ENCYCLOPEDIA OF WORLD HISTORY
Volume I - The Ancient World - Prehistoric Eras to 600 c.e. Edit
List of ArticlesEdit
Adrianople, Battle of (378 c.e.)
African religious traditions
Ahab and Jezebel
Akhenaten and Nefertiti
Alexander the Great
apocalypticism, Jewish and Christian
Ark of the Covenant
Augustine of Hippo
Axial Age and cyclical theories
Babylon, early period
Babylon, later periods
Ban Biao (Pan Piao)
Basil the Great
Book of the Dead
Brendan the Navigator
Buddhism in China
Caracalla, Edict of (212 c.e.)
Cato, Marcus Porcius (the Younger)
Christian Dualism (Gnosticism)
classical art and architecture, Greek
Classical Period, Greek
Clement of Alexandria
Code of Justinian
Confucianism as a state ideology
Constantine the Great
Coptic Christian Church
Cyril of Alexandria
Damascus and Aleppo Daoism (Taoism) Darius I David Delphic oracle Demosthenes Desert Fathers and Mothers Deuteronomy Dharma Sutras Diadochi Diocletian Dravidians Druids and Picts Duke of Zhou (Chou) Dunhuang (Tun-huang)
Ebla Edessa Egeria Egypt, culture and religion Elam Eleusis Ephesus and Chalcedon, Councils of Ephrem Epicureanism Era of Division (China) Essenes Esther, book of Ethiopia, ancient Etruscans Euripides Eusebius Ezana
Fa Xian (Fa-hsien) Fertile Crescent First Americans Flavian emperors food gatherers and producers, prehistory
Gandhara Ganjin Gaul Gautama Buddha Georgia, ancient Gilgamesh Gracchi Great Wall of China Greek Church Greek city-states Greek colonization Greek drama Greek mythology and pantheon Greek oratory and rhetoric Gregory the Great Guangwu (Kuang-wu) Gupta Empire gymnasium and athletics
Hadrian Hagia Sophia Han dynasty Hannibal Han Wudi (Han Wu-ti) Helena Helen of Troy Hellenistic art Hellenization heresies Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon Herods Hesiod Hezekiah hieroglyphics Hindu philosophy Hippocrates, Galen, and the Greek physicians Hittites Homeric epics Hundred Schools of Philosophy Huns Hurrians Hyksos
imperial cult, Roman Indo-Europeans Indus civilization Israel and Judah
Jainism Jerome Jesus (Christ) of Nazareth Jewish revolts Job and theodicy John the Baptist Jomon culture Josephus, Flavius Josiah Judah ha-Nasi Judaism, early (heterodoxies) Judges Julian the Apostate Julio-Claudian emperors Justinian I
Kama Sutra Kanishka Kautilya Khosrow I Kija Kingdom of God King’s Highway and Way of the Sea Kush Kushan Empire
Laozi (Lao Tzu) and Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu) late barbarians Latin Church Legalism legionaries Leonidas Leo the Great libraries, ancient x List of Articles Libya Linear A and B Liu Bang (Liu Pang) Lo-lang Lu, Empress Lucian Luoyang (Loyang) lyric poetry
Ma Yuan Maccabees Mahabharata Maotun (Mao-t’un) Marathon, Battle of (490 b.c.e.) Marcellinus, Ammianus Mari Marius and Sulla martyrologies Mauryan Empire Maximus the Confessor Maya: Classic Period Maya: Preclassic Period Medes, Persians, Elamites Megasthenes Mencius Meng Tian (Meng T’ien) Meroë Mesoamerica: Archaic and Preclassic Periods Mesoamerica: Classic Period messianism Middle Kingdom, Egypt migration patterns of the Americas Milan, Edict of (313 c.e.) Minoans Mishnah Mittani Mohenjo-Daro monasticism Moses Mozi (Mo Tzu) Mycenae mystery cults
Nabataeans Native Americans: chronologies and peoples Native Americans: regional adaptations Nebuchadnezzar II Neolithic age Neoplatonism Nero Nestorius and the Nestorian Church New Comedy New Kingdom, Egypt Nicaea, Council of Nineveh Nubia
Odovacar Old Kingdom, Egypt Olmecs Olympic Games Oriental Orthodox Churches Origen Ostracism Ostrogoths and Lombards
