtly society and the common people. The master of the Italian sonnet, Petrarch is best remembered for his highly personal and subjective love poetry, most notably the Canzoniere, a collection of sonnets addressed to his unrequited love, Laura. The third great figure of 14th century Florentine literature was Petrarch’s disciple, Giovanni Boccacio (1313–75), whose principal work, the Decameron, featured 100 stories recounted by 10 storytellers who fled to the outskirts of Florence to evade the Black Death. His work was heightened by motifs reflecting everyday life, including satire against corrupt clergymen, amusing treatment of human idiosyncrasies, and tales of marital infidelity. Unfortunately the trend toward classical humanism in the first half of the 15th century temporarily stifled the germination of the vernacular tradition, which deterrence was removed by the major revival of the vernacular in the second half of that century. Under the influence of Florence’s leading family, the Medicis, Italian resurfaced as a medium for important literary work and came to the fore when Lorenzo de’ Medici, the first of the family educated from an early age in the humanist tradition, formalized Medici rule over the city with his creation of the new Council of Seventy, over which he appointed himself head, in 1469. Lorenzo was a lyric poet of great ability who set the stylistic parameters for both secular and religious poetry in the vernacular. The Florentine Petrarchan tradition experienced great development under the Venetian cleric Pietro Bembo, a leader in the movement attempting to restore the purity of the Latin language embodied in Cicero, when he embraced its highly refined sentiment and technical mastery of intricate verse forms for his Italian poetry. Popular literature of a less aristocratic flavor often applied French chivalric and courtly themes to Italian characters. Recasting the French heroic knight into the Italian Orlando, Italian courtiers such as Luigi Pulci (1432–84) adapted this material for consciously humorous verse. Medieval French chivalric themes were discussed more seriously in the poem Orlando innamorato (Orlando in Love) by Matteo Boiardo (1441–94), a noble at the refined court of the dukes of Ferrara who invented a new style integrating humanistic classical topics with medieval chivalric interests. This style received further advancement under Ludovico Ariosto (1474–1533) in his Orlando furioso (Orlando’s Insanity) and reached its pinnacle in the 16th century with Torquato Tasso (1544–95), whose Jerusalem Delivered, an epic of the Crusades, revamped this popular medieval theme into a major literary production that influenced practically all other 16th-century literature. Italian Renaissance 215 Brunelleschi is renowned for his octagonally designed dome base for the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. The most brilliant example of Italian prose in the High Renaissance (the early 16th century) is the work of Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527) on politics and history. His two principal books, The Prince and Discourses on the First Ten Books on Titus Livius, drew heavily on the author’s fi rsthand experience as a leading Florentine diplomat and civil servant in the Florentine republic (1494–1512). Although The Prince is notorious for its advocacy of political self-seeking through deceitful tactics, Machiavelli regarded a balanced republican government, typifi ed by Rome, as the best and most durable form of government and trusted the public spirit and wisdom of the common citizens more than that of princes and aristocrats. In the artistic sphere, Giotto di Bondone (1266– 1336) took the fi rst steps toward the Renaissance, completely forsaking the fl at and nonrepresentational appearance of the prevailing Byzantine art in favor of the illusion of three-dimensional form on the twodimensional painted surface. He was the originator of “tactile value,” portraying his space as an extension of the real space out of which the spectator looked and giving his fi gures a three-dimensional depth that appeared as if the spectator could reach in and grasp them. Moreover, each of Giotto’s works features the visual representation of one unifying idea instead of a spectrum of meticulous details. The Renaissance style in sculpture was created by Donatello (1386–1466), who assimilated the basic principles of ancient sculpture, such as contrapposto (with weight shifted to one leg) and the unsupported nude, into a framework creating the appearance of movement and furnishing accurate anatomical structure of his fi gures. Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564) brought this style to maturity with sculptures independent of any surrounding architectural support, including the David and the marble fi gures he carved for the tomb of Pope Julius II at Rome and for the tombs of the Medici family at Florence. The striking aspect of his approach is its portrayal of robustness and monumentality in the human body, often styled “Dionysian” after the Greek god known for his unbridled power. His spectacular frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel stand as perhaps the single greatest work of High Renaissance painting, and his redesigning of St. Peter’s crowned his prominence as an architect. Two other Florentine-trained artists, Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) and Raphael Sanzio (1483–1520), further defi ned the High Renaissance style. A universal genius with interests in nature, physics, and engineering, Leonardo is most renowned as a painter, revolutionizing his fi eld with the invention of both atmospheric background and sfumato, the “smoky” effect achieved by blurring the outlines of fi gures to make them softer with an environment of shadow tones. He experimented greatly with new paints even at the expense of the traditional fresco style, seen most prominently in The Last Supper. Intensely interested in studying the human personality and portraying it on canvas, Leonardo attempted to capture the fragile, fl eeting, and illusive qualities of human facial expressions in his Mona Lisa and Virgin and Child with St. Anne. His plans and sketches proved greatly signifi cant for architecture, as they constitute the blueprints for buildings later erected by his friend Bramante (1444–1514). Raphael’s images, including his many Madonnas, the School of Athens, and Disputa, rank among the world’s most beloved artistic treasures and are noteworthy for their sense of peace and serenity. Furnishing inspiration in architecture as well as in literature, the ideals of classical antiquity experienced restoration in the work of Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446) and Leon Battista Alberti (1404–72). Brunelleschi’s designs for two Florentine churches, San Lorenzo and Santo Spirito, refl ect his intense study of ancient Roman buildings, as both employ the early basilica form and classical columns. Further he is renowned for his discovery of the mathematical rules of perspective and his innovations in shape, seen most clearly in the octagonally designed dome base for the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. Alberti revitalized the ancient brick architecture of Roman times, as portrayed by his San Andrea church in Mantua, and established the Renaissance standard use of fl at roofs, overhanging cornices, and prominent horizontal lines. Ironically 15th century music saw little advancement and primarily continued in the genres conceived by Francesco Landini (1325–97), who despite his blindness from childhood became a leading composer and music theorist. Celebrated as a composer of secular works for voice and accompaniment, Landini developed the ballata, or rhythmic dance song; the caccia, a “chasing” song of enjoyment; and, most importantly, the madrigal, a high art form in which poetry was sensitively set to music and so guaranteed that the music would serve as an appropriate vehicle for conveying the spirit and emotional content of the text. Italian Renaissance church music reached its zenith during the 16th century in the works of Giovanni da Palestrina (1525–94), choirmaster of St. Peter’s in Rome, who composed more than 600 religious pieces, 216 Italian Renaissance including 102 masses. Typifi ed by the Agnus Dei from his Pope Marcellus Mass, Palestrina achieved a stunning sense of serenity in his works through balance, purity, and arrangement of texts that made the words clearly understandable during performance. EARLY NORTHERN RENAISSANCE With the free exchange of scholars and students between European universities and political exploits, such as the French invasion of Italy in 1494, which brought new contact between cultural elements, Italian concepts and discoveries were reaching into the rest of the Continent by the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The reorganized and powerful monarchies of the north quickly found that Renaissance thought suited their needs, as its endorsement of social class and military prowess enhanced their status, and its emphasis on public service, personal merit, and learning furnished an attractive substitute for the traditional manners of the uneducated and disorderly feudal classes. Moreover, the invention of the printing press at Mainz by Johann Gutenberg in 1456 changed the course of history by making possible the rapid dissemination of ideas to a populace moved by the spirit of the age to become increasingly more literate. Disillusioned by corruption in the late medieval church, including simony (buying and selling of church offi ces), sinecures (receiving the salary from a benefi ce, or region to be served by a clergyperson, without overseeing it), pluralism (holding more than one offi ce), clerical concubinage, and the selling of indulgences, the bourgeoisie or rising upper-middle class of merchants found the Renaissance rejection of the recent past and the desire to return to the original sources of antiquity tremendously appealing. This interest sparked a northern movement of biblical humanism, which exalted ethical and religious factors over the aesthetic and secular ideals typical of Italian humanism and was primarily interested in the Christian past, or Judeo-Christian heritage, rather than the classical Hellenic heritage of Western Europe. More interested in the human being as a spiritual than a rational creature, these biblical humanists applied the techniques and methods of humanism to the study of the Scriptures. This exegetical approach was spearheaded by John Colet (1466–1519), a pious English cleric who, after visiting Renaissance Italy, soon afterward began in lectures at St. Paul’s Church to expound the literal meaning of the Pauline Epistles, a novelty because former theologians interpreted Scripture allegorically with an almost total unconcern with the meaning originally intended by its authors. Borrowing his notion of biblical humanism from Colet, Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469–1536) became the greatest of all the northern humanists and an internationally renowned scholar. Unlike the later reformers who vehemently denounced the evils in the church, Erasmus’s scholarly spirit inclined him to oppose its abuses through clever satire in his The Praise of Folly (1511) and Familiar Colloquies (1518). His most outstanding contribution both to scholarship and to the future course of church history was his publication of the Greek New Testament (1516), in which he applied humanist rules of textual criticism to the extant Greek biblical manuscripts of his day, accompanied by a new Latin translation directly from the original language and by notes. As a result, scholars were now in a position to make accurate comparison between the New Testament church and the church of their day, with the assessment decidedly unfavorable to the latter. A necessary complement to the work of Erasmus, Johannes Reuchlin (1455–1522) expanded the humanistic brand of scholarship to the Jewish Bible; in 1499 this prince of German humanists traveled to the Jewish community in Bologna to study Hebrew language, literature, and theology under the Jewish rabbinic scholar Obadiah Sforno. The fruit of Reuchlin’s scientifi c study of the Christian Old Testament was his 1506 Of the Rudiments of Hebrew, a combined Hebrew dictionary and grammar, which enabled others to study the text in its original tongue. The humanist enterprise also spread to Spain through Jiménes de Cisneros (1436–1517), a former resident of the papal curia in Rome. He established the University of Alcala both to train clergy in the Bible, establishing a trilingual college to provide the classical Latin, Greek, and Hebrew instruction that humanists like Erasmus regarded as essential for any sound theology, and to form virtuous character grounded in earnest Christian piety. The ideals of Italian Renaissance architecture took root in France under King Francis I, when Italian architects and artisans were invited to France for renovations and new building projects for the king. Deciding to make his Fontainebleau Palace into a center for the arts in the 1530s, Francis invited two Italian interior designers, Giovanni Rosso and Francesco Primaticcio, to create a new style of decoration using a mixture of painting and high-relief stucco molding known as strapwork. This new technique created a dramatic effect in a long gallery room in Fontainebleau known as the Gallery of Francis I. Francis also embarked on major building projects at châteaux Blois and Chambord, Italian Renaissance 217 both designed in an Italian Renaissance style adapted to French taste with steep roofs, clusters of tall chimney pots, and the placing of vast elongated windows above one another. Clement Janequin (1485–1560), who developed the Parisian chanson as a vocal ensemble form, made significant developments in music during Francis’s reign. His approximately 300 chansons are programmatic works, where the musical setting narrates the text using sound effects, such as battle noises, and imitations of natural tones, such as bird calls, to augment the effect of the story. When social dancing became a prevalent form of entertainment, composers were commissioned to write instrumental music to accompany the dances. In the 1589 treatise Orchesographie, a French priest writing under the pseudonym of Thoinot Arbeau (1519–95) designed two broad dance categories arranged for fife and drum, haut (fast and lively) and bas (slow and stately). Most famous was the gagliard dance from the haut category, featuring a quick duple rhythm with each beat divided into three subunits. Artistic cultivation found its most fertile soil north of the Alps in the Low Countries and Germany. For example, Geertgen tot sint Jans (1465–93), a monastic painter from St. John in Haarlem, fashioned his famous Virgin and Child, where the figures are completely encircled by a wreath of smaller figures and objects, including several popular musical instruments. One of the leading Flemish mannerist painters was Pieter Bruegel (1525–69), who developed the ideal of “realism toward the peasants,” in which nonaristocratic figures and objects were rendered in flat areas of color without extensive attention to detail or modeling of human figures. Bruegel remains remembered for his scenes of peasant life illustrating many aspects of their dress, customs, and forms of entertainment. His paintings were often concerned with disclosing how biblical themes are revealed in the everyday world, as portrayed by his The Parable of the Blind Leading the Blind, which shows the helplessness of afflicted peasants. The German painter Hieronymus Bosch (1453– 1516), who reflected the widespread pessimism of his age provoked by the Black Death and the Hundred Years’ War, devised the style of mannerist fantasy. This cynicism transferred over into Bosch’s theological deliberation, fueling his fiery preaching against the evils of the world. Observing animal instincts, appetites, and the evil of overindulgence in humanity, Bosch attempted to warn his contemporaries through his art, renowned for its overwhelming detail and morbid quality, that, save for repentance, salvation lay beyond their reach. To this end, his Seven Deadly Sins depicts its human subjects, engaged in folly and gluttony, as pitiable and foolish, and his Concert within the Egg, in a paradoxical depreciation of a related art form, casts music in a diabolic light by depicting several persons standing inside a broken eggshell singing a profane song. This low view of music is shared by his best-known altarpiece, Garden of Delights, a triptych exhibiting scenes of a highly moralistic nature where musical instruments, such as the lute, harp, hurdy-gurdy, bombard, fife, cornet, and drum, serve as instruments of torture for lost souls in hell who had used music for immoral purposes during their earthly lives. At the same time, Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528) grew distinguished for his masterful woodcuts that perfected the technique of crosshatching, where a fine gridwork of lines would be employed in creating light and shadow effects. Two additional German artists of note were Mathias Grunewald (1460–1528), whose Isenheim Altarpiece depicts the birth, Crucifixion, and Resurrection of Jesus using medieval symbolism and a harsh realistic style, and Hans Holbein the Younger (1497–1543), known for his ability to capture the character and personal attributes of his human subjects. In both northern and southern Europe, the Renaissance generated lasting effects in the social and religious realms. Looking back to the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome as furnishing the paradigms for humanity’s greatest achievements, much of the literature and fine art produced in this period depicted humanity as beautiful and godlike and exhibited tremendous concern with the emotional life. While the ideal of the person as an independent entity with the right to develop according to individual preferences undermined the medieval ideal of one who was to be saved by assuming a humble role in the corporate hierarchy of the church, the return to and scientific study of the primary sources of antiquity made possible a far more accurate knowledge of the Bible. Both of these somewhat divergent factors contributed to the Reformation, with its critique of medieval religion and exaltation of Scripture over tradition. In the political realm, the rhetorical models of Cicero displaced the perceived scholastic logical wrangling of Aristotle, facilitating improved communication, centralization of power, and administrative effectiveness among the aristocrats of Italian city-states and the rising nation-states of northern Europe. For all its achievements, Renaissance 218 Italian Renaissance culture stands as one of the primary creative foundations of the modern Western tradition. See also Byzantine Empire: architecture, culture, and the arts; Carolingian Renaissance. Further reading: Cairns, Earle E. Christianity through the Centuries. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996; DeMolen, Richard L., ed. The Meaning of the Renaissance and Reformation. Boston, MA: Houghton Miffl in, 1974; Jenks, Edward. Law and Politics in the Middle Ages. New York: Franklin, 1970; Kerrigan, William, and Gordon Braden. The Idea of the Renaissance. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989; Lucki, Emil. History of the Renaissance, 1350–1550. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1963; Nauert, Charles G., Jr. The Age of Renaissance and Reformation. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1977; Spitz, Lewis W. The Renaissance and Reformation Movements. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, 1971. Kirk R. MacGregor
The First Global Age 1450 to 1750 Edit