paideia paleoanthropology Paleolithic age Palmyra Panathenaic Festival Parthenon Pataliputra Patriarchs, biblical patricians Patrick Paul Pax Romana Peisistratus Peloponnesian War Pericles persecutions of the church Persepolis, Susa, and Ecbatana Persian invasions Persian myth Petronius pharaoh Pharisees Philip of Macedon Philo Phoenician colonies pilgrimage Platonism polis Pompeii and Herculaneum Pompey Pontius Pilate pre-Socratic philosophy prophets Psalms Pseudepigrapha and the Apocrypha Ptolemies pyramids of Giza Pyrrhus Pythagoras
Qin (Ch’in) dynasty Qumran
Ramayana Ramses I Ramses II Ravenna Red Eyebrow Rebellion religious inclinations, prehistory Roman Empire Roman golden and silver ages Roman historians Roman pantheon and myth Roman poetry Rome: buildings, engineers Rome: decline and fall Rome: founding Rome: government Rosetta Stone
Sadducees Sakyas San and Khoi tribes Sanskrit Sappho Sargon of Akkad Sassanid Empire Saul scribes Sea Peoples Second Sophistic Seleucid Empire Seneca Septimus Severus Servant Songs of Isaiah Shang dynasty List of Articles xi Shintoism Silk Road Sima Qian (Ssu-ma Ch’ien) Simeon the Stylite Sinai, Mount Six Schools of classical Hindu philosophy Socrates Soga clan Sogdians Solomon Solon sophism Sophocles Spartacus Stoicism Suiko Sumer Sunzi (Sun Tzu) Syracuse Syriac culture and church
Talmud Tantrism Teotihuacán Tetrarchy Thebes Themistocles Theodoric Theodosius I Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism Three Kingdoms, China Three Kingdoms, Korea Toba (T’o-pa) dynasty Torah Trajan Tripitaka Triumvirate Troy Trung sisters Turabdin
Ugarit Ulfi las Ur
Vardhamana Mahavira Vedas Vedic age Vercingetorix Visigoth kingdom of Spain
Wang Mang Wei Man (Wiman) Wen and Wu wisdom literature
Xerxes Xia (Hsia) dynasty Xiang Yu (Hsiang Yu) Xiongnu (Hsiung-nu) Xunzi (Hsun Tzu)
Yamato clan and state Yao, Shun, and Yu Yayoi culture Yellow Emperor (Huangdi or Huang Ti) Yellow Turban Rebellion Yemen Yuezhi (Yueh-chih)
Zakkai, Yohanan ben Zhang Qian (Chang Ch’ien) Zhou (Chou) dynasty Zoroastrianism
List of Maps Edit
The World: From Prehistory to 10,000 b.c.e. M1
The Beginning of Agriculture, 9000–500 b.c.e. M2
Civilizations in Europe and Asia, 3500–1500 b.c.e. M3
Ancient Mesopotamia, 3000–2000 b.c.e. M4
Ancient Egypt, 2795–1640 b.c.e. M5
Babylonian Empire, c. 1750–c. 1595 b.c.e. M6
Egyptian Asiatic Empire under Tuthmosis III, 1450 b.c.e. M7 Trade Routes of the Mycenaeans and Minoans M8 Ancient Palestine, 925–722 b.c.e. M9 Asian Empires, 600 b.c.e. M10 Assyrian and Babylonian Empires, 950–539 b.c.e. M11 The Persian Empire M12
Greek and Phoenician Routes, c. 500 b.c.e. M13
Persian Wars, 492–479 b.c.e. M14
Greece during the Peloponnesian War, 431–404 b.c.e. M15
Macedonia under Philip II, 359–336 b.c.e. M16
The Empire of Alexander the Great, 334–323 b.c.e. M17
Hellenistic World, c. 300 b.c.e. M18
The Punic Wars, 264–200 b.c.e. M19
Roman Expansion, 240 b.c.e.–30 c.e. M20
The Mauryan Empire, 325–260 b.c.e. M21
Palestine at the Time of Christ M22
China during the Han Dynasty, 202 b.c.e.–250 c.e. M23
Trade Routes of the First Century c.e. M24
Farthest Extent of the Roman Empire, under Emperor Hadrian, 117–138 c.e. M25
Crisis of the Third Century, 250–271 c.e. M26
The Roman Empire under the Tetrarchy, c. 300 c.e. M27
Parthia and the Sassanid Empire, 114–628 c.e. M28
The Rise of Constantine, 306–324 c.e. M29
Barbarian Invasions and Settlements M30
Byzantine Empire under Justinian, 527–567 c.e. M31
Major Religions in the Eastern Hemisphere, c. 600 c.e. M32
2,000,000 B.C.E. First Genus Homo Emerges First example of early humanoids emerge in Africa.
1,000,000 B.C.E. Premodern Humans Migrate out of Africa Prehumans move from Africa into West Asia and elsewhere.
100,000 B.C.E. Homo sapiens in East Africa Homo sapiens communities are established in East Africa.
40,000 B.C.E. Paleolithic Era Paleolithic era lasts to about 10,000 when Mesolithic era begins.
7000 B.C.E. Neolithic Era in Fertile Crescent Neolithic societies based on agriculture emerge in the Fertile Crescent, present-day Iraq and Syria.
6000 B.C.E. Neolithic Societies in Europe, Asia, and Western Hemisphere Neolithic cultures spread around the world.
5500 B.C.E. Egyptians Weave Flax into Fabric In Egypt, fl ax threads are woven together to create fabric for the fi rst time.
4400 B.C.E. Horses Domesticated The domestication of horses provides an important new mode of transportation.
3500 B.C.E. Cuneiform Writing The Sumerians, in present-day Iraq, are the fi rst group to develop a written script called cuneiform. Archaeologists have discovered thousands of clay tablets with Sumerian cuneiform writing on them.
3500 B.C.E. Bronze Made Bronze is made for the fi rst time in a process whereby copper is combined with tin to create a new metal that can be used in many tools.
3500 B.C.E. Sumerian Civilization Sumerian civilization, with city-states and agriculture with irrigation systems, is established in the Fertile Crescent.
3250 B.C.E. Paper Made of Papyrus Reed The fi rst known paper is produced in Egypt.
3200. B.C.E. South America Beginnings of complex societies along the northern Peruvian Pacifi c coast.
3200 B.C.E. Hieroglyphic Writing The Egyptians develop hieroglyphic writing. This style was gradually replaced by the Greek system.
3050–2890 B.C.E. Egypt’s First Dynasty King Menes creates the fi rst dynasty of Egypt and unites Egypt into a single kingdom, bringing together the two separate Lower and Upper kingdoms.
3000 B.C.E. First Chariots The fi rst known use of wheels for transport occurs in Sumer; they are used both for transport and on early chariots.
2900 B.C.E. Great Pyramid Built The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) at Giza outside present-day Cairo is built around 2900. It takes
4,000 stonemasons and as many as 100,000 laborers to build the pyramid.
2900 B.C.E. Indus Valley Civilization begins in the Indus Valley. Most of the peoples of the Harappan civilization live either near or in the city of Harappa or Mohenjo-Daro.
2700 B.C.E. Epic of Gilgamesh In the Fertile Crescent, the epic poem on the founding of Uruk, the fi rst major city, is created.
2700 B.C.E. Founding of China Chinese mythical ruler Yellow Emperor becomes leader of tribes along the Yellow River plain. Chinese writers accept him as the founder of the Chinese nation.
2700 B.C.E. Early Minoan Culture The Minoan civilization emerges on the island of Crete. 2686–2613 B.C.E. Egypt’s Third Dynasty The Third Dynasty is founded by Pharaoh Djoser.
2613–2498 B.C.E. Egypt’s Fourth Dynasty The Fourth Dynasty is founded by the Pharaoh Sneferu. He builds the pyramid at Dahshur.
2350–2198 B.C.E. Three Emperors of China Period of the mythical Three Emperors—Yao, Shun, and Yu —whose reigns are remembered as a golden age.
2341–2181 B.C.E. Egypt’s Sixth Dynasty During the course of the Sixth Dynasty, the powers of the pharaoh decrease. The growing power of the nobility limits the absolute power of the Egyptian kings.