Ibn Ghazi, Ahmed (c. 1507–1543) Somali military leader Popularly known as the Gran or Ahmed, the Lefthanded, Ahmed ibn Ghazi, the king of Adal, was a Somali general who, after establishing an inland Muslim empire, laid siege to Ethiopia in 1529 in an attempt to wipe out Christianity and establish Ethiopia as a Muslim state. Christian Ethiopia was particularly vulnerable to outside attacks from neighboring Muslim countries because from 1478 to 1527, the average age of Ethiopian rulers was only 11. The Sultanate of Harar, which was heavily Muslim, repeatedly attempted to overtake Ethiopia. Around 1500, zealous Muslims announced the onset of a jihad (holy war) in which Islam was to be instated throughout Africa. In the late 1520s, the sultanate’s position was reinforced by the Islamization of Somali, which was effected by the concentrated efforts of Turkish and Arab adventurers. Consequently, Harar’s troops, led by Ahmed ibn Ghazi, attacked Ethiopia in 1529. Ahmed’s forces were reinforced by the recently conquered Chushitic troops who hoped to gain their freedom by fighting with Ahmed’s forces. Ahmed triumphed during the Battle of Amba Sel on October 28, 1531. By the following year, he had succeeded in gaining control of Ethiopia and had forced Ethiopian emperor Lebna Dengel (1508–40) into hiding. Ahmed subsequently established himself as the ruler of Ethiopia. He was a vengeful conqueror, brutally destroying land and churches and devastating the Ethiopian people. Once he was in power, Ahmed proceeded with his attempts to eradicate Christianity from Ethiopia. He even destroyed the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion where Ethiopian emperors had been crowned for centuries. At swordpoint, Ahmed’s troops ordered Ethiopian Christians to renounce their faith and swear allegiance to the Muslim faith instead. Ahmed also executed a Portuguese commander who refused to convert to Islam. Although appearing to comply with Ahmed’s orders, the Ethiopian Christians, including Emperor Lebna Dengel, continued to adhere to the Christian faith. When Ahmed ordered the emperor to command his daughter to marry him, Lebna Dengel defied him and refused to have his daughter marry a nonbeliever. On September 2, 1540, Ahmed succeeded in tracking Lebna Dengel to the monastery of Dabra Dam in Tigre, where the emperor was killed in battle. However, the emperor’s earlier request for military assistance from Portugal had finally resulted in the arrival of 400 Portuguese musketeers in Ethiopia under the leadership of Christovao da Gama, the son of Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama. In addition to the Portuguese, the Ethiopians had been reinforced by large numbers of Oromo (Galla) people, who threw considerable force into destroying Islamic communities and attacking the invaders. While generally successful in their attacks on Ahmed’s troops, da Gama and 140 of his troops were killed in a battle north of the Tekez River. After Lebna Dengel’s death, his son Galawdewos, who had succeeded to the Ethiopian throne, led an attack on Ahmed’s forces on February 21, 1543. In what became known as the Battle of Wayna Daga, a Portuguese musketeer who was determined to avenge the death of da Gama and his comrades killed Ahmed, even though it cost him his own life. Once Ahmed was dead, his troops lost the will to continue the jihad. As a result of the Battle of Wayna Daga and Ahmed’s death, Galawdewos was able to restore the Ethiopian Empire. The Ethiopian Christians celebrated their restoration to power by holding ceremonies in which they publicy renounced the Muslim faith and reembraced Christianity. Despite this success, Galawdewos’s reign was cut short when he was killed in one of the frequent raids conducted by Bati Del Wambara, Ahmed’s widow, who was determined to avenge her husband’s death. During the years of Muslim occupation, much of Ethiopia had been destroyed. In the 21st century, Ethiopian churches still bear the scars of the Muslim attacks. Despite these scars, Ethiopia has survived as an African nation with a considerable Christian presence. Currently, between 35 and 40 percent of the Ethiopian population belong to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and between 45 and 50 percent embrace the Muslim faith. Further reading: Fage, J. D. A History of Africa. London: Hutchinson, 1988; Henze, Paul B. Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia. New York: Palgrave, 2000; Iliffe, John. Africans: The History of a Continent. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995; Munro-Hays, Stuart, and Richard Pankhurst. Ethiopia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 1995; Ogot, B. A., ed. General History of Africa, Volume Five: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. Elizabeth Purdy indentured servitude in colonial America This compulsory work system was an important form of labor in colonial America, especially in 17th century Chesapeake. In exchange for several years of labor, English men and women received passage to America and opportunity. A cruel life, servitude was ultimately replaced by African slavery. Indentured servitude was an American invention with English roots. The idea of serving for a period of years had long been a part of apprenticeships; after 1563, English law had required nearly all wage laborers to contract by the year. In both cases, masters assumed nearly total control over their workers: They could set them to a variety of tasks and punish them physically but also had to feed and house them. Apprentices and servants were typically young and unmarried people seeking money to establish their own households. A large percentage of English men and women, perhaps a majority, spent a portion of their youth in service. England’s decision to plant colonies in the New World precipitated the invention of indentured servitude. In 1584, Richard Hakluyt advocated colonization as a solution to England’s “valiant youths, rusting and hurtful by lack of employment” and a number of young laborers accompanied the first settlers to Jamestown in 1607. However, most colonists expected that Native Americans would work for them and it was only after attempts to enslave the Powhatan Indians failed that the Virginia Company seriously looked to England for workers. In 1616, the company instituted the headright system by which colonists received 50 acres of land for every servant imported. That same year, tobacco was introduced to Virginia and the demand for workers increased dramatically. In the 17th century, 90,000 of the 120,000 English emigrants to Virginia and Maryland were indentured servants. Most were between the ages of 20 and 24, and men outnumbered women by six to one. Most came from desperately poor backgrounds and had no other opportunities. Before leaving England, a servant signed (usually with an X) a contract. Two copies of the contract were written on the same sheet of paper and then cut apart, leaving a rough or indented edge, hence “indentured” servitude. The servant received one copy and the other was sold in America. Typically a servant agreed to serve between four and seven years for passage to America. When the contract ended, a servant received “freedom dues”: clothes, tools, food, and for the first half of the 17th century, 50 acres of land. Life as an indentured servant was hard and cruel. “Am toiling almost day and night, very often in the horse’s drudgery,” wrote Elizabeth Sprigs. “Scare any thing but Indian corn and salt to eat . . . almost naked no shoes nor stockings to wear.” In addition to inadequate food and clothing, beatings were common. In 1624, Elizabeth Abbott died at the hands of her master, leaving a corpse “full of sores and holes very dangerously raunckled and putrified above her wa[i]st and upon her hips and thighs.” In the case of Abbott and others, Chesapeake courts habitually sided with the masters. Masters were allowed to sell their servants’ contracts, practically reducing the workers to chattel. Servants 178 indentured servitude in colonial America who ran away, killed a master’s pig, or bore an illegitimate child faced extensions of their servitude. Not surprisingly, many died before completing their indentures: Although 15,000 servants arrived in Virginia between 1625 and 1640, the population only increased by 7,000. Among those who survived, success was attainable, at least at first. For Maryland servants freed before 1660, a majority obtained land and many held public office. Yet the unbalanced sex ratio prevented many freedmen from marrying. Opportunities for ex-servants declined considerably after midcentury as available land became scarce. As this happened, many ended up working for their former masters for wages. Disgruntled ex-servants were a primary impetus behind several uprisings including Bacon’s Rebellion. Indentured servitude also existed outside the Chesapeake. Perhaps 20 percent of immigrants to New England in the 1630s came over as servants, while indentured servitude supplied critical labor for the early plantations of Barbados and the Carolinas. However, by the middle of the 17th century, a decline in the English population reduced unemployment and motivation for servitude. As this happened, planters acquired African slaves. Barbados was the first English colony to switch from servitude to slavery, and by 1660, blacks outnumbered whites. A similar process took place in the Chesapeake in the 1680s and 1690s. Indentured servants fell to less than 5 percent of the population, and by 1710, were outnumbered by slaves six to one. Indentured servitude remained an important source of labor in the 18th century. Between 1718 and 1775, 50,000 English convicts were sent to America as servants and typically indentured for 14 years. Other servants emigrated from Scotland and Germany and settled in the middle colonies. In 1760, indentured servants constituted 20 percent of Philadelphia’s workforce, many laboring in trades alongside black slaves. Although servants continued to arrive by the thousands through the 1770s, the American Revolution caused many to question their presence. In 1784, “a number of respectable Citizens” of New York paid to free a cargo of servants because they found “the traffic of White people” contrary “to the idea of liberty this country has so happily established.” Thereafter indentured servitude rapidly declined and all but disappeared by 1800. Further reading: Bailyn, Bernard. Voyagers to the West: A Passage in the Peopling of America on the Eve of the Revolution. New York: Knopf, 1986; Horn, James. Adapting to a New World: English Society in the Seventeenth-Century Chesapeake. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994; Salinger, Sharon V. “To Serve Well and Faithfully”: Labor and Indentured Servitude in Pennsylvania, 1682–1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. John G. McCurdy indigo in the Americas Prized for its beauty as a deep blue dye for clothing and textiles, indigo has a long history in the Western world. Archaeologists have unearthed indigo-tinted fabrics in Greece dating to 2500 b.c.e., while the Greek historian Herodotus, writing about 450 b.c.e., provides the first documentary evidence on the use of indigo as a dye. In the decades after the conquest of Central America, indigo became another of the marketable commodities produced in the Americas to feed the growing European demand for foodstuffs, dyes, and other products. The dye itself was derived, via a complex and odoriferous steeping and fermentation process, from the dark green, oval-shaped leaves of two species of leguminous shrub in the Indigofera genus: Indigofera tinctoria, indigenous to Asia, and Indigofera suffructiosa, native to Central and South America. The latter species, called xiquilite in Nahuatl, was used as a pigment and dye by the Maya of Central America for centuries, perhaps millennia, before the conquest. The Spaniards called indigo dye añil, derived from al-nil, the Arabic word for “blue.” From around 1580 to 1620, indigo production saw something of a boom in the Central American lowlands, particularly western Guatemala and Nicaragua. In light of the precipitous decline in native populations across much of the isthmus, and the severe shortages of labor that ensued, indigo’s minimal labor requirements constituted one of its principal commercial advantages. The plant itself was sturdy, grew readily in well-drained soils at an elevation below 1,500 meters, and required little attention prior to harvesting the leaves. Only one to two months of intensive labor was required during the harvest and processing phases, making indigo one of the few commercially viable commodities in Central America’s labor-scarce environment. Initial efforts were focused on wild plants, but from the 1580s indigo plantations and processing facilities were established in many parts of the isthmus. By 1600, indigo had emerged as Central America’s principal export product. After 1620, production stagnated, witnessing a brief resurgence in the late 1600s before stagnating again for the rest of the colonial period. Nearly a quarter-million pounds of indigo was imported indigo in the Americas 179 to Seville annually from 1606 to 1620, though these figures exclude illicit commerce, which was doubtless substantial. Meanwhile, indigo production in Asia continued to grow. Throughout the 1600s, indigo was one of the chief products of the Dutch and British East India Companies. Evidence suggests that the inability of Asian indigo production to meet rising European demand was one of the principal engines of indigo production in the Americas. Other regions in the Caribbean basin also emerged as important sources of indigo, including Saint- Domingue (France to 1803), Jamaica (Great Britain after 1655), Suriname (Holland), and Brazil (Portugal). Soon sugar displaced indigo, tobacco, and other products as the Caribbean’s principal export crop, though indigo production continued throughout large parts of the Americas through the colonial period and after. By the 1740s, an indigo boom had emerged in South Carolina, complementing rice production in the same region. It was not until the late 19th century, that a viable synthetic dye finally displaced indigo as the most important source of dark blue coloration in fabrics. See also sugarcane plantations in the Americas. Further reading. Alden, Dauril. “The Growth and Decline of Indigo Production in Colonial Brazil: A Study in Comparative Economic History.” Journal of Economic History (v. 25, 1965); MacLeod, Murdo J. Spanish Central America: A Socioeconomic History, 1520–1720. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. Michael J. Schroeder Inquisitions, Spanish and Roman The Inquisition in the early modern period was a permanent papal judicial institution of the Roman Catholic Church that was to eradicate heresies, originally dealing with alchemy, sorcery, and witchcraft, as well as dealing with heretical groups like the Cathars and subsequently with relapsed converts or “heretics” who refused to recant. The most well-known of the inquisitions was the Spanish Inquisition, which was established in 1478 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Castile, with the support of, and carrying the authority of, Pope Sixtus IV. Although the inquisitor-general was appointed by the pope, the Spanish Inquisition was run by the Spanish monarchy. The first inquisitors of the Spanish Inquisition worked from Seville and were so vindictive that even Pope Sixtus IV tried to moderate them. However he was not successful as the Spanish government established grand inquisitors in Castile and placed Aragon, Valencia, and Catalonia under the power of the Spanish Inquisition. The first grand inquisitor was the Dominican friar Tomás de Torquemada, who terrorized his victims using torture and the threat of execution to extract confessions, which resulted in as many as 5,000 people being burned to death at the stake before the practice was ended in 1834. Torquemada’s reputation for brutality quickly became well known, and other inquisitors were appointed, with the Spanish Inquisition established in Sicily in 1517, although attempts to set it up in Naples and Milan failed. The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V introduced it into the Austrian Netherlands in 1522 to use it against Protestants there, and its use continued until 1834, operating in South America. As well as the Protestants, Muslim and Jewish communities in Spain were singled out by the Inquisition. In the case of these communities, the Spanish Inquisition only had the role of dealing with those who claimed to have converted to Christianity but who went back to their original religious beliefs. While many Jews and Muslims left Spain for North Africa, many Jewish converts, known as the conversos, and the Muslim converts known as Moriscos, remained in Spain, where some continued to be strong business leaders. It was not long after conversion that some reverted to following their original beliefs and they were deemed, by the Spanish Inquisition, as being relapsed converts. A study of the 49,092 trials held by the Spanish Inquisition between 1560 and 1700 showed that 11,311 were of Moriscos, 5,007 of conversos, 3,499 of Lutherans, 14,319 for heresy, and 3,750 for superstitions, including witchcraft, and 3,954 were for offenses against the Inquisition itself. Even when the Inquisition tried heretics—often using dubious evidence gained from the torture of the accused—the results were usually that the defendants were found guilty and sentenced to be burned at the stake. The burning was done not only to purge the sin, but also to serve as a warning of the flames of hell. Occasionally if people recanted and accepted the church teachings, they would be freed. More often they were strangled and spared the punishment of being burned alive. These trials and executions were know as autos-de-fe. As well as persecuting heretics and suspected heretics, the Spanish Inquisition drew up lists of banned books, which were also burned. Its role served to create a united 180 Inquisitions, Spanish and Roman political unit in Spain, weaken opposition to the Spanish monarchy, and to strengthen the Catholic orthodoxy against the Protestants. Pope Sixtus IV accused the rulers of Spain of profiting from the Inquisition as people found guilty of heresy had their property confiscated by the state. The Spanish Inquisition survived until it was banned by Napoleon in 1808, and by royal edict in 1834. The Roman Inquisition was established in 1542 and staffed by cardinals and other papal officials with the role of defending the integrity of the Roman Catholic faith. This involved arraigning people on charges of heresy, sorcery, blasphemy, and witchcraft. With trials presided over by a cardinal, it had jurisdiction on the Italian peninsula and on other parts of Europe under papal rule, such as Avignon. It was this group that tried the astronomer Galileo Galilei in 1633, when he faced the Inquisition on the suspicion of heresy, following the publication of his ideas about the Earth’s moving around the Sun. Although Galileo escaped with his life, another astronomer, Giordano Bruno, was not so lucky and was burned at the stake for heresy. Bruno is now often considered the first martyr for science. Generally the Roman Inquisition was not as fierce as its counterpart in Spain, except during the rule of Pope Paul IV (1555–59) and Pope Pius V (1566–72), the latter having been a grand inquisitor himself. It was Paul IV who declared at the start of his short reign that he felt that matters of doctrine were far more important than all other matters facing the papacy. Indeed Paul IV personally oversaw much of the persecution himself. The persecution of the Protestants in Italy meant that they were eliminated as threats to the states in late Renaissance Italy. The Inquisition continued its activities well into the 19th century but has long since ceased to be a force in Italy or elsewhere. See also expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal; Ferdinand V and Isabella I of Spain; witchcraft. Further Reading: Baigent, Michael, and Richard Leigh. The Inquisition. London: Penguin Books, 2000; Edwards, John. Inquisition. Stroud: Tempus, 2003; Lea, Henry Charles. A History of the Inquisition of Spain. New York: Macmillan, 1905; Plaidy, Jean. The Spanish Inquisition. London: Robert Hale, 1978. Justin Corfield Isfahan (Persia) In 1592 Shah Abbas I made Isfahan the capital of the Safavid Empire. In an earlier era, Isfahan had been the capital of the Seljuk Empire, but under Shah Abbas the city became a major economic and cultural center or as the Persian saying went, “Isfahan is half the world.” The Masjid-i Jami, or Friday Mosque (1088), an earlier Seljuk building, dominates one section of the city. This mosque is known for its brick domed chambers and stucco mihrab (prayer niche). Under Shah Abbas, a huge open square, the Maydan-i Shah, with a polo field the favorite amusement of the Safavid court, became the centerpiece of the city. The square was surrounded by Safavid buildings. The Masjid-i Shaykh Lutfallah (1602) stands on one side; a vast covered bazaar anchors another, and the monumental Masjid-i Shah (1612–13) dominates a third side. An elaborately decorated blue tiled dome with Qu’ranic inscriptions in finely wrought calligraphy covers the mosque, which is entered through a courtyard and towering iwans, or arched entryways. The Ali Qapu, a vast royal palace complex, is the main building on the fourth side of the square. The palace’s second-story porch, covered by a wooden roof supported by slender columns, overlooks the square. From this porch, the shah and his court could watch polo games and other state ceremonies. As a commercial center, Isfahan attracted numerous traders and artisans, many of whom built lavish homes with gardens that were much esteemed in Persian society. The bazaar sold everything from common Isfahan (Persia) 181 The Spanish Inquisition reached into the Netherlands; this print shows the burning of Protestants there in 1544. everyday products to luxury goods including silk brocades, jewelry, carpets, and painted miniatures. As in the Ottoman Empire, flowers and bird motifs were favorite designs among the Safavids. The Safavids became known for Persian carpets with floral patterns and center medallions as opposed to the geometric designs favored by tribal artisans. Safavid artists also excelled in the painting of miniatures and illustrated manuscripts, many of which included figural representations that were rare in Arab or Ottoman works. See also Abbas the Great of Persia. Further reading: Blake, Stephen P. Half the World: The Social Architecture of Safavid Isfahan 1590–1722. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda, 1999; Keyvani, Mehdi. Artisans and Guild Life in the Later Safavid Period: Contributions to the Social- Economic History of Persia. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz, 1982; Titley, Norah M. Persian Miniature Painting and Its Influence on the Art of Turkey and India. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984. Janice J. Terry Ivan III the Great (1440–1505) Russian ruler Ivan III, grand duke of Moscow (or, Muscovy), was the first monarch to begin the creation of a recognizable Russian state, earning him the title “Ivan the Great.” Born in 1440, he ascended the throne in 1462 and ruled continuously until his death in 1505, giving Muscovy a stable period for its political evolution. Some of Ivan’s greatest triumphs took place within Russian territory. Domestically, his greatest achievement was the incorporation of the city of Nizhny Novgorod, also called Lord Novgorod the Great, into the Grand Duchy of Muscovy. In 1471, Novgorod had made an alliance with Lithuania and Poland, which had been united since the marriage of Queen Jadwiga of Poland to the grand duke Ladislaus Jagiello of Lithuania in 1386. He became king of Poland as Ladislaus II. Fearing encirclement, Ivan III launched his first attack on Novgorod in 1471, before the Polish king Casimir V could come to the city’s aid. Cowed by the appearance of the Muscovite army, the citizens of Novgorod submitted. However, the boyars (the noble class) were divided between Polish and Muscovite factions, and the division spread throughout the city. Novgorod held off making final submission to Ivan III until he declared war on Novgorod a second time in November 1478. This time, faced with destruction at his hands, the city capitulated completely to Grand Duke Ivan. The richest city in Russia, made so by its trading, now belonged to the Grand Duchy of Muscovy. In 1480, Ivan demonstrated a streak of daring that no previous Russian ruler had exhibited. Since the invasions of 1240–41, the Mongols (or Tartars, as the Poles and Russians called them) had been a constant threat to the Russians. During their onslaught of 1240–41, which carried them as far as Poland and Hungary, they burned Kiev to the ground. Although the age of great Mongol supremacy had passed, the Khanate of the Golden Horde remained one of the most powerful states in Central Asia and eastern Europe. At that time, the khan of the Golden Horde was Ahmed. Then in 1480, Ivan III refused to pay the annual tribute to Ahmed Khan. Ivan’s determination, in the face of years of fear of the Tartar rampage, marked the real independence of the Russian state from Tartar rule. Ivan made an alliance with the rival Crimean Khanate to make war on Poland, to prevent the Poles from attacking from the west as he confronted the Golden Horde. Ahmed mustered an army to battle Ivan in September 1480, but just as he was about to fight, he received word that a Muscovite and Crimean Tartar army was headed toward his capital at Sarai. Rather than face Ivan, he withdrew. Such seeming cowardice could not be tolerated in the Golden Horde, and Ahmed was soon assassinated. His place as khan was taken by Shaykh Ahmed in 1481. The defiance of the Golden Horde led to a renaissance in the Grand Duchy of Muscovy. Ivan felt secure 182 Ivan III the Great The Masjid-i Jami mosque of Isfahan, arguably the religious center of the Safavid Empire enough to exchange ambassadors with such world powers as the Vatican, Turkey, and the Holy Roman Empire. Earlier (in 1472) the Vatican under Pope Sixtus IV had given to Ivan as a bride Zoe (Sophia), the daughter of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine Palaeologus, who had died defending his capital of Constantinople from the attack of the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II in May 1454. It was fitting that when Ivan III died in 1505, he was buried in the Archangel Cathedral in the Kremlin in Moscow, which he had made the first city of Russia, earning the title of Ivan the Great. See also Cossacks; Ivan IV (the Terrible). Further reading: Bartlett, Roger. A History of Russia. New York: Palgrave, 2005; Chambers, James. The Devil’s Horsemen: The Mongol Invasion of Europe. New York: Atheneum, 1979; Hildinger, Erik. Warriors of the Steppe, a Military History of Central Asia, 500 b.c. to 1700 a.d. New York: Da Capo, 1997; Hingley, Ronald. Russia: A Concise History. London: Thames and Hudson, 2003. John Murphy Ivan IV the Terrible (1530–1584) Russian ruler Ivan IV, the grand duke of Muscovy, or Moscow, is usually considered the first czar of Russia, although many historians argue that the title should belong to Ivan III (the Great). Ivan IV was born in 1530, the son of Vasili III, who had ascended the throne after the death of his father, Ivan III the Great, in 1505. Vasili continued the deliberative policy of “gathering in” the Russian lands begun by his father. Vasili III also faced a threat from the Tartars, the Russian and Polish name for the Mongols. By 1519, the Golden Horde had been conquered by the Gerei dynasty of the Crimean Khanate, who would rule the Crimea until its last khan surrendered in 1783 to Catherine the Great of Russia. When Vasili died in 1533, he left a stable and expanded grand duchy to his successor, Ivan IV. Ivan was only three years old when his father died, and his childhood was a nightmare of a sanguinary feud between the dominant families of the Kremlin and the Shuisky and Belsky families. He was purposely ignored, an object of contempt, and lived a life in fear of assassination. At the age of 13, he dramatically demonstrated his right to rule against the elite families of the boyars, or high nobility. On December 29, 1543, 13-year-old Ivan called for Prince Andrew Shuisky to be arrested and thrown to starving hunting dogs. Ivan showed clear signs of sadism through his treatment of animals and women as well, whom he and his compatriots often raped and killed. In January 1547, Ivan IV was crowned with great ceremony as the Russian czar. He underscored his “Russianness” by marrying a native-born Russian woman, Anastasia Romanova, of the wealthy Romanov dynasty. The Romanovs, while not hereditary boyars, were a wealthy trading family, whose fortune depended on royal patronage. In this, Ivan was following the model of most European monarchs, who were now favoring the ascendant middle class, who would be beholden to them directly, rather than their ancestral nobles, many of whom also had claims to the thrones of their countries. The early years of Ivan’s reign were indeed promising for Russia, and he seemed to be following in the careful, almost analytic footsteps of Ivan III and Vasili III. It was the same cautious way that Russia would expand into Central Asia, beginning in Ivan’s own reign, by fortifying each resting place before undertaking further progress. Ivan called a Russian great council and swore that he would carry out continual reforms in the government Ivan IV the Terrible 183 Best known for his cruelty, Ivan IV may have suffered from mercury poisoning in his last years of life. of the state. Reforms were carried out in local government to diminish the influence of the boyar nobility and enhance the participation of all classes, in a conscious attempt to bind them to throne. A Foreign Ministry was officially established, and a Ministry of War was also put on a permanent foundation. In 1550, Ivan embarked on a period of military reform that essentially made him the father of the Russian army. He realized the importance of muskets and artillery as a way to overcome Tartar tactics. The reliance on muskets and artillery assured Muscovite, or Russian, superiority in most battles. In 1552, Ivan felt confident enough to use his new army to attack the Khanate of Kazan, one of the successor states to the Golden Horde. Since all such kingdoms traced their origins to sons or grandsons of Genghis (or Chingiz) Khan, these are known to history as the “Chingizid” khanates. Kazan fell to Ivan, as did the Khanate of Astrakhan in 1556. The Khanate of the Crimea felt sufficiently threatened by Ivan’s sudden eastward expansion that in 1555 Dawlet Gerei Khan had raided Moscow, but the attack did not deter Ivan. In the same year, the Crimean Tartars raided Moscow, Ivan began the Livonian War in 1555. It would end fitfully in 1583, absorbing most of Ivan’s energies, manpower, and treasure for three decades. (Some accounts give the dates of the Livonian War as 1558–82.) Taking advantage of Ivan’s preoccupation in the Livonian War, the Crimean Tartars returned in 1571 to burn Moscow. Still, the extensive negotiations Ivan carried out with Elizabeth I of England not only ensured England a welcome partner in the lucrative Baltic Sea trade, but also supplied Ivan with a reliable source of high-grade gunpowder for his army. The downside, however, was that the war produced the political union of Lithuania and Poland in 1569, although the two countries had been united by royal marriage since 1386. In March 1553, the second, darker, period of Ivan’s reign began, after he recovered from a high fever. When his queen, Anastasia, died in 1560, he had several of the boyars tortured and executed because he suspected them of poisoning his wife. Then in 1564, he left Moscow, vowing never to return. Ivan established the oprichniki, who may have terrorized Muscovites in earlier years. When he felt Novgorod defied him, he had the city destroyed, and Pskov almost suffered the same fate. The oprichnina, among whom were Boris Godunov and Anastasia’s brother, Nikita Romanov, rode with dogs’ heads (some say heads of wolves) dangling from their saddles and established a reign of terror. The oprichnina was an attempt by Ivan to terrorize all Russians into obeying his will without complaint. Ivan’s experiment in state-sponsored terror succeeded. Although many causes have been brought forward to explain Ivan’s apparent insanity, one seems to have received comparatively little attention—mercury poisoning. It is known that in his later life Ivan ingested large quantities of toxic mercury. Mercury was used as late as the World War I as a treatment for syphilis, a disease a later autopsy determined Ivan had. Syphilis itself in its final phase can also cause insanity. In November 1581, Ivan IV, in a rage, raised the iron-tipped staff he carried and struck dead his beloved son, Ivan. The czar never recovered from his terrible act. In March 1584, Ivan IV died while playing a game of chess. See also Mughal Empire; Ottoman Empire (1450– 1750). Further reading: Bartlett, Roger. A History of Russia. New York: Palgrave, 2005; Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1996; Chambers, James. The Devil’s Horsemen: The Mongol Invasion of Europe. New York: Atheneum, 1979; Duffy, James P., and Vincent L. Ricci. Tsars: Russia’s Rulers for over One Thousand Years. New York: Barnes and Noble, 2002. John Murphy
Age of Revolution and Empire 1750 to 1900 Edit
immigration, North America and North American immigration led to the gradual unfolding of settlements throughout the continent. Spain settled St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565 and New Mexico in 1598. France settled Acadia in 1604 and Québec in 1608. New Orleans dates from 1718. New Spain and New France grew slowly, if at all, as did also New Sweden, New Netherlands, and other European efforts. From 1607 on, only England had success in attracting large enough numbers of immigrants to take control of the continent. In 1688 the total population of the English colonies was 200,000, mostly British. In the next century the population doubled approximately every 25 years. Between 1700 and 1770, 260,000 Africans, 50,000 white convicts, and 210,000 white voluntary immigrants came from Europe to British North America, as did about 80,000 Scots-Irish and about 70,000 Germans. The British allowed into their colonies anyone who wanted to immigrate. Mostly, the migrants to British North America were English, but from the beginning there were representatives of virtually all western European countries. Europeans came for adventure and to escape harsh conditions at home—war, pestilence, and famine. Africans came as slaves. Some of the Scots- Irish left northern Ireland because of the negative economic effects of the Navigation Acts of the 1650s and 1660s. Getting to North America was arduous because of the nature of transportation, but the indenture system made emigrants of those who could not otherwise afford it. After Thomas Malthus’s Essay on the Principles of Population argued that the British population was growing faster than food production and that inevitably a large number of the British would starve, the government performed a census, counting over 10 million people and estimating that this was double the population of 1750. The shift of British agriculture to scientific farming made many farmworkers unnecessary. To survive, many British farmers moved to the cities, where they became surplus city dwellers. Then they emigrated to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and North America. At the time of the American Revolution, there were 2.5 million people in the colonies, 22 percent slaves. Another quarter million were Scotch-Irish, and 200,000 were German. There were about 25,000 Roman Catholics and 1,000 Jews in an overwhelmingly Protestant population. Several thousand French opponents of their revolution came to the United States in the 1790s. In the years just before and after the Revolution, 15,000 Scots settled in North America. Restrictions on immigration began as early as the 1790s, with the enactment of the 1790 act requiring a two-year residency for citizenship and the 1795 increase of the residency requirement to five years. The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 included a Naturalization Act that changed the waiting period to 14 years and an Alien Act that authorized the president to deport any I foreigner he deemed a threat to American interests. The Alien Act expired in 1800, and the Naturalization Act was repealed in 1802. Between 1812 and 1920, about 30 million Europeans came to the United States. Another 700,000 came from Asia, and about 900,000 from Latin America. In 1820 the U.S. population of 9.6 million was predominantly English and Protestant, with about 2 million enslaved African-Americans. By the 1830s another 150,000 northern Irish and English immigrants had come to the United States. The migration from England increased markedly after 1830, as a farm depression hit. Displaced farmers headed for Liverpool, which became the numberone European debarkation point in the 1830s. In 1830 about 15,000 people left from Liverpool; by 1842 the number was 200,000, a fi gure equal to half the European emigrant population. Immigrant totals from the 1840s to the 1920s included 6 million Germans, 4.5 million Irish, 4.75 million Italians, 4.2 million British (English, Scottish, Welsh), 4.2 million Austro-Hungarians, 2.3 million Scandinavians, and 3.3 million Russians and Balts. The Mexican-American War’s aftermath incorporated 75,000–100,000 Mexicans into the United States in California, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. Immigrants came for free or cheap land. After the frontier closed in 1890, they came for jobs in America’s industrial sector that promised higher wages than at home. They came due to the availability of cheap passage—such as the 17th-century indentured servitude system and the credit-ticket system of the 18th century. Late in the 19th century, the switch from sail to steam allowed faster voyages by larger vessels, reducing the cost and hardship of passage. Immigrants came for promises and hopes—after the American Civil War, states and railroads began sending agents to Europe to attract settlers to their vacant territories. And labor recruiters as well as immigrants told the folks back home of the American land of milk and honey. Between the 1840s and 1870s Germans and Irish predominated, and between 1854 and 1892 Germans were number one every year except three, when Irish predominated. Between 1810 and 1855 about 2.5 million Irish came, and more than 3 million Germans migrated between 1820 and 1880. THE IRISH The Irish migration was ongoing through the 18th and 19th centuries, but it accelerated after the potato blight of 1845 destroyed about 75 percent of the Irish potato crop. The loss of the potato meant hard times for the 4 million Irish who depended on it for their primary source of food. The blight returned in 1846, and 350,000 people died of starvation and typhus that year. Although the crops for the next four years were good, death continued its toll on the Irish. The Irish Famine killed 1 million people. Blaming it on the British government and absentee property owners, the Irish began to migrate. In 1846, 92,000 came to the United States. That number rose to 196,000 in 1847, 174,000 in 1848, 204,000 in 1849, and 206,000 in 1850. By 1854 about a fourth of the Irish population—2 million people—had come to the United States in 10 years. The 1850 census reported 961,719 Irish-born Americans living in New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Illinois, Ohio, and New Jersey. Despite the efforts of the Irish Emigrant Society, most Irish immigrants lacked the money for transportation, land, or “Leaving Old England for America”—an illustration depicting immigration in Harper’s Weekly in 1870 188 immigration, North America and tools in the interior, so most Irish remained close to their ports of arrival. Irish Americans used the political machine to dominate many eastern and midwestern cities. From a means to protect the ethnic community, the machines became a mechanism for Americanizing. In Chicago, Boston, San Francisco, and New York, Irish accounted for up to 30 percent of city workers, and they were overrepresented in construction, particularly in skilled union trades. Only 10 percent of the Irish returned to Ireland. GERMANS AND EASTERN EUROPEANS While the Irish were coming in droves in the 1840s, political turbulence in Germany led to a major infl ux from that country. Germans had been in North America from colonial times, but the unsuccessful revolutions of 1848 led to a major migration of more than 1 million people in a decade. The revolution’s leaders were among the migrants, but most emigrants were ordinary people leaving a country in economic and political disarray. By 1860 over 100,000 German immigrants lived in New York City. They had 20 churches, 50 schools, 10 bookstores, and two German-language newspapers. Chicago had about 130,000 Germans and enjoyed German bands, orchestras, and a German-language theater. Milwaukee, St. Louis, and Cincinnati also had large numbers of Germans. German Jews began arriving in the 1850s. They were successful as both large and small entrepreneurs. In 1890 about half the German Jews in the United States workforce were businessmen. French migration resumed in the 19th century. Like the Germans, many fl ed the failed 1848 revolution. In 1851, the French infl ux exceeded 20,000, and a French-language paper opened in New York. Other French-language papers were published in Charleston and Philadelphia. The Franco-Prussian War cost France Alsace-Lorraine and increased French migration, particularly to the cities of New York, Chicago, and New Orleans but also to the Middle West. Between the gold rush of 1848 and the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, about 300,000 Chinese came to the United States. Chinese push factors included increased taxes, social dislocation, a restrictive economy, and poverty. Southern and Eastern Europeans began to dominate in 1896. Russian immigration began after the 1881 pogroms against southern Jews after the assassination of Czar Alexander II. Intermittent pogroms continued through the end of the century. Immigrants who believed that the path to success involved hard work and loyalty tended to acculturate. By modeling themselves after American entrepreneurs, they would fi nd acceptance. Those who intended to remain for a long time built collective institutions—communities within the greater American community. They emphasized strong families and built churches, lodges, unions, businesses, political organizations, and other institutions. The immigrants were Catholics, Protestants, Buddhists, and those of no particular faith. Immigrant churches maintained their ethnic identities, and each group had its own, where they worshipped in their own language and customs. The Roman Catholic Church accommodated to the desire of eastern and central Europeans for parishes refl ecting their national languages and practices—including saints, schools, hospitals, and festivals—not those of the Irish-dominated American Church. Lutherans from central Europe and Scandinavia built their own churches, schools, and hospitals. They resisted Americanization, ecumenism, and American-inspired revivalism. The Orthodox from Greece, Russia, and the Balkans began arriving in the late 19th and early 20th century. Although the Russian Orthodox mission in Alaska dated to 1794, the late 19th-century migrations made the church signifi - cant in most large American cities, as it attracted particularly Ukrainians who lacked churches of their own. ITALIANS While some immigrants acculturated, others maintained their ethnicity. Italian immigration began after 1870. Low wages, high taxes, and overcrowding pushed rural Italians with little education to migrate. Between 1890 and 1900, 655,888 arrived, two-thirds men, most intending to work until they could afford to return to Italy. Because they intended to return home, their incentive was to retain their home cultures, not become Americanized. Other sojourners included the Chinese and Japanese—over half of the Chinese in California and Japanese in Hawaii before 1930 returned home. The Italian return rate was 60 percent. Not all groups gained access to the political system, but all found economic roles. Denied political access, the Chinese found their niche in service sectors; the Japanese were fruit and vegetable farmers, and the Jews dominated the garment industry. As in colonial days, Canada remained population poor, whether in the French or the English provinces. Canada fi nally began to attract immigrants in signifi cant numbers in the 1890s—simultaneous with the European population explosion and the closing of the frontier with its free or cheap land in the United States. Strong leadership by Wilfred Laurier and Clifford Sifton in the 1890s led to an aggressive campaign promoting western Canada in Europe, Britain, and the United States, modeled on immigration, North America and 189 the advertising of the railroads and states of the United States that helped to populate the Midwest and Great Plains areas. Sifton also forced the railroads to surrender their land grants that they had refused to open for settlement. The program began to be effective after the turn of the century, with over 750,000 immigrants from the United States between 1900 and 1914, including newcomers as well as settled citizens. Canadians began to worry about U.S. domination of western Canada’s culture, economy, and politics. An estimated 30,000 escaped slaves migrated to Canada via the Underground Railroad. While Canada had no slavery, many escapees found discrimination similar to that of northern American cities. Many settled in southern Ontario, creating many African-Canadian communities. Canadian authorities generally found reason to reject the late 19th-century and early 20th-century black applicants, who were few in number because black Americans were too poor to emigrate, unlike the white settlers from the Great Plains, who came to Canada experienced and well-fi nanced. See also Chinese Exclusion Act; Mississippi River and New Orleans; slave trade in Africa. Further reading: Gabaccia, Donna R. Immigration and American Diversity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2002; Kuropas, Myron B. The Ukrainian Americans. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991; Miller, Kerby. Emigrants and Exiles. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. John H. Barnhill Indian Mutiny The Indian Mutiny was the most traumatic single event to mark the British experience in India, from the fi rst appearance of the British East India Company in the early 17th century to the end of Britain’s Indian empire in 1947. Most shocking of all, it took place among the troops, whose loyalty had been the mainstay of British power since its sepoys (infantry) and sowars (cavalry) had won England dominance in India in the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The Muslim and Hindu sepoys were offended by the rumored use of pig and cow fat as lubricants for cartridges, which they viewed as sacrilegious. There was a deeper force driving the insurrections, however: reaction to rapid social change brought by the British to India. The mutiny began in the cantonment (garrison) of an Indian cavalry regiment on May 10, 1857, at Meerut. The mutinous soldiers then headed for nearby Delhi, where the last impotent monarch of the Mughal dynasty, Bahadur Shah II, resided with the vain hope that he could revive the empire of his great predecessors. However, from the very beginning, the Indian Mutiny was not the apocalyptic uprising of native troops; most of the rebellion was confi ned to the high-caste Hindu soldiers of the Bengal army, who had shown signs of dissatisfaction for years at their caste slowly losing prominence. The rebellion spread throughout north-central India, and cantonments in Cawnpore and Lucknow were besieged by the mutineers. It did not spread to the new regions of the empire, like the Punjab, with its Sikhs, or the Northwest Frontier, with its Pashtun population, because the Hindus and Muslims of those regions had been anti-Mughal. The bloodiest single incident of the mutiny took place at Cawnpore, where the British cantonment was besieged by rebels under the command of Nana Sahib, who had nursed a grievance against the East India Company. Major- General Sir Hugh Wheeler was in command at Cawnpore and was unprepared for what was to come. Although the news of the mutiny had spread, Wheeler took no precautions to protect his men, women, and children. On the night of June 4, 1857, the sepoys at Cawnpore mutinied. However, just as at Meerut, in spite of the hostility of their fellow soldiers, some Indian sepoys cast their lot with the British. By June 25 Wheeler surrendered to Nana Sahib, accepting his promises of safe conduct. But when on June 27 the British marched out to the boats that would supposedly take them to safety, they were attacked by Nana’s men, and none escaped. Those who survived were imprisoned in what would become known as the Bibigarh, the “House of the Women,” since most of the men were already dead; the women were murdered later. When the British recaptured Cawnpore, the atrocities so horrifi ed the troops that they exacted grim retribution. While the tragedy at Cawnpore was being played out, Sir Henry Lawrence managed to hold out in the British Residency at Lucknow with a garrison of some 1,800 British men, women, and children, and some 1,200 Indian sepoys. Once again, Indian soldiers had chosen to remain loyal to their offi cers. Although Lawrence was killed on July 4, the defenders held out against some 20,000 mutineers in one of the great epics of British history. Finally, on November 9, 1857, General Colin Campbell, who had earned fame at the Battle of Balaklava during the Crimean War, led a relieving column that smashed the rebels still besieging Lucknow. Meanwhile, the fi nal phase was being played out in Delhi, where the mutineers from Meerut had headed. Delhi fell on September 20. Mopping-up action contin- 190 Indian Mutiny ued to 1858. Its end also spelled the end of the Mughal dynasty and the British East India Company. See also Sikh wars. Further reading: Allen, Charles. Soldier Sahibs: The Men Who Made the North-West Frontier. London: Abacus, 2000; Hibbert, Christopher. Great Mutiny: India 1857. New York: Penguin, 1980; James, Lawrence. Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India. New York: St. Martin’s Griffi n, 2000; Ward, Andrew. Our Bones Are Scattered: The Cawnpore Massacres and the Indian Mutiny of 1857. New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1996. John F. Murphy, Jr. Industrial Revolution The term Industrial Revolution has been used to describe the most extensive change the world has ever experienced. It was coined by English philosopher John Stuart Mill (1806–73) but brought into popular use by English historian Arnold Toynbee (1889–1975). The most signifi cant aspect of the Industrial Revolution was that it changed much of the world from a collection of separate agrarian communities into interconnected industrialized cities. In the process, much of the work that had been done by human hands for centuries was performed by machines, which were faster and more effi cient than humans could ever be. While many scholars accept 1760–1850 as the offi cial period in which the Industrial Revolution took place, it actually continued into the 20th century in parts of the world and continues to evolve in developing nations into the 21st century. The Industrial Revolution is said to have actually started in England during the early 18th century when Abraham Darby at Madeley, in Shropshire, in the west of the country, and others, became involved in improving the production of iron, as well as improving its quality. This led to the building of ironworks, and later steelworks, in some parts of England, with charcoal use being phased out, and with coke iron being used to increase the production of iron and then steel. Much of this development took place close to the coalfi elds in the Midlands and also in the north of England. By 1770 there were over 170 steam engines being used in various industries around Britain, and in 1775 James Watt started to develop his fi rst steam engine, which generated much more power using far less fuel than before. Watt’s design helped manufacturers such as Matthew Boulton produce buttons, buckles, and plate metal cheaply. There were also major developments in the textile industry, with Richard Arkwright developing water-driven mills (although others have claimed to have invented them), with the result that large wool and cotton mills were built in Lancashire. Artisan riots led to the smashing of machines in the Luddite attacks. Other pioneers during the Industrial Revolution in Britain included Thomas Telford, who worked with canals and locks, and Humphrey Davy, who invented the miner’s safety lamp in 1815. Although there was extensive use of child labor and exploitation of the poor, there were also many industrialists who exhibited a strong social conscience. The heavy emphasis on the Protestant work ethic led to Quakers such as John Cadbury (1801–89) and others like Josiah Wedgwood (1730–95) and William Lever (1851–1925) introducing medical care, pensions, and profi t-sharing for employees, who were often provided with company housing. British manufacturing was so important to the British economy by the time of the Napoleonic Wars that the French blockade, known as the “Continental System,” which prevented the sale of British goods in the European continent, severely affected the British economy. The end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 led to a resurgence in British manufacturing, exporting goods to many parts of Europe and South America. This helped create an Industrial Revolution in Scotland during the late 1810s and the 1820s, leading to the building of factories in Edinburgh and Glasgow. The invention of the steam locomotive by George Stephenson in 1833 led to private railway companies building lines throughout the British Isles, starting in the 1840s. Shipbuilding in London, Glasgow, Newcastle, Clyde, Belfast, Hull, and Sunderland developed and became increasingly important to the British economy. Rapid improvements in printing and book production meant that the ideas of the Industrial Revolution spread quickly around the world. The fi rst part of the European mainland to take part in the Industrial Revolution was Belgium (then a part of France), with William and John Cockerill moving from Britain to establish small factories in Liège, in about 1807. After 1830 Belgium became wealthy due to its iron, coal, and textile industries, and also its railways, which were also constructed by the government. France developed later industrially, with the emergence of manufacturing in northern France and in Alsace-Lorraine. It was not until 1848 that France emerged as a major industrial power. Industrial Revolution 191 Some parts of Germany experienced industrial development, with a large pottery industry in Meissen, near Dresden. However, in the 1840s parts of Germany industrialized quickly, especially Dusseldorf in the Ruhr Valley and Saarland, with the shipyards of Hanover and the coal and steel industries at Chemnitz and in Silesia, as well as factories built in Dortmund, Munich, Posen, Stuttgart, and Wurzburg. All ensured that Germany became one of the world’s major industrial powers by the end of the 19th century, with the Krupp steel works and other businesses selling raw materials and products around the world. Part of the impetus of the Industrial Revolution in Germany was the building of the railway system and the construction of large shipyards. Although there was also industrial development around Prague, the coalfi elds near Kraców, the textile mills near Łódz´, and even in some parts of Russia, such as the Donets coalfi elds in the Ukraine, industrialization in much of eastern and southern Europe did not take place until the 20th century. In the United States, inventors such as Benjamin Franklin had developed devices that proved popular, and the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney changed the cotton industry in the southern United States. Gradually, industrialization was centered in the northern states, with the iron, steel, and coal industries and, later, with textiles and food processing, as well as the construction of a vast railway network. This led to the building of factories in New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Milwaukee, Cleveland, and by the end of the 19th century, Chicago and Detroit. With the large distances between cities in the United States, the telegraph system proved to be exceptionally important with the emergence of Western Union. In the late 1870s the telephone network followed with the invention of Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone. Both the telegraph and the telephone systems were rapidly introduced to other countries around the world. Outside of Europe, there were factories built in Argentina, Brazil, South Africa, India, and China, especially in Shanghai, taking advantage of cheap labor and access to raw materials. The industrialization introduced into Japan after the Meiji Restoration in 1868 was largely organized by the state. This led to the building of foundries, toolmaking, and railways and shipbuilding, but all of this did not begin until well after the start of the 20th century. Further reading: Morgan, Kenneth. The Birth of Industrial Britain. London: Longman, 1999; O’Brien, Patrick K., and Quinault, Roland, eds. The Industrial Revolution and British Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993; Stearns, Peter N. The Industrial Revolution in World History. New York: Westview Press, 2007. Justin Corfi eld Iqbal, Muhammad (1877–1938) Indian Muslim leader Mohammed Iqbal was born in Sialkot in the Punjab region of British India on November 9, 1877. His father, Shaikh Nur Muhammad, was a follower of the Islamic school of Sufi mysticism. Iqbal benefi ted from the British educational policy and attended the Scotch Mission College at Sialkot, followed by the Oriental College at Lahore. By the time he received his master of philosophy degree, he had mastered English, Arabic, and Persian (Farsi), which before the English conquest of India had been the offi cial language of the Mughal Empire. He also knew the common language spoken in the Northwest Frontier region of India. Iqbal began writing poetry and essays in a style that refl ected his many cultural heritages. From the beginning, Iqbal devoted his work to understanding and expressing the place of Muslims in the larger society of India and the world as a whole. In 1905 Iqbal went to Cambridge, where he became interested in philosophy. Since Germany was the European center for philosophy studies, he went to the University of Munich, where he received a Ph.D. in philosophy on Russian metaphysics. This demonstrated the infl uence of the Sufi sm he had learned at home from his father. The dissertation’s importance was realized in England, and it was translated into English. In 1908 Iqbal received a law degree in England and returned to India. Once home, Iqbal tended to avoid the political arena. It was a time of political ferment among both Muslims and Hindus that would ultimately lead to the establishment of separate states for each group. Gradually, Iqbal became ideologically aligned with the All- India Muslim League and its leader, Mohammad Ali Jinnah. In 1926 Iqbal was elected to the Punjabi Legislative Council. Yet with a belief that would be strongly condemned by Islamic extremists, Iqbal’s view of the life of a future Muslim community remained decidedly liberal. To fi nd a basis for Islam to exist and fl ourish in the modern world, Iqbal believed it was essential for Muslims to return spiritually to the time of the prophet Muhammad when 192 Iqbal, Muhammad Islam fl ourished in its purest form, before the worldlier period of the caliphates. Iqbal’s comprehensive vision of philosophy was embodied in his work The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, published in 1930. A second edition was published by Oxford University Press in Britain in 1934. An accomplished poet and scholar, Iqbal drew on the rich heritage of Persian and Urdu poetry to express his belief in the ability of Western and Muslim thought not just to coexist but to enrich each other. In 1930 as his commitment to a Muslim state grew deeper, Iqbal accepted the presidency of the All Indian Muslim League. However, there is still a dispute whether he envisioned a totally independent Muslim state, as Pakistan became under Jinnah, or one within a larger Indian political entity. In the same year, he went to England to attend an Imperial Round Table discussion on the political future of India and its Hindu and Muslim population. He was recognized as a leader of modern Islamic intellectual life, and while he was in Europe he was feted by the Universities of Cambridge, Rome, and Madrid. In the 1930s illness forced him to retire from public life and to pursue intellectual interests. See also Afghan Wars, First and Second. Further reading: Pasha, John Bagot Glubb. The Great Arab Conquests. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1995; Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. Islam in Modern History, New York: Mentor Books, 1957. John F. Murphy, Jr. Irish Famine (1846–1851) The British called it the Great Famine, the Irish middle class called it the Great Hunger, and the peasantry called it the Great Starvation. Before the famine, Irish farmers grew barley and grain. They raised cattle and dined on beef, dairy products, and potatoes. Population growth and subdivision of farmland through inheritance—as well as loss of land due to higher rents—slowly shrank the average farm. Fifteen acres was the minimum to produce a crop surplus. Two-thirds of the Irish had fewer than 15 acres. Population pressures after 1815 produced ever smaller holdings and increased competition for land. By 1841 the population was at 8 million, with two-thirds working in agriculture. Eight million Irish were too many. Half-acre plots became common. Only potatoes could feed a family with half an acre of land. The average consumption was between seven and 15 pounds of potatoes a day. Cattle gave way to pigs and plots of cultivated oats, which gave way to rented plots on which potatoes were grown. The potato, introduced in the late 16th century, did well in Ireland’s damp climate. It provided the most food per acre, which became increasingly important as the population exploded in the late 18th century. Because conacre, the division of land among all sons, reduced farm size drastically, those who lived on farms needed the most prolifi c potato, Aran Banner. However, Aran Banner was most susceptible to blight. Potato blight had struck Ireland before. A famine in 1741 killed 250,000 people. In addition, between 1816 and 1842 Ireland suffered 14 famines, some partial and some total. Between 1845 and 1848 harvests were poor and summers were wet. The wetness aided the spread of blight. Already stretched thin, the Irish peasants were unable to withstand four successive failures. The blight of 1845 led the people to plant more potatoes than ever to compensate. They did not expect a second failure, but the one in 1846 was worse; the one in 1847 worse yet. Ireland was preindustrial, and those who failed at agriculture had nowhere to go. The starving fl ooded towns and cities, bringing typhoid, Irish Famine (1846–1851) 193 Ireland depicted as a woman holding up a sign for help to American ships; her foot rests on rock enscribed “We are starving.” cholera, and dysentery. Disease killed more than starvation. Food prices infl ated, and landless and penniless laborers rioted, formed secret societies, engaged in crime and lawlessness. The British government valued the right of the owners to collect rents and crops over the needs of the people for food and shelter. The Coercion Act established martial law and a curfew, and troops and constables safeguarded shipments of food exports. The British imposed their poor laws and expected the Irish to pay for relief. The British established a scientifi c study of the causes of the failure. What they did not do was establish relief and public works—at least at fi rst. Eventually, private charities and government began providing soup kitchens; by 1847 half the population was eating at public expense. Those owning a quarter acre of land or more were ineligible. Critics accused the government of genocide. At least 1 million Irish died of starvation or disease. Over 1 million people left Ireland for America and Liverpool. The famine decreased the Protestant share of the population and hastened the replacement of Gaelic, the language of the native poor, with English. By 1851 the Irish population was 6.5 million. See also immigration, North America and. Further reading: Donnelly, Jim. “The Irish Famine.” Available online. URL: www.bbc.co.uk/history. Accessed May 2007; O’Grada, Cormac. Black ’47 and Beyond: The Great Irish Famine in History, Economy, and Memory. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000. John H. Barnhill Ismail, Khedive (Ismail Pasha) (1830–1895) Egyptian ruler Khedive Ismail was heir to the throne of Muhammad Ali and became khedive (viceroy) in 1863. A keen modernizer, Ismail had grandiose plans to modernize Cairo along French architectural lines as well as to Westernize Egypt. Ismail was against the slave trade and extended Egyptian control in Sudan. During his reign the Suez Canal was opened with great fanfare as well as enormous expense to the regime. Ismail also initiated numerous irrigation projects and built lavish and costly palaces. He used the increased profi ts from the sale of cotton, Egypt’s main cash crop, to fi nance his plans. Cotton prices soared when cotton from the United States became unavailable on the world markets owing to the Civil War. The khedive covered the cost overruns by borrowing extensively from foreign banks, especially from the French. Once the United States reentered the market, cotton prices plummeted, and Ismail found his nation deep in debt. He was forced to sell his Suez Canal shares (44 percent of the total stock holdings) at bargain prices to Great Britain, thereby giving Britain controlling interest in the Canal. As the debts continued to grow, France and Britain established the Caisse de la Dette in 1876 to ensure repayment. Ismail was forced to abdicate in favor of his son Tawfi k, a weak and malleable ruler, in 1879. Control over Egyptian debt repayment enabled the two imperial powers gradually to take over Egyptian fi nances and led to the British takeover of the country by 1882. See also British occupation of Egypt; Civil War, American (1861–1865). Further reading: Owen, E. R. J. Cotton and the Egyptian Economy: 1820–1914: A Study in Trade and Development. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969; Scholch, Alexander. Egypt for the Egyptians! The Socio-Political Crisis in Egypt, 1878– 1882. London: Ithaca Press, 1981. Janice J. Terry Khedive Ismail was a progressive leader in Egypt, opposing slavery and seeking to modernize his nation. 194 Ismail, Khedive (Ismail Pasha) Italian nationalism/unifi cation The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era unleashed forces that engulfed the whole of Europe. Nationalism became a potent force. Although the votaries of counterrevolution made a valiant effort to check the progressive ideas at the Congress of Vienna, Europe was changing fast. The rise of nationalism in Italy and Germany were two major events that dominated European history after 1815. The ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity from the French Revolution appealed to the people of Italy. The reduction of the number of states into the Kingdom of Italy, Papal States, and the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily, along with introduction of reforms by the Napoleonic regimes between 1796 and 1814 unleashed the forces of nationalism. Joachim Murat, installed by his brother-in-law, Napolean I, as king of Naples and Sicily, even conceived the idea of the Union of Italy in 1815 before Napoleon’s defeat. The provisions of the Congress of Vienna once again vivisected Italy. The Bourbons were restored in the south in the form of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. The Papal States once again ruled over central Italy. Austria dominated Italy by possessing Lombardy- Venetia and having close Habsburg ties with monarchs of various Italian states. Only the northwestern part of Italy, the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, was free from foreign control. The smaller states included the Grand Duchies of Tuscany, Parma, and Modena, where the ruling houses had close ties with the Habsburgs. Italian nationalism was nurtured at fi rst with a streak of romanticism. Italian authors, particularly Alessandro Manzoni, contributed a great deal toward fostering Italian nationalism. After 1796 the Freemasons advocated for a united Italy. Apart from a common hatred of the Austrians, the political and economic advantages at the time of unifi ed administration under Napoleon contributed to the rise of nationalism among Italians. From 1810 onward, the secret societies that had sprung up in Italy against Napoleonic rule diverted their attention toward the new regimes after the Congress of Vienna. The carbonari (literally, “charcoal burners”) members, numbering about 50,000, pledged to revolt, signing their names in blood. They had a common goal of national independence and freedom from foreign domination. The Kingdom of Two Sicilies, ruled by King Ferdinand I, felt the onslaught of a cabonari army led by General Guglielmo Pepe in July 1820. Pepe, a distinguished military offi cer, had joined the carbonari revolution. A liberal constitution was created, but the following year the revolution was crushed by the Austrians. The constitution was scrapped, and revolutionaries were arrested. Pepe went into exile for 20 years. The insurrection in Piedmont-Sardinia led by a group of army offi cers under the leadership of Santorre di Santarosa in March 1821 also was short-lived. King Victor Emanuel I abdicated in favor of his brother, and the new king, Charles Felix, sought Austrian help to crush the revolt. Santarosa, who had become the minister of war at the time of the uprising, went into exile in France after the failure of the revolution. The July Revolution of 1830 that swept over France had its impact in Italy, where a series of insurrections took place. Francis IV, duke of Modena, with a plan to extend his dominion, had declared that he would not oppose the rebellions. The French monarch, Louis-Philippe, also promised that he would oppose an Austrian intervention. Encouraged by this, the carbonari revolutionaries began to rise in rebellion in northern and southern Italy. The duchies of Parma and Modena, along with a sizable part of the Papal States, came under their control. A program of Province Italian Unite was proclaimed. But like the earlier insurrection of 1820s, carbonari attempts failed due to Austrian intervention. Louis-Philippe did not come to their aid after an Austrian warning against French intervention. By the spring of 1831 the resistance movement was crushed. The Risorgimento in Italy would be dominated by three important nationalists, who had separate ideology and strategy, but had the common goal of achieving Italian unifi cation. Giuseppe Mazzini was a political theorist; Giuseppe Garibaldi was a soldier; and Count Camillo Benso di Cavour was a politician. Mazzini joined the carbonari movement in 1827, but was imprisoned in Savona in 1830. After his release, he appealed to the new king, Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia, to liberate the Italian states from Austrian domination. Although he had joined the carbonari as it was developing awareness among Italians, Mazzini was moving away from it. As an exile in the French city of Marseille, Mazzini set up Giovine Italia (Young Italy) in 1831 for Italian unifi cation. He believed in the power of youth and membership was restricted to persons under the age of 40. By 1833, membership grew to 60,000 people. Mazzini was avowedly anti-royalist and was in favor of a republican form of government. Within his agenda, social reforms played an important part. His vision of a democratic and republican Italy also extended beyond the borders of Italy. The Young Italy movement spread, giving rise to Young Poland, Young Italian nationalism/unification 195 Germany, and other organizations that were merged into a revolutionary organization called Young Europe in 1834. RAISING AN INSURRECTION With his political credo of liberty and equality, Mazzini believed in a mass movement to end the dominance of Austria and drive out the ruling houses from the different kingdoms of Italy. In 1832 his attempt to raise an insurrection in a Sardinian army failed, and he was awarded a death sentence in absentia. Expelled from France, he lived in Switzerland and made another abortive attempt in 1834 against Sardinia. After three years, he migrated to London and made the city his base to carry out revolutionary activities. He had become a cult fi gure and a prophet of European nationalism. Apart from Mazzini’s, another group, called the Neo-Guelfs, was working toward an emancipated Italy. Like the Guelfs of the Middle Ages, the Neo-Guelfs engaged the pope to free Italy from the domination of the German emperor. Their leader, Abbe Vincenzo Gioberti, published a 700-page volume entitled Il Primato Morale e Civile Degli Italiani in 1843, in which he outlined federated Italian states under the papacy. Executive authority would be entrusted to a group of princes. A union of Rome with Turin (the capital of Piedmont) would lead the pope to head the federation of Italian states and the army of Piedmont would defend it. The new pope, Pius IX, had carried out reforms, raising the hope of liberals. He was highly praised for granting freedom of speech and the press. When the February Revolution engulfed France in 1848, there was a great upsurge of revolutionary activity in Italy. In the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, King Ferdinand II was forced to grant a liberal constitution with a free press and individual liberty. Piedmont, Tuscany, and Rome also had similar constitutions. In Milan and Venice, the respective capitals of Austrian Lombardy and Venetia, there were revolutionary upsurges. The collapse of Austrian rule in Lombardy and Venetia brought about an upsurge against the Austrians. The economic exploitation of Venetia by Austria fueled the demand for independence. The desire for political change was voiced by all, including manufacturers, bankers, and intellectuals. The Republic of St. Mark was proclaimed in March 1848 under the leadership of Daniel Manin. The Milanese welcomed Mazzini, returned from exile. Mazzini was soon joined by Garibaldi in Milan. Garibaldi, the revolutionary hero of Italian unifi - cation, had joined the Young Italy group in 1833. He shared the political philosophy of Mazzini to a large extent. He was also sentenced to death in absentia for his participatiion in the abortive rebellion in Piedmont in 1834. He lived as an exile on the American continent and formed the Italian Legion in 1843. The liberation of Uruguay in 1846 made him a hero. He, along with 60 volunteers, came back to Italy to participate in the struggle for unifi cation and offered assistance to the Milanese. Both Mazzini and Garibaldi proceeded toward Rome, where the adherents of Young Italy had rebelled in November 1848. Pope Pius IX fl ed to the Neapolitan zone, where a democratic republic was in place. Mazzini was at the helm of affairs and carried out the administration and social reforms with effi ciency. TRIUMPHANT MARCH It seemed that Italian revolutionaries were on a triumphant march everywhere, and unifi cation was becoming a reality. But it was not to be; the Austrians led a counteroffensive. Charles Albert, the king of Piedmont- Sardinia, had agreed to a constitutional regime and annexed Lombardy along with the duchies of Parma and Modena. He took command of the Italian forces against the Austrians, but was defeated at the Battle of Custozza in July 1845 and again at the Battle of Novara in March 1849. Albert abdicated in favor of his son Victor Emmanuel II. The defeat of Albert sealed the fate of Piedmont-Sardinia, Lombardy, Venetia, and likely the whole of Italy. Besieged Venice did not withstand. General Pepe, who had returned from exile, and Manin surrendered to the Austrian army in August 1849. The Republic of St. Mark came to an end. Meanwhile, an alarmed pope appealed to France for assistance. The new Roman republic was besieged, and Mazzini surrendered on July 3, 1849. A crestfallen Mazzini returned to London, where he attempted republican uprisings (Mantua, 1852, and Milan, 1853). They failed but kept national consciousness burning. The heroic defense of the city made Garibaldi a cult fi gure in the saga of Italian unifi cation. Italy almost returned to its pre-1948 status, divided into sovereign principalities, with Austrian domination intact. The revolutionary phase of unifi cation was over. It was left to the cautious diplomacy of Cavour, the prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, to achieve the task. The kingdom took leadership, had a constitution, and elected a parliament. 196 Italian nationalism/unification Cavour began publishing the newspaper Il Risorgimento in 1847, and it became the mouthpiece of movement toward Italian unification. He entered parliament in 1848–49 and subsequently became the premier of Piedmont in 1852. A practitioner of realpolitik, he cultivated a friendship with Britain and France. He even joined the Crimean War against Russia on the French side. Cavour persuaded Napoleon III to sign the Pact of Plombières in July 1858. Napoleon III wanted to change some provisions of the Congress of Vienna and desired annexation of Savoy. Piedmont-Sardinia would be enlarged into a North Italian Kingdom. Austria was defeated in the two battles of Magenta and Solferino in June 1859. Napoleon III was alarmed when Prussia threatened to help Austria. He met with Franz Josef, and the compromise formula of Villafranca in July 1859 allowed only the annexation of Lombardy but not Venetia with Piedmont. Popular uprisings in northern and central Italy resulted in the merger of Parma, Modena, Tuscany, and Romagna with Piedmont after a plebiscite in March 1860. Garibaldi landed with his 1,000 Red Shirts and brought Sicily and Naples under his control. Afterward the two states voted to join Piedmont. The troops from Piedmont vanquished the Papal States, except for Rome. In March 1861 the Italian parliament proclaimed the Kingdom of Italy. Only Venice and Rome were outside the orbit of unified Italy. In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Italy sided with Prussia and received Venice. Rome voted to merge with Italy in October 1870 after the Franco-Prussian War. The city had been abandoned by Napoleon III, and Italian troops easily marched in. It became the capital of Italy in July 1871. Thus the unification of Italy was almost complete. Italian nationalists had not regained possession of Trieste and Trent, and Italy joined World War I, mainly to obtain them. Further reading: Beales, Derek. The Risorgimento and the Unification of Italy. London: Longman, 1981; Coppa, Frank, ed. Studies in Modern Italian History. From the Risorgimento to the Republic. New York: Lang 1986; Gooch, John. The Unification of Italy. London: Methuen and Co, 1986; Lovett, Clara. The Democratic Movement in Italy, 1830–1876. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982; Smith, Denis Mack. Mazzini. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996; Hearder, Harry. Italy in the Age of the Risorgimento. New York: Longman, 1983. Patit Paban Mishra Iturbide, Agustín de (1783–1824) Mexican emperor Occupying a place in Mexican national memory as an arrogant self-serving opportunist and failure, Agustín de Iturbide (EE-toor-BE-day) was instrumental in securing Mexico’s independence from Spain, after which he installed himself as the new nation’s first (and only Mexican-born) emperor, only to be overthrown after a brief and ineffectual reign. His rule extended for some 16 months: from September 28, 1821, when his so-called Army of the Three Guarantees marched into Mexico City, until his overthrow in mid-February 1823 by a coalition of rebels led by José Antonio López de Santa Ana. His reign as emperor was even shorter—the eight months from his coronation on July 21, 1822, to his forced abdication on March 19, 1823. Unaware that the new congress had declared him a traitor and forbidden his reentry to Mexico, Iturbide returned from exile in Europe and was captured, tried, and, on July 19, 1824, in Padilla, Tamalpais, executed by firing squad. Born in Valladolid (present-day Morelia, Michoacán), Mexico, Iturbide declined a post in the insurgency of Miguel Hidalgo in 1810, instead joining the Spanish royalist forces and helping to defeat the rebellion led by the renegade priest. His royalist military career was undistinguished until 1820, when in response to the liberal Riego revolt in Spain, he switched sides, allied with liberal insurgent leader Vicente Guerrero, issued the Plan de Iguala, formed the Army of the Three Guarantees, and marched into Mexico City unopposed. His politics can be characterized as archconservative, his principal concern with maintaining the status quo and glorifying his person and rule. His reign had an almost surreal quality. Ignoring the myriad problems confronting the new nation, its economy devastated by more than a decade of revolution and war, Iturbide focused instead on the details of the protocol for his coronation, hiring French tailors to devise suitably regal accoutrements, commissioning artisans to craft appropriately splendid royal standards and emblems for his reign, establishing national holidays to honor the birthdays of himself and his children, making his rule hereditary, and stifling all dissent and criticism to his increasingly autocratic rule. Scholars generally recognize Iturbide’s acumen in understanding the general importance for centralized rule and nationalist trappings and symbols in a geographically expansive, newly independent nation-state wracked by division and strife. Yet they also agree that Iturbide, Agustín de 197 Iturbide’s intolerance toward criticism and self-glorifying symbolism meant little in the absence of coalition- building or genuine engagement with the pressing issues of the day. Iturbide did achieve one signifi cant diplomatic coup in December 1822 when the U.S. Congress recognized his regime. That same month, Jose Antonio López de Santa Ana launched his revolt against the regime in his home state of Veracruz. Iturbide’s last signifi cant action as emperor came in January 1823, when he signed a decree permitting the settlement of parts of the territory of Texas by Stephen F. Austin’s colony of Anglo-Americans. In 1838, 14 years after his execution, Iturbide’s remains were interred in the National Cathedral in Mexico City. To this day one would be hard pressed to fi nd any public memorial to his rule or person anywhere in Mexico, testimony to the disgraced position Mexico’s fi rst and only homegrown emperor occupies in Mexican national memory. See also Mexico, independence of; Texas War of Independence and the Alamo. Further reading: Anna, Timothy E. The Mexican Empire of Iturbide. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990; Archer, Christon I., ed. The Birth of Modern Mexico, 1780–1824. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2003. Michael J. Schroeder
Crisis and Achievement 1900 to 1950 Edit
Ibn Saud, Abd al-Aziz (1880–1953) Saudi Arabian monarch Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud was the fi rst monarch of Saudi Arabia. He was born in Riyadh to Abd al-Rahman bin Faisal bin Turki al-Saud and Sara bint Ahmad al-Kabir al-Sudairi. In 1890 he and his family were exiled to Kuwait after the Rashidi tribe conquered their lands. Upon the death of his father in 1901, the 22-yearold Ibn Saud succeeded as the leader of the Saud dynasty and took the title of the sultan of the Nejd. Ibn Saud set out to recapture his ancestral lands from the Rashidis. In 1902 Ibn Saud assassinated Ibn Rashid and recaptured Riyadh. By 1912 he had consolidated his control over the Nejd and then founded the Ikhwan, a militant religious group that he used to aid him in future conquests. At this time he also revived the traditional al-Saud alliance with Wahhabism, a puritanical Islamic movement dating from the 18th century. In 1915 during World War I, the British signed a treaty with Ibn Saud whereby the lands of the Saud dynasty became a British protectorate. Britain asked for Ibn Saud’s support in fi ghting against Ibn Rashid, who supported the Ottoman Empire, which had allied with the Central powers in the war. As a consequence of this alliance, Ibn Saud received fi nancial support from the British. By 1922 Ibn Saud had defeated the Rashidis and had doubled his territorial holdings. In 1926 he defeated another rival, Sherif Husayn of the Hashemite dynasty, and captured the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Sherif Husayn was forced into exile, and Ibn Saud effectively became the ruler of Arabia. The British formally recognized the power of the Saud dynasty in the Treaty of Jeddah, which was signed in 1927. Under this treaty Ibn Saud’s title was changed from sultan to king. Ibn Saud consolidated the Saud family’s control over the Arabian Peninsula between 1927 and 1932, when he renamed the conquered territories Saudi Arabia and proclaimed himself king of the new nation. The discovery of petroleum in 1938 gradually brought vast revenues into the previously impoverished country. Ibn Saud used the moneys to enrich both his family and the country, encouraging his nomadic subjects to settle in permanent cities and villages. Saudi Arabia’s contributions to World War II were mostly token, but, although offi cially neutral, the Saudis did provide the Allies with signifi cant oil supplies. Saudi Arabia remained on good terms with the Allies largely because of King Abd al-Aziz’s personal friendship with President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Ibn Saud fathered between 50 and 200 children, and into the 21st century all Saudi kings were his sons. The Saudi Basic Law of 1992 stipulated that the king of Saudi Arabia must be a son or grandson of Ibn Saud. He died in Taif in 1953 and is commemorated as the founder of modern Saudi Arabia. See also Hashemite monarchy in Jordan (1914– 1953); oil industry in the Middle East. Further reading: Eddy, William A. F.D.R. Meets Ibn Saud. New York: American Friends of the Middle East, 1954; I Habib, John S. Ibn Sa’ud’s Warriors of Islam. Leiden: Brill, 1978; McLoughlin, Leslie. Ibn Saud: Founder of a Kingdom. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993. Julie Eadeh India Act (1935) The fi rst Government of India Act (1858, after the Sepoy Rising of 1857) abolished the British East India Company and put India under British government administration. A second act in 1909 introduced the concept of elected government. Still, Indian troops served in World War I because Britain, not India, declared India at war with Germany. In 1917 Secretary of State for India Edwin Montagu promised that India’s government would gradually permit increased Indian participation in the administration of India, with the goal of eventual self-rule. Then the war ended. Although a third Government of India Act in 1919 gave local control of “nation building” areas such as education, it retained law and order and fi nance for Parliamentappointed governors and offi cials responsible to them. This system of power sharing was called dyarchy. Britain’s harsh measures against alleged political extremists and the Punjab disturbances of 1919, including a massacre of 400 at Amritsar, led to the creation of a national Indian movement against British control. A nationalist leader, Mohandas K. Gandhi, rose to the fore. Gandhi led a movement of noncooperation against Britain in 1920–22 and a civil disobedience effort in 1930–31. In 1942 he called for the British to “Quit India.” He led the fi rst negotiations for independence in 1930 at the Round Table Conferences in London. Motilal Nehru, father of Jawaharlal Nehru, was also active in the movement for Indian self-government. He chaired a committee of the All Parties Conference that included Muslims. It issued the “Nehru Report” of 1928 that called for a dominion constitution for India written by Indians. When the all-British Simon Commission visited India in 1927–28, it generated protests that the Indian police repressed violently, leading to the death of Punjabi leader Lalal Lajpat Raj and rallying a new generation of Indian nationalist leaders. Its report in 1930 rejected dyarchy and determined that local autonomy was in order. It proposed the retention of communal electorates for Muslims and Hindus until tensions calmed. The British government drafted legislation to provide the reforms. The Round Table Conferences decided that Britain would unite the princely states with the provinces directly under its administration and eventually give the combined government of India dominion status. The congress and the Muslims split over details, leaving the decisions to the British. The Government of India Act provided autonomy to the 11 Indian provinces it created. It separated Aden and Burma from India, increased the pool of eligible voters from 7 million to 35 million, and created two new provinces—Sind, split from Bombay, and Orissa, split from Bihar. Provincial assemblies included more elected Indian representatives. The governor, often British, retained the rights of intervention in emergencies. The fi rst elections under the act occurred in 1937. The act was the longest bill the British parliament ever passed. Parliament did not trust Indians, particularly Indian politicians, and wanted to be sure there was no room for interpretation or adjustment. Theoretically, it provided self-government in all areas but defense and foreign affairs. In practice, it reserved extensive powers for British intervention in Indian affairs through the British-appointed viceroy and provincial governors who were responsible to the secretary of state for India. The act also had provisions for the formation of a federal government, but because half the states never agreed to its terms, a federation never occurred. It also failed to address the religious problem. Hindus were twothirds of India’s population, leading to concerns by the minority Muslims that they would be treated unfairly. When the Hindu-dominated Congress Party won eight of the 11 provincial elections in 1937 the Muslims led by Mohammad Ali Jinnah began demanding a separate state, Pakistan. Althought the British parliament thought it was realistic to federate states of widely diverging size, sophistication, and structure, it did not happen. The princes failed to recognize that they could control the federation if they united in support of it. Instead, they pursued their own interests with the restult that the federation never received the requisite majority. The act failed to attract signifi cant support from moderates, in large part because they did not trust the British. The Hindu electorate preferred the Congress Party, and the Congress Party wanted dominion status equal to that granted to the white dominions, which included control over foreign as well as internal affairs. The fi rst viceroy after the act was passed was Lord Linlithgow. He was intelligent, honest, hardworking, serious, and committed to the success of the act. He was also stolid, unimaginative, legalistic, and unable to deal with people other than those in his own circle. 162 India Act (1935) Under pressure he turned to administrative details while becoming rigid on strategy. He struggled unsuccessfully to deal with Gandhi, Nehru, and Jinnah. Compromise between the four men was impossible. Indian provinces enjoyed self-rule after 1937 for two years, until the onset of the war. Linlithgow tried and failed to get the princes to accept the federation, but neither the British government nor the princes supported him. In 1939, when Britain and Germany declared war, India was automatically included. His failure to consult with Indian leaders, while constitutionally correct, offended Indian public opinion. The congress ministers, who were not consulted, resigned, while Muslim leaders in provinces where they had a majority cooperated with Britain in war. Thus, chances for Indian unity died. See also Amritsar massacre. Further reading: Low, D. A. Britain and Indian Nationalism. London and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997; Ray, Bharati. Evolution of Federalism in India. Calcutta, India: Progressive Publishers, 1967; Saharay, H. K. A Legal Study of the Constitutional Development of India, Up to the Government of India Act, 1935. Calcutta, India: Nababharat Publishers, 1970. John H. Barnhill India Act, Government of (1919) World War I was important for India’s nationalist movement. Indians of all persuasions overwhelmingly supported Great Britain and the Allied cause during the war. Nearly 800,000 Indian soldiers plus 500,000 noncombatants served in Europe and the Middle East. Communal relations between Hindus and Muslims took several turns between the passage of the India Councils Act in 1909 and 1919. The reunion of Bengal in 1911 (which canceled its partition into two provinces) pleased the Hindus but antagonized the Muslims. The All-India Muslim League began to attract younger and bolder leaders, most notably a brilliant lawyer named Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1946). Similarly Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869–1948) and Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1967) emerged as leaders of the Indian National Congress. Many in India’s Muslim minority became concerned with the ultimate fate of the Muslim Ottoman Empire, which fought in the opposing Central Powers camp. World War I also aroused both the congress and the league to demand signifi cant constitutional reforms from Britain. In 1916 they concluded a Congress- League Scheme of Reforms, known as the Lucknow Pact. It made wide-ranging demands for greater self-government, equality of Indians with other races throughout the British Empire and Commonwealth (in response to racial discrimination in South Africa and Canada), and greater opportunities for Indians in the armed forces of India. In response, the new secretary of state for India, Edwin Montagu, offi cially announced the British government’s commitment to “the gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India” in August 1917. He then toured India, met with Indian leaders, and together with Viceroy Lord Chelmsford drafted a Report for Indian Constitutional Reform in 1918, popularly called the Montagu- Chelmsford Report. A modifi ed version of the report was embodied in the Government of India Act of 1919. It introduced partial self-government to India’s nine provinces in a system called dyarchy, whereby elected representatives controlled the departments of agriculture, sanitation, education, and so on, while the British-appointed governor and his advisers retained control of fi nance, the police, prisons, and relief. This was intended as a step toward complete responsible government. The viceroy, however, retained control of the central government, and the role of the mostly elected bicameral legislature remained advisory. The electorate was expanded, and separate electorates (Muslims elected their own representatives) were kept in place, on Muslim insistence. The Government of India Act was a signifi cant advance in India’s freedom movement. Others included a separate Indian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, in the same manner as the selfgoverning dominions (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa). India also became a member of the League of Nations. But these advances did not satisfy Indian nationalists, who were infl amed by the continuation of wartime laws that abridged civil freedoms, and acts of peaceful and violent resistance continued. Hindu-Muslim accord continued during the Khalifat movement, when Indians supported the Ottoman emperor’s religious leadership as caliph of Islam. The cooperation collapsed when Mustafa Kemal Atatürk established a republic in Turkey and abolished the caliphate in 1923 and also due to increasing competition between the two communal groups for power in a future independent India. Further reading: Dodwell, H. H., ed. The Cambridge History of India. Vol. 6, The Indian Empire, 1858–1918. Cambridge: India Act, Government of (1919) 163 Cambridge University Press, 1932; Majumdar, R. C. The History of the Freedom Movement in India. Vol. 3. Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1963; Nehru, Jawaharlal. The Discovery of India. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1946. Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur India Councils Act of 1909 (Morley- Minto Reforms) During the late 19th century British-educated Indians began to demand a role in their government, which later developed into the independence movement. In 1885 an Englishman founded the Indian National Congress, although most of its members were highcaste Hindus. The congress met annually to promote the goal of greater participation of Indians in government. By the early 20th century a radical wing had developed in the congress that was not content with the slow pace of reform. They were energized by the partition of the huge province of Bengal into two in 1905: East Bengal (including Assam) with a Muslim majority, and West Bengal (including Bihar and Orissa) with a Hindu majority. A storm of protest against the partition ensued and included an economic boycott of British goods and acts of terrorism. The congress was split over this issue, and a radical wing split off to form the New Party. The new viceroy, Lord Minto (1845– 1914), on the one hand acted to repress the unrest, while on the other he worked to enact reforms with the secretary of state for India of the newly elected Liberal government in Great Britain, John (later Lord) Morley (1838–1923). The partition of Bengal was a catalyst for Muslim political consciousness. Since the decline and fall of the Muslim Mughal dynasty, Indian Muslims had fallen behind Hindus in attaining a modern education and adjusting to new conditions. Unlike Hindus, Indian Muslims were encouraged by the formation of East Bengal. Realizing that constitutional reforms were in the works and that they would be a minority in a representative government, Western-educated Muslims led by Aga Khan organized the All-India Muslim League in 1905 and lobbied Minto for a “fair share” for the Muslim community in any representative system. Like the congress, the league also met in annual conventions to formulate goals. In 1909 the British parliament passed the Indian Councils Act. It increased membership of legislative councils in both the central and provincial governments (all appointed up to then) to make elected members the majority in the provincial legislatures. Importantly, educated men who paid a certain sum of taxes were allowed to vote for the first time in Indian history. Some seats were reserved for Muslim candidates, and only Muslims could vote for them. Moreover, the elected members were also empowered to question officials; to debate legislation, including the budget; and to introduce laws. However, the viceroy and the governors still had total control and could veto any laws that were passed. The first elections were held in 1910 and elected 135 Indian representatives, who took their seats at various legislatures throughout India. This act and other measures gradually restored calm to India. The act is important because it established representative responsible government as the goal for India and introduced the elective principle to a nonwhite possession of Great Britain. Further reading: Dodwell, H. H. The Cambridge History of India. Vol. VI, The Indian Empire, 1858–1918. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1932; Wasti, Syed Razi. Lord Minto and the Indian Nationalist Movement, 1905–1910. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964; Wolpert, Stanley. Morley and India, 1906–1910. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967. Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur Indian National Congress (1885–1947) The Indian National Congress (INC) was a leader of the Indian freedom movement against British colonial rule. One of the success stories of the nationalist struggle in Asia, the congress was established in 1885. A political consciousness was arising in the latter part of the 19th century among Indian intelligentsia, and various people emerged to raise their voices against foreign rule. The sincere endeavor of Allan Octavian Hume (1829–1912), along with the efforts of Indian leaders, resulted in the emergence of the INC on December 25, 1885. From its first meeting, held in the city of Bombay (now Mumbai), the INC worked relentlessly to end alien rule in India. In its initial phases the INC was very modest in its demands, such as expansion of legislative councils and an increase in governmental grants to indigenous industries. It even pledged loy- 164 India Councils Act of 1909 (Morley-Minto Reforms) alty to the British Empire. It increased sentiments of national unity and rose above religious, caste, and regional divisions. Dadabhai Naoroji (1825–1917), the president of the INC in its second and ninth sessions, argued that the British government was responsible for poverty in India. The true character of the British Empire was revealed by various demands by the congress. A base also was created for the Congress Party, from which later leaders could work for the cause of Indian independence. But a gradual disillusionment developed against the moderate leadership. A rift occurred, and the radical, or extremist, phase (1905–19) began in the history of the INC. The new generation was drawn from the lower middle class in urban areas. It was more radical in nature and sometimes took recourse to Hindu religious symbols like the Ganapati Festival, which became mass based under Bal Gangadhar Tilak’s direction. The terrorist movement of Bengal invoked the name of the goddess Kali. The extremist brand of politics was aggressive in nature, and it was indigenous, with no attachment to Western ideals. The goal of the extremists was swaraj (self-rule), and their efforts were imbued with swadeshi (indigenous) sentiment directed against foreign goods, dress, and education. The Punjab group was led by Lajpat Rai; the Bengal one was represented by Aurobindo (1872–1950) and Pal. The administration (1899–1905) of Viceroy Lord George Nathaniel Curzon (1859– 1925) decided to partition the province of Bengal in October 1905, leading to the antipartition movement, which engulfed most of the country. Goods from British factories were boycotted, and the use of swadeshi was advocated. A split occurred between the moderates and extremists at the Surat session of 1907, and the moderate leader, Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1866–1915), did not endorse Tilak as president for the 1908 session. The split harmed the INC and the nationalist movement. There was also a rise of communalism in Indian politics and a sizable section of the Muslims did not adhere to the congress ideology. The All-India Muslim League (AIML) was established on December 30, 1906. The INC and the AIML would chart out separate courses, resulting in a vivisection of the country 41 years later. The congress was revived in the Lucknow session of 1916, where both the extremists and the moderates realized that the split was not serving the cause of the nationalist movement. In the same year the Lucknow Pact, which brought Hindu-Muslim rapprochement for the time being, was signed between the congress and the league. Meanwhile, World War I had broken out, and Great Britain declared war on Germany on August 4, 1914. The INC supported the British war efforts in the hope that India would be suitably rewarded in its path toward self-government. But this hope was dashed. The ideals of self-determination presented by U.S. president Woodrow Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference were not applied to colonies in Asia. Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869–1948) was emerging as a mass leader in India and gave a new direction to the Indian freedom movement under the INC. GENERAL STRIKE Gandhi called for a general strike in April 1919, after the draconian Rowlatt Act that empowered the authorities to arrest and detain without trial, was enacted. A large numbers of Muslims began to participate in the activities of the INC. The INC became an umbrella organization drawing support from all classes of the population. The revamping of the internal organization of the congress was retained with some modifi cations in independent India. The Pradesh (Provincial) Congress Committee (PCC) was formed at the state level, with 10 to 15 members belonging to the working committees. At the apex was the All-India Congress Committee (AICC), composed of state leaders from the PCC. The Congress Working Committee, consisting of senior party leaders, was in charge of important decisions. The president of the INC was the national leader, presiding over annual sessions generally held in the month of December. These sessions spelled out the party programs and discussed measures to be taken in the ongoing struggle against British rule. Gandhi’s emphasis on ahimsa (nonviolence) and satyagraha (nonviolent protest) became successful in shaking the foundation of the British Empire. The INC entered a new phase in its struggle against the British raj between 1919 and 1922. The noncooperation movement, with its technique of nonviolent struggle, was launched. At a special session of the AICC held in Calcutta in September 1920, it was decided to initiate noncooperation with the British government by boycotting educational institutions, law courts, and legislatures. The use of hand spinning for producing khadi (cloth) was emphasized. A violent mob, after a police fi ring on February 5, 1922, at Chauri Chaura, attacked the police station, resulting in the deaths of 22 police personnel. Gandhi was Indian National Congress (1885–1947) 165 aghast at this violent path, and the Congress Working Committee meeting at Bardoli suspended the noncooperation movement seven days afterward. Although Congress leaders like Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964) as well as a large section of the populace were stunned by the Working Committee resolution, they abided by the decision. Gandhi was arrested in March 1922 and given six years’ imprisonment for treason. The INC was opposed to the formation of the Simon Commission in 1927–28, which was constituted to look into the constitutional reforms and appointed a committee headed by Motilal Nehru to prepare a constitution for a free India. Dominion status for India was the main feature of the Nehru Report. The All-Party Conference, convened in Calcutta in December 1928, did not agree with the report. Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948), the leader of the AIML, also was against the report because his demands were not met. The radical wing of the congress, led by Motilal’s son Jawaharlal, also was opposed to the report. It was decided to launch civil disobedience for the cause of purna swaraj (complete independence). The congress passed the resolution for complete independence in the historic Lahore session of 1929. The following year the civil disobedience movement started when Gandhi launched the salt satyagraha with his famous Dandi March in March 1930. Gandhi was arrested in May, and altogether 90,000 people were put behind bars. The British realized the need for congress participation and initiated a dialogue. As a result Lord Irwin (1881–1959), the viceroy, signed a pact with Gandhi in March 1931 by which the civil disobedience movement was suspended, and the congress agreed to join the Round Table Conference. In the Karachi session of the INC, talks with the British were endorsed. A city view of Benares, India, in 1922. The rich cultural heritage of the Indian people, evident in the scene above, helped fuel the resolve of India to be independent of British domination and to achieve self-rule through peaceful means. 166 Indian National Congress (1885–1947) The session was important as the congress passed resolutions on basic fundamental rights and launched key economic programs. The British did not accept the congress demand of complete independence, and Gandhi was arrested in January 1932 after returning to India. The congress took part in the elections of 1937 per the provisions of the Government of India Act of 1935 and performed very well in the general constituencies. At the time of World War II it sympathized with the victims of Nazism and fascism. The blitzkrieg by Japan in Southeast Asia had brought the war to India’s doorstep. The AICC passed the famous resolution of “Quit India” on August 8, 1942, and Nehru said that it was a “fi ght to fi nish.” With a motto to “do or die,” the Quit India movement began and was suppressed with the utmost force. The postwar scene was marked by devastating economic consequence of the war, the spread of communalism and communal riots, Jinnah’s indomitable quest for control of Pakistan, and the congress’s desire for a compromise. Great Britain fi nally decided to leave India, which it could not hold with diminished resources, and ordered elections to central and provincial legislatures. The congress captured all the general seats in the center and obtained a majority in all the provinces except Sind, the Punjab, and Bengal. Between 1945 and 1947 there were serious revolts by peasants and workers. The league was determined in its demand for partition of the country. In September 1946 an interim government was formed by the congress. The British prime minister, Clement Attlee (1883–1967), had declared that the British would quit India. A compromise formula was fi nally worked out by the viceroy Lord (Louis) Mountbatten (1900–79) in his talks with the leaders of the congress and the league. It was announced in June 1947 that India and Pakistan would be independent from British colonial rule on August 15, 1947. Further reading: Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar. From Plassey to Partition. New Delhi: Orient Longman, 2004; Burke, Samuel M., and Salim Al-Din Quraishi. British Raj in India: An Historical Review. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1997; Chandra, Bipan, et al. India’s Struggle for Independence. New Delhi: Penguin, 1989; Chopra, P. N. A Comprehensive History of Modern India. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 2003; Judd, Denis. The Lion and the Tiger: The Rise and Fall of the British Raj 1600–1947. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2004; Lawrence, James. The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. London: Abacus, 1998; Masselos, Jim. Indian Nationalism: An History. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1985; Mehrotra, S. R. The Emergence of the Indian National Congress. New Delhi: Rupa, 2004; Nanda, B. R. Three Statesmen: Gokhale, Gandhi, Nehru. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2004; Pati, Budheswar. India and the First World War. New Delhi: Atlantic, 2000; Sarkar, Sumit. Modern India 1885–1947. New Delhi: Macmillan, 1989; Stein, Burton. A History of India. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1998. Patit Paban Mishra Indian Reorganization Act, U.S. This 1934 legislation, also known as the Wheeler- Howard Act, was a New Deal program that signifi cantly reshaped, in mostly positive ways, federal policies concerning the Native American population. Spearheaded by reformer John Collier, the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) empowered tribal leaders, recognized the legitimacy of Indian customs and culture, and preserved Indian land rights. It was not, however, a fi nal “fi x” in the tortured four-century history of white and Native interaction. By 1900, 10 years after the last battle between federal troops and Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, the U.S. Native population had dwindled to 237,000. By 1934 Native land holdings had declined by two-thirds, to 7,500 square miles. Although in 1924 all Natives had been granted U.S. citizenship, the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) continued to supervise every aspect of Natives’ lives, while states with large native populations regularly imposed special restrictions on them. Efforts to separate and “civilize” Indian children continued at places like the Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and Albuquerque, New Mexico, Indian Schools. Sympathetic whites, beginning with Helen Hunt Jackson in 1881 and Charles Lummis in the 1890s, took up the Indian cause in books and articles that caused a sensation but had minimal effect on actual Natives except often to romanticize their history and plight. Lummis was able to interest his Harvard classmate Theodore Roosevelt in some Indian issues. John Collier, likewise born to wealth, was educated at Columbia University and in Paris. In 1919 he fi rst encountered the “Indian problem” while visiting artist and heiress Mabel Dodge Luhan in New Mexico. (She had married Tony Luhan, a Pueblo Indian.) Collier soon came to oppose forced Americanization programs and attacked the competence and honesty of Indian Reorganization Act, U.S. 167 BIA offi cials. At the urging of Collier and his Indian Defense Association, a two-year study, the Meriam Report, was released in 1928. It revealed vast failures in previous federal programs, especially the assimilationist 1887 Dawes Act. Named commissioner of Indian affairs by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933, John Collier created a special public works program for Natives—the Indian Civilian Conservation Corps. Serving as BIA head until 1945, Collier sought out more Indian staff for his agency. The BIA instituted new health programs and encouraged Native practices, including communal living and farming practices that the Dawes Act had tried to wipe out. Less successful were efforts to turn tribal leadership into formal constitutional governing bodies. An estimated 60 percent of tribal units chose not to create governments sanctioned by the IRA. Suspicion kept some tribes from working effectively with their members or with mixed-blood relatives who were no longer tribally affi liated. Traditional Indians did not always appreciate the involvement of “progressive” tribal members who often lived in cities or later fought in World War II. Despite infusions of aid during the Great Depression, Natives, already one of the poorest groups in the United States, saw little meaningful improvement in living conditions. Sometimes other New Deal programs ignored or harmed tribal groups. One such massive project to install dams along the Northwest’s Columbia River fl ooded tribal hunting and fi shing lands. By 1950 the IRA, although still considered a huge improvement over previous relationships between whites and Native peoples, had seemingly reached the limits of its ability to truly improve the lives and autonomy of America’s original inhabitants. Further reading: Philp, Kenneth R. John Collier’s Crusade for Indian Reform, 1920–1954. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1977; Rusco, Elmer R. A Fateful Time: The Background and Legislative History of the Indian Reorganization Act. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2000. Marsha E. Ackermann Industrial Workers of the World The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) was a U.S. workers’ movement that had a signifi cant impact on organized labor during the fi rst two decades of the 20th century. IWW members were commonly known as Wobblies (one story holds that this moniker came from the wobble saw used by lumberjacks). Founded in 1905, the organization was always small, with a peak membership numbering in the tens of thousands during the 1910s, but the Wobblies successfully agitated among many more workers. Infl uenced by European syndicalist ideas about remaking society, they sought to create “one big union” that would bring together all laborers. They offered the vision of a nation in which wages and private profits were abolished, and business-dominated government gave way to “industrial democracy.” Ferocious opponents of the American Federation of Labor, which organized only craft workers, the IWW focused on the semiskilled and unskilled: massproduction factory hands, loggers, longshoremen, migrant farm workers, and domestic servants. Their interest in organizing African Americans and newly arrived immigrants was particularly unusual in an era of racial and ethnic polarization. Unlike other organized labor groups, the IWW rejected the idea of collective bargaining to improve wages and working conditions. They refused to sign contracts, arguing that this would impede workers’ ability to take action. They also were uninterested in traditional political activism, because many of the groups to whom they appealed were unable to vote. Instead, they wanted to foment change by creating a revolutionary proletarian culture. Wobblies typically went out in “fl ying squadrons” of mobile agitators, riding the rails, sleeping in hobo “jungles” on the outskirts of towns, and preaching the IWW message to all those among whom they lived and worked. The Wobblies were known for their constant singing while they traveled or were in jail. Although they often used infl ammatory rhetoric, this was paired with acts of nonviolent civil disobedience. One attention-grabbing tactic was their “free speech” fi ght. The point was to educate onlookers about their constitutional rights and the unjustness of authorities. A Wobbly would stand on a soapbox on a street corner, delivering a harangue. If he or she was arrested, another Wobbly would immediately take up the speech and be arrested in turn, until the local jail was fl ooded and the public expense became prohibitive. The IWW also taught various forms of nonviolent resistance on the job. Workers would surreptitiously slow down their pace of production, or they might deliberately feed a machine too quickly so that the wheels became clogged. The IWW pioneered the use of the sit-down strike; the 168 Industrial Workers of the World fi rst recorded in U.S. history occurred in 1906 in Schenectady, New York, when 3,000 workers trained by Wobblies simply sat down in their factory and refused to leave. While most labor organizations have a formal structure with elected offi cials, a central headquarters, and union locals, the IWW was the opposite: Members often boasted that they were all leaders and that their “locals” could be found under any traveling member’s hat. This decentralization made it possible for the Wobblies to agitate among a wide variety of laborers across the country. In 1912 they enjoyed a major success when they led a strike at textile mills in Lawrence, Massachusetts. They managed to sustain cross-ethnic solidarity among 23,000 workers during the diffi cult winter months, not only winning concessions on pay and work hours but also highlighting issues such as dangerous workplace conditions and child labor. In 1913 they led a similar strike in Paterson, New Jersey, which became a cause célèbre among New York City’s leftist intellectuals, culminating with a dramatic worker pageant held at Madison Square Garden. The Wobblies ultimately failed to build a long-term movement. Workers gravitated to the IWW when they wanted to fi ght for “bread and butter” issues, but upon attaining these immediate material goals they rarely stayed committed to the Wobbly call for revolution. The IWW was viewed as a dangerous organization by business interests, and Wobbly agitators were sometimes subject to brutal repression. For example, in 1916 in Everett, Washington, a deputized crowd at a dock fi red on a steamship full of singing Wobblies, killing or wounding several dozen. When the United States entered World War I in 1917, the IWW had succeeded in organizing copper mines in the West to the extent that national production was threatened. In the heated wartime atmosphere, the IWW was denounced on the Senate fl oor as standing for “Imperial Wilhelm’s Warriors.” The Woodrow Wilson administration decided to prosecute Wobblies for espionage and “criminal syndicalism.” In September 1917 the Justice Department conducted raids on every signifi cant IWW hall, and by the end of the year more than a hundred prominent organizers were locked up. In a mass trial in 1918, the government was unable to show that the Wobblies had committed any crimes, instead focusing on their “seditious and disloyal” teachings. Most were convicted, and over the next several years the organization expended its energies and meager fi nancial resources fi ghting the convictions. Internal schisms and further legal repression left the IWW impotent by the mid-1920s. Further reading: Conlin, Joseph R., ed. At the Point of Production: The Local History of the I.W.W. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981; Salerno, Salvatore. Red November, Black November: Culture and Community in the Industrial Workers of the World. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989; The Wobblies. Documentary fi lm directed by Stewart Bird and Deborah Shaffer (1979). Tom Collins infl uenza pandemic (1918) The infl uenza pandemic of 1918 was, in terms of loss of life, the most catastrophic illness to have ever affl icted the world’s population. Nothing before or since has approached its effects in terms of the number of fatalities or in the speed with which it spread. From the latter part of the 19th century until World War I (1914–18), many Europeans and Americans had taken comfort in the idea that technical, scientifi c, and medical progress had created a better world. The war shattered most of that illusion, but any comfort that might have been derived from advances in medical science were not to be found as millions died from the disease. The infl uenza of 1918 was often referred to as the Spanish infl uenza. It struck Spain, where it was reported on in detail. Because Spain was neutral in the war, there was no press censorship, and so the reports gave many the impression that it had started there. Where it came from is still unknown. Whatever its point of origin, the pandemic killed between 25 million and 100 million people. Even at the lower number, it was a catastrophe; total casualties resulting from World War I were 15 million. One estimate is that 500,000,000 people were infected, onethird of the world’s population in 1918. Fatality rates were generally more than 2.5 percent of those infected. In Asia and Africa any public health statistics were partial or nonexistent. All estimates have to be taken as approximate with a great variance on which numbers can be considered reliable. One estimate, for example, puts the number of deaths in India at 17 million. In the United States estimates of infl uenza-related deaths range from 500,000 to 675,000. Britain’s fi gures of dead were said to be 200,000 and France’s twice that. Earlier recorded pandemics of infl uenza had occurred in 1781, 1830–32, 1847, and 1889. These had crossed from east to west, from Asia to Europe and, to a lesser extent the Western Hemisphere. Although serious, they never approached the level of destruction of influenza pandemic (1918) 169 life found in 1918. The world was a far different place in 1918 than it was earlier, even far different from 1889. The World War had caused large numbers of people to move from one country to another, from one continent to another. It is fairly certain that soldiers from Europe brought the infl uenza virus back to America on troop ships. That war-driven mobility caused the virus to move farther and more rapidly than had ever been the case. Another factor was that the war had displaced large numbers of people who had to live with decreased food supplies, no sure housing, lack of medical care, and susceptibility to infections or sickness. Another factor was the soldiers themselves who were cramped in barracks that were not healthy and who, because of the stress of combat, were physically susceptible to infections. The infl uenza usually struck very quickly. There are many accounts of people appearing to be perfectly healthy and suddenly, within hours, becoming completely debilitated. From that point they could die, often the next day. Those stricken would cough up blood. The coughing was so severe that bodies that were autopsied showed serious tears of internal muscles due solely to severe coughing. Pneumonia combined with the infl uenza, and many essentially drowned because their lungs were fi lled with liquid they could not be rid of. In many cases, a blue tinge would develop at the ears and spread to the rest of the face, darkening it. Doctors and nurses in the United States mentioned that it was often diffi cult to tell Caucasians from African Americans, as patients of both races would become so A demonstration of procedure for nurses at the Red Cross Emergency Ambulance Station in Washington, D.C., during the infl uenza pandemic of 1918, which killed millions of people and infected millions more. 170 influenza pandemic (1918) dramatically discolored. Doctors and nurses generally believed that the most serious cases, the ones who would die, were those that showed the discoloration. The British army’s medical department, as part of its record keeping during the pandemic and in order to educate doctors and nurses what to look for, commissioned artists to draw pictures of soldiers who had been stricken. These illustrations would show the coloration to look for. Even many years after the pandemic, these portraits of ill soldiers, many of them about to die, provide an excellent idea of what they were suffering. The time that the pandemic began has generally been agreed to have been in the spring of 1918. This was the fi rst wave. It was reported and treated in several U.S. Army camps in the Midwest, primarily in Kansas in March. Those soldiers eventually transferred to France, where it is believed they spread the disease. In August sailors from Europe reached Boston and brought the infection to that city. From there it traveled almost immediately to an army post in central Massachusetts, Fort Devens, where it killed 100 soldiers a day. Infl uenza traveled very rapidly down the East Coast, following the transportation corridor created by the railroads. Of the cities on the east coast of the United States, Philadelphia was the hardest hit. By October infl uenza was so serious there that 4,600 people died in one week. The second wave of the pandemic hit hardest through November 1918. Despite the efforts of doctors and nurses, there was very little that could be done. One of the effects of the pandemic was that in many places in the world, especially the United States, the public health service was mobilized. In the end that intervention did not signifi cantly halt or affect the spread of the disease. It did, however, lead to the practice of mobilizing all resources and taking steps by the government to try to halt the disease. Bans and quarantines were put into place. In many communities citizens were forced to wear face masks, or they would not be allowed on trolleys or might even be fi ned or jailed. Reporting on the incidences of disease as well as the quality of reporting changed. Infl uenza had never been reported as a health issue until 1918. Record keeping was more stringent and included tissue samples, some of which would be used over 70 years later to support research on the spread of infl uenza and reconstruct the genome of the 1918 virus. Further reading: Barry, John M. The Great Infl uenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in History. New York: Viking, 2004; Byerly, Carol R. Fever of War: The Infl uenza Epidemic in the U.S. Army During World War I. New York: New York University Press, 2005; Davies, Pete. Catching Cold the Devil’s Flu: The World’s Deadliest Infl uenza Epidemic and the Scientific Hunt for the Virus That Caused It. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 2000; Duncan, Kirsty. Hunting the 1918 Flu: One Scientist’s Search for a Killer Virus. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003; Johnson, Niall. Britain and the 1918–19 Infl uenza Pandemic: A Dark Epilogue. London: Routledge, 2006. Robert Stacy International Court of Justice (ICJ) The International Court of Justice (ICJ), often referred to as the World Court, is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN) and was formally established by the Charter of the United Nations in 1945 under articles 92–96. The ICJ is the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) established in 1920 by the League of Nations to address the issues raised after the cessation of World War I. The ICJ is located at the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, and is the only body of the UN not located at UN headquarters in New York. The statute of the ICJ is similar to that of its predecessor and is the main constitutional document regulating the court. The court operates in two offi cial languages, French and English, and all judicial activity is published in both languages. The ICJ as such has no criminal jurisdiction, and consequently it cannot try individuals charged with war crimes; these cases fall to national jurisdictions and to criminal tribunals established by the UN. Jurisdiction is often a crucial question for the ICJ, whose key principle is consent. The issue of jurisdiction is considered in only two types of ICJ cases: those pertaining to legal disputes submitted by member states on contentious issues, which often pertain to boundary disputes, and the provision of advisory opinions on specifi c legal questions raised. Unlike contentious issues, an advisory opinion is an opportunity for a UN member or agency to address a question before the ICJ. The court typically seeks out useful information pertaining to questions raised and provides a forum to present such questions. A nonbinding opinion on the matter is then published to the UN member states. Under article 93 of the UN Charter, all UN members fall under the court’s statute. Non-UN members may also become parties to the court’s statue under article 93(2). The court comprises 15 judges elected to nineyear terms by the UN General Assembly and Security International Court of Justice (ICJ) 171 Council, with only one judge per any nationality sitting at one time on the court. Judges sitting on the court do not represent their respective countries and are free to vote against their national self-interests in pursuit of the goals of the UN Charter. Sources of law applied by the court include using international customs and procedures, current conventions and treaties, judicial decisions and teachings of highly qualifi ed individuals, and application of general principles of law recognized by civilized nations. Further reading: David, C. D. The United States and the First Hague Peace Conference. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1962; Rosenne, S. The World Court: What It Is and How It Works. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2003; Scott, J. B. The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907: A Series of Lectures Delivered Before the Johns Hopkins University in the Year 1908. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1909. Paul von Jankowsky Iran-Soviet relations Well before the 1920s one of Iran’s greatest political obstacles was the imperial rivalry between Great Britain and Russia. Both imperial powers felt that Iran was of vital importance to their respective empires, and, spurred by economic interests, the British and the Russian czars followed by the Soviet government vied for infl uence and control over Iran. During World War I Iran declared neutrality. When Britain and Russia became allies in the war against Germany, they secretly entered into the Constantinople Agreement, by which they would divide Iranian territory between themselves. Denied representation at the Versailles Peace Conference following World War I, Iran faced postwar occupation by Britain not only in the south but also in the north after the Bolsheviks overthrew the Russian czarist monarchy and withdrew Russian military forces. Oil, protection of the route to India, and its postwar mandate over neighboring Iraq ensured Britain’s continued interest in Iran. In contrast, the Soviets renounced the czar’s imperialistic policies and declared the Constantinople Agreement void. The Soviet regime then recognized Iran’s right to selfdetermination and repudiated historic concessions made by former Iranian governments. During this period Soviet foreign policy objectives varied. Soviet offi cials wished to establish friendly relations with bordering countries and to oppose Western domination in order to spread the communist revolution. To this end, Iran was of utmost importance, and the new Soviet policy effectively weakened British control over Iran. Six days before the signing of the Iran-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, a coup led by Colonel Reza Khan overthrew the Iranian government. Khan’s rise to power culminated with his accession as shah in 1925 and the founding of the Pahlavi dynasty. Khan’s government initially instituted a wide variety of modernizing reforms. As Khan consolidated power his regime became less progressive and more dictatorial. Relations with the Soviet Union were of considerable concern, particularly as the traditional power struggle between Great Britain and Russia had refashioned itself into a struggle between capitalism and communism. Iran had come to rely on Soviet trade, thus making it vulnerable to Soviet advances. In 1927 Khan negotiated an ad hoc agreement with the Soviets that sought a trade balance and defi ned terms for bilateral trade delegations. Iran’s relations with the Soviet Union were also complicated by territorial disputes involving the northern region and access to the Caspian Sea. On February 20, 1926, Khan negotiated a treaty attempting to resolve the dispute; the treaty created a joint territorial commission but granted it little power to effect decisions, and the territorial issues remained. Iran also had problems with foreign interference, and on October 1, 1927, it signed a Treaty of Guarantee and Neutrality with the Soviet Union. The treaty was a nonaggression pact that assured that neither country would interfere in the other’s internal operations. For the Soviet Union the treaty allayed border security fears, but it caused discontent in Iran, which saw it as a continuation of historical external encroachment on its right to sovereignty. After World War II Iran would shift its alliance toward the United States in order to prevent Soviet expansion along the border. Further reading: Avery, Peter. Modern Iran. London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1965; Ramazani, Rouhollah K. The Foreign Policy of Iran: A Developing Nation in World Affairs, 1500– 1941. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1966; Sicker, Martin. The Bear and the Lion: Soviet Imperialism and Iran. New York: Praeger, 1988; Spector, Ivar. The Soviet Union and the Muslim World, 1917–1958. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1959. Michelle Donnelly 172 Iran-Soviet relations Iraqi rebellion (1920) The Iraqi rebellion of 1920 was a massive nationalist revolt against the British occupation of the country. In 1915 in the midst of World War I, British and imperial troops moved into southern Iraq and then north toward Baghdad, where they were defeated by Ottoman troops. In 1917 a new British expedition took Baghdad, and by the end of the war they controlled the northern Iraqi province of Mosul as well. Mosul was of particular importance owing to its oil fi elds, over which the British meant to retain control. The initial British occupation met with little Iraqi resistance, but after the San Remo Treaty of 1920 formalized British control under the mandate, Iraqi opposition to a prolonged occupation mounted. The full-scale war that broke out in the summer of 1920 raged throughout the country but was particularly strong in rural areas. The war united Iraqis representing a complex mix of religious and ethnic groups. Sunni Muslim Kurds in the north, who wanted the British out of Mosul, joined with Shi’i in the south in their opposition to the British. Shi’i centers around the holy cities of Karbala and Najaf were among the fi rst to resist. Tribal confederacies also joined the struggle, as did women who collected money for the cause and served as messengers. The war raged for four months and took the British by surprise. Arnold Wilson, the top British civilian offi cial in Iraq, had advocated a policy of direct control and had predicted no diffi culties in holding the territory, but as the violence grew and casualties mounted the British were forced to bring in reinforcements. The British smashed the rebellion with military force and even employed the Royal Air Force to bomb tribal armies with poison mustard gas. In the face of British military superiority and internal disputes that prevented a clear-cut chain of command or unifi ed strategy, the revolt was crushed. In the course of the rebellion, over 400 British troops and 10,000 Iraqis had been killed. The British sent Sir Percy Cox to Baghdad to help bring civilian order, and he set up an Iraqi interim government. At the Cairo Conference of 1921 the British addressed the problems of governing Iraq. The British decided on a policy of indirect rule, whereby the façade of independence would be created through the establishment of an Arab monarchy led by Faysal, son of Sherif Husayn and a member of the respected Hashemite family, which would be closely linked to Britain. Britain thereby retained real control over the foreign affairs and economic wealth of Iraq, particularly its oil reserves, without assuming the fi nancial costs necessitated by a large military presence and direct rule. See also Hashemite dynasty in Iraq. Further reading: Abdullah, Thabit A. J. A Short History of Iraq from 636 to the Present. London: Ithaca Press, 1976. Polk, William Roe. Understanding Iraq: The Whole Sweep of Iraqi History, from Genghis Khan’s Mongols to the Ottoman Turks to the British Mandate to the American Occupation. New York: HarperCollins, 2006. Janice J. Terry Irish independence Constitutional nationalists had long worked to pass home rule bills that would achieve Irish independence from Britain. None had achieved a lasting selfgovernment for the Irish people. In Dublin on April 24, 1916, the Easter Uprising changed the struggle for Irish independence, not because of its military success but because of the British reaction to the Irish nationalists. With 450, mostly civilians, killed and 2,614 wounded, Britain exacted severe punishments upon the perpetrators of the rebellion. Seven men who had signed the Easter Proclamation, outlining the objectives of the rebels, were executed. The rebels quickly became martyrs in the eyes of the Irish and radicalized many who had previously been moderates. The Irish Political Party, once dominant in English parliamentary politics, had advocated moderation and limited autonomy, but it became increasingly marginalized following the rebellion. Alternatives to the Irish Political Party emerged, and several organizations, including Sinn Féin and the Irish Republican Brotherhood, advanced nationalist goals. To many, British domination was cultural and social as well as political. They felt that British goods, the British educational system, and the Anglican religion had erased Irish identity. Organizations such as the Gaelic League and the Gaelic Athletic Association provided outlets for the expression of Irish cultural heritage based on education, language, and literature. Sinn Féin’s success in the 1918 election secured its dominance in the independence movement. The Easter Uprising had occurred when Britain had been preoccupied with World War I, and Britain feared that a successful Irish separatist movement would spark similar revolts in its far-fl ung colonial holdings. Irish independence 173 In 1918 Britain indicated that it would extend conscription to Ireland. The so-called conscription crisis further spurred and unifi ed Irish nationalists. Rebels were encouraged by Woodrow Wilson’s principles of self-determination, which intimated that every nation had the right to independence and sovereignty. In 1919 Irish representatives even traveled to attend the Paris Peace Conference in the hopes that Irish independence would be addressed during the postwar peace negotiations. From 1919 to 1921 the progressive use of physical force effectively transformed the struggle into a guerrilla war. Much of the fi ghting began during the last 12 months of the confl ict, which caused over a thousand deaths. British reaction was harsh; there were frequent police raids of nationalist houses and largescale arrests. But British retaliation only escalated the violence. The Black and Tans, former servicemen who supported the British police, became notorious for violent tactics. Irish prisoners often went on hunger strikes as a form of political protest. On November 21, 1920, known as Bloody Sunday, 26 people were killed when nationalists attacked British intelligence agents and the British police retaliated during a Gaelic football game. Martial law was imposed on parts of the country, and an attempt was made to negotiate peace. On July 9, 1921, the two sides agreed to a truce. Éamon de Valera, then president of Sinn Féin and later president of the Dáil Éireann (the Irish parliament based in Dublin), met with British prime minister David Lloyd George several times over the summer of 1921. In these negotiations Valera insisted on a completely independent and unifi ed state. The British delayed granting independence but did agree to an Anglo-Irish Conference. In the fall of 1921 a threeperson delegation from the Dáil was chosen to represent Ireland. The resulting Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed on December 6, 1921, created a new but divided Ireland consisting of a six-county Northern Ireland linked to Britain, but with its own form of home rule. Mainly Protestant, the northern Ulster province had long opposed Irish independence. The remaining 26 counties formed a distinct Ireland with limited autonomy and ensured continued allegiance to the British monarch. With none of the major objectives met, the Irish delegation returned to angry resistance from the rest of the Dáil cabinet. Valera, who had decided not to participate in the conference, had instructed the delegation to consult with the rest of the cabinet prior to agreement on central issues and to send a draft of the treaty for review before signing it, but the delegation had not done so. Michael Collins, representing the delegation, continued to support the treaty, while Valera remained adamantly opposed and continued to press for complete Irish independence. A bitter civil war between those opposing and those supporting the treaty ensured that the violence continued. Further reading: Costello, Frances. The Irish Revolution and Its Aftermath: 1916–1923, Years of Revolt. Portland, OR: Irish Academic Press, 2003; English, Richard. Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA. London: Macmillan, 2003; Hopkinson, Michael. The Irish War of Independence. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 2002; O’Leary, Cornelious and Patrick Maume. Controversial Issues in Anglo-Irish Relations: 1910–1921. Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2004. Michelle Donnelly Éamon de Valera (right) was the president of Sinn Féin and later of the Dáil Éireann, the Irish parliament based in Dublin. 174 Irish independence isolationism, U.S. Isolationism played a dominant role in U.S. foreign policy in the fi rst half of the 20th century. Particularly during the 1930s, the United States sought to retreat behind its ocean borders and decrease if not eliminate its international responsibilities. After World War II, isolationism became increasingly discredited and was replaced by cold war internationalism as the dominant U.S. foreign policy belief. Despite increasing reliance on foreign trade as a pillar of the U.S. economy, the United States sought to limit its global responsibilities in the aftermath of World War I. The Senate’s rejection of the Versailles Treaty meant that the United States would not join the League of Nations despite the fact that it was primarily the creation of President Woodrow Wilson. Instead, the United States pursued a policy of independent internationalism during the 1920s, promoting naval disarmament at the Washington Conference in 1921–22; establishing a “reparations triangle,” which established a relationship between German reparations payments to the Allies and Allied war debt payments to the United States through the Dawes and Young Plans (1924 and 1929, respectively); and intervening in Central America and the Caribbean throughout the decade. The onset of the Great Depression began to reverse this internationalism. During the latter stages of the Hoover administration and the most of the fi rst two terms of the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration, isolationist sentiment grew in Congress and in the country. This desire to limit involvement in the growing confl icts found in Europe and Asia in the mid-1930s became public policy through the creation of the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937. The Neutrality Act of 1935 forbade arms sales to belligerents during a recognized state of war. The Neutrality Act of 1936 renewed the 1935 provision and added a commitment to stay out of the ongoing Spanish civil war while also forbidding loans by banks to belligerents. The Neutrality Act of 1937 added to the fi rst two provisions that forbade citizens from traveling on belligerents’ vessels and limited trade in nonmilitary goods with belligerents to a “cash-and-carry” basis, meaning that belligerents could purchase nonmilitary items from the United States with cash only and would have to pick up the goods from the United States in their own ships. These three acts limited presidential control of foreign policy by eliminating any distinction between aggressors and victims in a confl ict, eliminating a key moral component from U.S. policy. That these acts had very little relationship to the actual events in Europe and Asia troubled the isolationists not at all. Their goal was to keep the United States out of the growing confl icts in the rest of the world. The Roosevelt administration’s acquiescence in the creation of these acts refl ected the president’s emphasis on dealing with the Great Depression. The primary movers behind the Neutrality Acts tended to support the New Deal. As events in Europe and Asia pushed the world once again toward war, Roosevelt began to take tentative steps toward challenging isolationist dominance. On October 5, 1937, he spoke to a nationwide audience from the isolationist stronghold of Chicago. In the speech he called for the quarantine of aggressor nations by the world’s peace-loving peoples. However, when the British sought clarifi cation on what Roosevelt intended to do to carry out this quarantine, the president responded that both U.S. public opinion and the Neutrality Acts precluded any actual preemptive actions by the president. Roosevelt all but repudiated the speech over the next several weeks. One of the primary consequences of U.S. isolationism was the enhanced commitment of Britain and France to a policy of appeasement. If they could not count on the United States for loans, guns, or assistance, the British and French did not believe they could credibly resist Germany militarily. Hence, they were willing to trade land for peace, acquiescing in the Anschluss (unifi cation) of Germany and Austria in March 1938. After a summer of crisis created by Adolf Hitler’s demand for autonomy for ethnic Germans living in the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, the British and French pressured the Czech government to meet the demand. When Hitler responded by changing the demand to German annexation of the territory, the British and French at fi rst reluctantly mobilized their militaries but then agreed to meet with Hitler and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini at Munich, where the Czechs were forced to cede the territory to Germany. During the intervening year, Roosevelt slowly and tentatively began to challenge isolationist dominance, specifi cally requesting a liberalization of the Neutrality Acts’ limitation on arms sales in his State of the Union message on January 4, 1939. Building on the anti- German outcry over the Kristallnacht attacks on German Jews on November 10, 1938, Roosevelt began to salt his discussions with congressional leaders and the press with references to the growing danger of Germany, a danger confi rmed by its seizure of the remainder of Czechoslovakia on March 15, 1939. This aggression isolationism, U.S. 175 ended the policy of appeasement by Britain and France and seemed to strengthen Roosevelt’s hand in demanding Neutrality Act revision. When the war began with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, followed by the French and British declarations of war two days later, Roosevelt seized the opportunity to act. After issuing a neutrality proclamation in which he clearly was not calling for an absolutely neutral stance toward the belligerents in Europe, Roosevelt called Congress back into session to again take up the issue of revising the Neutrality Acts. Despite fi erce resistance from the isolationists, the arms embargo was lifted. However, the isolationists did force a cash-and-carry provision into the act for the sale of arms and munitions. Through 1940 and especially after the fall of France in June, isolationists hammered away at the sale of arms to the British, calling for arms to be used to defend the United States instead. Led by the organization America First, the isolationists predicted Britain’s defeat and criticized Roosevelt for wasting U.S. resources on a lost cause. The most formidable spokesman for America First was aviation hero Charles Lindbergh, who argued that the Germans were far superior to the British in air power and that this would inevitably lead to Britain’s defeat. Nevertheless, Roosevelt not only continued to sell increasing amounts of arms to the British, he also authorized a trade of 50 U.S. destroyers to Britain in return for the right to lease nine British bases in the Western Hemisphere. The destroyers would both help the British convoy goods across the Atlantic and serve as morale-boosting evidence of the U.S. potential to assist. Ironically, while isolationists condemned Roosevelt’s behavior in the Atlantic as designed to trigger U.S. entry into the war, it would be events in Asia that would actually bring about the end to neutrality and isolationism. U.S. economic sanctions against Japan over the seizure of French Indochina, particularly an embargo on the sale of oil, led to tense negotiations between the two sides. Ultimately, the negotiations failed because of incompatible goals; the United States demanded Japanese withdrawal from Indochina and China in return for normalizing trade, while the Japanese demanded that the United States recognize the new territorial arrangements in Asia and resume normal trade. As the talks broke down, the Japanese government implemented the plan of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto to launch a surprise attack on the American Pacifi c Fleet at anchor at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. By attacking the United States in this manner, the Japanese accomplished something Roosevelt had failed to do for the previous two years: unite the people of the United States behind intervention in the war while mortally wounding isolationism in the United States. On December 8, 1941, Congress approved a declaration of war against Japan, with only one member dissenting. Isolationism was discredited, and the United States united behind the war effort. Further reading: Doenecke, Justus. The Battle against Intervention, 1939–1941. Malabar, FL: Krieger, 1997; Jonas, Manfred. Isolationism in America, 1935–1941. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1966; Kennedy, David. Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999; Sarles, Ruth. A Story of America First: The Men and Women Who Opposed U.S. Intervention in World War II. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003. Richard M. Filipink, Jr.