2340 B.C.E. Sargon, King of Akkad Sargon builds Akkad as the new seat of government and unites all of the Sumerian cities into one centrally organized empire.
2205–1766 B.C.E. Xia Dynasty Founded by Emperor Yu, it is traditionally accepted as China’s fi rst historic dynasty.
2060 B.C.E. Third Dynasty of Ur Founded (Sumeria) Ur-Nammu of Ur seizes power from Utukhegal and creates a new Sumerian dynasty. Under his son Shulgi the empire of Ur extends as far as Anatolia.
2055 B.C.E. Mentuhotep II Reunifi es Egypt After a period of strife between the nobles and the kings known as the First Intermediate Period, King Mentuhotep reunites the kingdom under a new dynasty.
2000 B.C.E. Great Stone Palaces at Knossos The stone palaces at Knossos and Malia are built on Crete at around 2000.
2000 B.C.E. Babylonians Develop Mathematic System The Babylonians develop a mathematical system based on units of 60. They also divide a circle into a 360 units.
2000 B.C.E. Preclassic Period in Maya Zones Permanent settlements mark the emergence of the Early Preclassic Period in the Maya zones of Mesoamerica.
1991–1786 B.C.E. Amenemhat I Founds the Middle Kingdom Amenemhat I reduces the power of the nobles and establishes a strong central government.
1900 B.C.E. Cotton Used for Textiles in Asia and Fishnets in Peru Beginning around 1900 b.c.e., the Harappans begin growing and weaving cotton into fabric; Pacifi c Coast polities in central Peru continue growing and weaving cotton into fi shnets, providing a maritime basis for the emergence of Andean civilizations.
1900 B.C.E. Mycenaeans Arrive in Greece Around 1900 b.c.e., the Mycenaeans arrive from the north and gain control of Greece. This is the period of Greek history written about by Homer and known as the Heroic period or Mycenaean age.
1900 B.C.E. Middle Minoan Culture Minoan culture reaches its high point with the construction of great palaces at Phaistos.
1766–1122 B.C.E. Shang Dynasty The Shang dynasty under Tang the Successful replaces the Xia in 1766. The 30 kings of Shang dynasty rule a largely agricultural society that is established in the Yellow River plain.
1792 B.C.E. Hammurabi Conquers Mesopotamia Hammurabi extends the power of Babylon over all of Mesopotamia and develops fi rst codifi ed law in Hammurabi’s Code.
1720–1570 B.C.E. Hyskos Dynasties XV and XVI Sensing the declining power of the Egyptian dynasties, the Hyksos invade Egypt from Syria-Palestine and establish their capital at Avaris; they rule as if they were Egyptian pharaohs.
1500 B.C.E. Aryans Conquer Harappan Civilization The Harappan civilization declines before 1500 due to natural causes. The weakened Harrappans are quickly conquered by northern invaders from the Eurasian steppes known as Aryans. With it the Vedic age begins.
1500–1000 B.C.E. Early Vedic Age in India Indo-European or Aryan peoples spread across the Indo-Gangetic plains in northern India.
1595 B.C.E. Hittites Conquer Babylon, Introduce Chariot Warfare The Hittites, under the command of King Mursilis, combined with the Kassites, defeat the Babylonian army.
1580 B.C.E. New Kingdom of Egypt The New Kingdom is established by the pharaoh Ahmose who forces the Hyksos out of the Nile Delta in 1570 b.c.e.
1540 B.C.E. Egyptians Defeat Nubians Ahmose subjugates Nubia in present-day Sudan.
1450 B.C.E. Greeks Conquer Minoans After trading with the Minoans for a long period of time, the Mycenaeans conquer them.
1400 B.C.E. Iron Age in Western Asia The use of iron by the Hittites gives them a military advantage.
1375–1360 B.C.E. Akhenaten IV
In 1379, Akhenaten IV becomes pharaoh and the Egyptian Empire begins to weaken.
1300 B.C.E. Andean Civilizations Beginnings of complex societies in the Lake Titicaca Basin in the Andean highlands.
1288 B.C.E. Ramses II Fights the Hittites Ramses II fi ghts to regain control of the territory seized by the Hittites. Ramses fi ghts the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh.
1240 B.C.E. Philistine Kingdom Established The Philistines establish themselves in the coastal plain of present-day Israel.
1240–1100 B.C.E. Israelites Established Tradition has it that the Israelites, after escaping from Egypt, establish themselves in Canaan. The Israelites organize into 12 tribes and take control of the land through a combination of military victories and political assimilation.
1200 B.C.E. Olmec Civilization in Mexico and Central America Olmec culture fl ourishes from 1200 to 500 in Mesoamerica.
1186 B.C.E. Ramses III Ramses III of the Twentieth Dynasty, the last powerful pharaoh of Egypt.
1184 B.C.E. Trojan War Legend has it that the Greeks unite under the command of Agamemnon and attack Troy in Asia Minor. After a long siege, the Trojans are forced to submit to the Greeks.
1140 B.C.E. Second Babylonian Empire Begins After an extended period of domination by the Kassites, the second Babylonian empire emerges. 1122–256 B.C.E. Zhou Dynasty in China King Wu defeats the Shang dynasty and establishes the Zhou dynasty.
1122–771 B.C.E. Western Zhou After King Wu’s death, his brother the duke of Zhou consolidates the power of the Zhou dynasty under a feudal system that operates successfully until 771.
1122 B.C.E. First Contact between China and Korea Kija, a Shang prince, and his followers, fl eeing the Zhou conquerors, establish several settlements in Korea.
1100 B.C.E. Development of Phoenician Alphabet Phoenicians inherit a script of consonants and add vowels to form a basis for an alphabet.
1100 B.C.E. Hallstatt Culture Iron is used for the fi rst time in Austria. From Austria the use of iron spreads throughout Europe.
1090 B.C.E. Nubia Becomes Independent With the breakup of the New Kingdom, Nubia once again becomes independent of Egypt.
1090 B.C.E. New Kingdom Dissolved The end of the New Kingdom coincides with the end of the Ramesid dynasty, and Egypt enters a long period of turmoil.
1070 B.C.E. Collapse of Assyria The Assyrian Empire collapses under the assault of Aramaeans and Babylonians.
1050 B.C.E. Chavín Culture in Peru Chavín civilization begins to extend over Peru.
1010 B.C.E. King Saul Saul, the fi rst king of the Israelites, is killed by the Philistines and succeeded by King David.
1000 B.C.E. Middle Preclassic in Maya Zones End of the Early Preclassic period and beginning of the Middle Preclassic in the Maya zones of Mesoamerica.
995 B.C.E. King David Captures Jerusalem King David captures the Jebusite city of Jerusalem and makes the city the capital.
945–730 B.C.E. Libyans Rule Egypt About 945, Libyan settlers, under Shishak, seize control of Egypt and found the Twenty-second Dynasty.
922 B.C.E. King Solomon King Solomon reigns from 961 to 922. During his reign, he consolidates the kingdom of Israel.
900 B.C.E. Etruria The Etruscans spread in Italy, taking control and forming a loosely connected league of cities.
814 B.C.E. Carthage Founded Phoenicians, from present-day Lebanon, create a colony at Carthage, in present-day Tunisia, and it becomes an important world power in its own right.
800–300 B.C.E. Upanishads Written Indian ascetics write a collection of 108 essays on philosophy that are incorporated into Hindu teachings.
800 B.C.E. Chavín Culture in Peru Chavín culture complex emerges in Peruvian Central Highlands and central Pacifi c coast regions.
780–560 B.C.E. Greek Colonies Established The Greeks establish a series of colonies in Asia Minor.
776 B.C.E. First Olympic Games Sacred truces among the Greek city-states allow the gathering of athletes for regular competitions.
770–256 B.C.E. Eastern Zhou The Zhou capital at Hao is destroyed by invading northern tribesmen. A new capital is established to the east at Luoyang, starting the Eastern Zhou period. 753 B.C.E. Rome Founded Tradition has it that Rome was founded in 753; its founder is Romulus, said to be the son of a princess of Alba Longa. 747–716 B.C.E. Kushite Conquests in Egypt The Kushite ruler Piy moves down the Nile from present-day Sudan and conquers large parts of Egypt, including Thebes and Memphis.
722 B.C.E. Kingdom of Israel Falls After a three-year siege, Samaria (the capital of Israel) falls to the Assyrians, who take some 20,000 Israelites into slavery.
707–696 B.C.E. Kushite Dynastic Rule over Egypt King Shabako establishes rule over Egypt and adopts many old Egyptian customs.
660 B.C.E. Empire of Japan Established According to legend, Jimmu Tenno invades Japan’s main island Honshu. There he establishes himself as Japan’s fi rst emperor. He creates the Yamato family
and is believed to be a direct ancestor of Japan’s current emperor.
650–630 B.C.E. Second Messenian War The Messenians led by Aristomenes revolt against Sparta; after 20 years, Sparta subdues the rebellion and reorganizes itself into a military state. 650 B.C.E. Assyrians Destroy Babylon An attempted revolt against the Assyrians by the Babylonians results in the destruction of Babylon. 626 B.C.E. Chaldean Empire Founded by Nabopolasser The Chaldeans take control of Babylon and establish a new dynasty. 621 B.C.E. Greek Lawgiver Draco Athens is ruled by an oligarchy, but a nobleman, Draco, is appointed to create a code of laws. 612 B.C.E. Nineveh Captured and Assyrian Empire Ends Nineveh, the capital of Babylon, is captured by a coalition of armies. The seizure of Nineveh is followed by the capture of Harran in 610, ending the Assyrian Empire. 600–300 B.C.E. Hundred Schools of Philosophy in China All China’s classical schools of philosophy develop during this era of political division as the Eastern Zhou kings lose power. 594 B.C.E. Solon Becomes Archon Athens experiences a period of social and political upheaval and Solon, an esteemed Athenian, is appointed ruler of Athens. 588 B.C.E. Nebuchadnezzar Takes Jerusalem; Babylonian Captivity Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylonian army takes Jerusalem, destroys the Jewish Temple, and takes many Jews into captivity. He builds the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 566 B.C.E. Gautama Buddha Prince Siddhartha founds Buddhism, which rejects the Vedic Hindu caste system and the Vedas. 560 B.C.E. Peisistratus Rules Athens Following the resignation of Solon, Athens is governed by a group of leaders. One of them is Peisistratus, who makes three attempts to seize power, fi nally succeeding on the third attempt. 559 B.C.E. Cyrus the Great Cyrus declares himself king of both Persia and Media. 558 B.C.E. Zoroastrianism Is Founded Zoroaster begins his work as a prophet for the religion of the Persians. 550 B.C.E. Laozi and Daoism Laozi is the mythical founder of philosophy Daoism and reputed author of its classic the Daodejing. 540–468 B.C.E. Mahavira Founds Jainism Jainism is an extremely ascetic religion that offers an alternative to Vedism-Hinduism. 539 B.C.E. Cyrus Takes Jerusalem Cyrus allows the Jews who had been conquered by the Babylonians to return to Jerusalem after his defeat of the Babylonians. 525 B.C.E. Persians Conquer Egypt The end of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty when the last pharaoh is defeated by King Cambyses II of Persia. 521 B.C.E. Darius Cyrus is succeeded by Darius I in 521. Darius spends the fi rst years of his administration suppressing revolts that develop throughout the empire. Darius reorganizes the Persian Empire into separate provinces, or satraps, each with its own governor and tax system. 516 B.C.E. Darius Invades Indus Valley Darius invades India, capturing the Indus Valley, which is annexed to the Persian Empire. 509 B.C.E. Roman Republic Founded The Roman Republic is founded, and Junius Brutus and Tarquinius serve as the fi rst consuls of Rome. 508 B.C.E. Athenian Democracy Established by Cleisthenes Cleisthenes is appointed ruler, enacts fundamental reforms that become the basis of the golden age of Athens, and creates the assembly made up of Athenian males. 499 B.C.E. Greek City-States Revolt The Ionian Greek city-states in Asian Minor revolt against Persian rule. Chronology xxi 490 B.C.E. Battle of Marathon The army of Athens and its allies meet the Persians on the plains of Marathon, about 22 miles from Athens. The decisive Greek victory at Marathon ends the immediate Persian threat. 480 B.C.E. Thermopylae and Salamis The Persians’ quest for world domination is stopped for the second time, allowing the fl owering of Greek civilization, especially in Athens. 479 B.C.E. Founding of Confucianism Confucius—China’s greatest philosopher—founds the school of Confucianism, which becomes China’s state philosophy in the second century b.c.e. 470–391 B.C.E. Moism Is Founded Moism, a school of philosophy, is founded by Mozi. It fl ourishes during the Hundred Schools era in China and subsequently dies out. 460 B.C.E. Age of Pericles The age of Pericles lasts from 461 (when Pericles becomes the dominant politician in Athens) until 429. It is a period of expanding democracy at home and increasing imperialism abroad. 431–404 B.C.E. Peloponnesian War For 27 years, Athens and Sparta engage in warfare. The war ends with a Spartan victory. 429 B.C.E. Hippocratic Oath Named after the famous Greek physician, the oath is still taken by contemporary physicians. 400 B.C.E. Andean Civilizations Decline of Chavín culture complex in Central Highlands and central Pacifi c coast and the rise of Pukará polities in northern Titicaca Basin. 400 B.C.E. Late Preclassic in Maya Zones The end of the Middle Preclassic period and beginning of the Late Preclassic in the Maya zones of Mesoamerica. 400 B.C.E. Decline of the Kush Kushite kingdom with capital at Meroë, in present-day Sudan, begins to decline. 399 B.C.E. Socrates Dies Socrates, the foremost Greek philosopher, who taught Plato, author of the Republic, dies. Their work had a major impact on Western thought. 390 B.C.E. Axum Kingdom in East Africa Axum kingdom based in Ethiopia expands its rule and ultimately defeats the Kushite kingdom. 371 B.C.E. Battle at Leuctra Sparta is defeated at the Battle of Leuctra by Epaeminondas of Thebes. The defeat shatters the myth of Spartan invincibility and ends Sparta’s hegemony over Greece. 359 B.C.E. Philip II Philip II becomes regent of Macedonia and reorganizes the army to make it one of the strongest in Greece. 334 B.C.E. Alexander the Great Alexander the Great leads a Greek army of 35,000 soldiers into battle against the Persian army led by Darius III at Granicus. Alexander’s troops gain the upper hand and kill or capture half of the Persian army, which is forced to retreat. 331 B.C.E. Battle of Gaugamela Darius III and the Persian Empire make a fi nal stand in October 331 at Gaugamela near Arbela in the heart of Assyria. Nearly 1 million men face an army of 50,000 Macedonians under Alexander. Forced to fl ee the battlefi eld, Darius is pursued and eventually assassinated, thereby ending the Persian Empire. 330 B.C.E. Reforms of Shang Lord Shang becomes chief minister of the state of Qin in China and begins to implement legalism as its state philosophy. 326 B.C.E. Mauryan Empire The Maurya dynasty is founded in India by Chandragupta Maurya. It will unite most of the Indian subcontinent plus Afghanistan. 321 B.C.E. Ptolemy Ptolemy, ruler of Egypt, defeats Antigonus at the Battle of Gaza. Ptolemy is supported by Seleucus, who goes on to reconquer Babylonia. 300 B.C.E. Yayoi Culture in Japan This neolithic culture replaces the more primitive Jomon culture. 300 B.C.E. Euclid Publishes Elements The Greek mathematician Euclid, living in Alexandria, publishes a 13-volume work called Elements that lays out, for the fi rst time, the principles of geometry. xxii Chronology 300 B.C.E. Bantus in Western Africa Bantus in western Africa use iron implements, skills perhaps gained from Kushites. 269–232 B.C.E. Mauryan Empire Ashoka expands the Mauryan Empire of India to its maximum. He converts to Buddhism and convenes the third Buddhist Council. 265–241 B.C.E. First Punic War The First Punic War is fought between Rome and Carthage over claims to Sicily. 245 B.C.E. Third Syrian War The Third Syrian War starts when Ptolemy III’s sister is killed by his former wife. Ptolemy responds by invading the Seleucid Empire, advancing all the way to Bactria. 240 B.C.E. Archemides Shows Value of Pi Archemides, the Greek mathematician, is the fi rst to determine the value of pi. He also successfully calculates the area of a circle. 218–201 B.C.E. Second Punic War Carthage and Rome fi ght a 17-year war. It takes place in both Italy, which is attacked by Hannibal, and then Carthage. Rome is victorious. 221 B.C.E. Qin State Unifi es China Qin state in northwestern China establishes a national dynasty and begins imperial age in Chinese history. 216 B.C.E. First Macedonian War The fi rst Macedonian War breaks out when Philip V of Macedonia invades Illyria. The Romans use their superior naval forces to stop the Macedonians. 209 B.C.E. Maotun Unites Xiongnu Tribes The Xiongnu nomadic tribes will become dominant in the steppes and formidable foes of China for the next three centuries. 206 B.C.E. Xiang Yu Attempts to Unify China With the end of the Qin dynasty, Xiang emerges as the strongest contender for leadership of China. He is defeated by Liu Bang in 202 b.c.e. 202 B.C.E. Han Dynasty in China Founded by commoner Liu Bang, the Han consolidates the imperial tradition begun in the Qin dynasty. 200 B.C.E. Bantu Migrations in Africa Bantu migrations from western Africa into central and southern Africa begin and last for several hundred years; Bantus are largely agriculturalists. 195 B.C.E. Wei Man Establishes Kingdom in North Korea Wei Man fl ees China with followers and sets up rule centered at Pyongyang in Korea. His family rules until China annexes northern Korea in 109 b.c.e. 195–180 B.C.E. Empress Lu of China Wife of Liu Bang, she rules as regent after his death; she attempts but fails to establish her own dynasty. 149 B.C.E. Third Punic War The Roman army lands at Carthage and lays siege to the city. After a three-year siege, the Romans capture Carthage and destroy the city. 149–148 B.C.E. Fourth Macedonian War The Macedonians led by Andricus rebel against Roman rule. The Romans defeat the Macedonians and make Macedonia a province of Rome. 144 B.C.E. Aqueducts in Rome The Romans develop an extensive aqueduct system to bring water to Rome. 141–87 B.C.E. Han Wudi His reign sees successful Chinese offensives against the Xiongnu and the beginning of Chinese dominance of Central Asia. The Silk Road fl ourishes and Confucianism becomes China’s state ideology. 138 B.C.E. Zhang Qian “discovers” Central Asia for China His epic journeys leads to Chinese interest in Central Asia and East-West trade via the Silk Road. 111 B.C.E. Annam Conquered by Han China Annam (North Vietnam) comes under Chinese political rule and cultural infl uence. 108 B.C.E. Northern Korea Conquered by Han China It comes under Chinese political rule and cultural infl u ence. 100 B.C.E. Nabatean City of Petra Nabateans, an Arab tribe, establish a thriving commercial state at Petra in present-day southern Jordan. Chronology xxiii 91–88 B.C.E. Social War The Social War breaks out when Italians who are not citizens of the Roman Empire revolt. 87 B.C.E. Sima Qian completes The Historical Records Sima Qian writes the complete history of the Chinese world up to his time, which becomes the exemplar of later Chinese historical writing. 82 B.C.E. Consul Sulla Enters Rome Consul Sulla returns to Rome after subduing opponents of Roman rule. Sulla is elected dictator of Rome.
73 B.C.E. Third Servile War The most famous slave revolt, known as the Third Servile War, is led by the slave Spartacus, a gladiator; Spartacus and his men seize Mount Vesuvius, and thousands of slaves fl ock to his support.
69 B.C.E. Cleopatra Cleopatra reigns as queen of Egypt from 69 to 30 b.c.e.
65 B.C.E. Pompey’s Conquest Roman forces under Pompey defeat Mithridates VI, king of Pontus. Pompey forces Mithridates to fl ee to the eastern Black Sea region and then to Armenia.
60 B.C.E. Triumvirate Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Marcus Crassus form the fi rst triumvirate to rule Rome. 57 B.C.E. Caesar Defeats Tribes Julius Caesar defeats the Celtic Helvetica tribes from what is present-day Switzerland at Bibracate in present- day France. 55 B.C.E. Caesar Invades Britain Caesar leads Roman troops across the Straits of Dover and returns to England the next year with a larger force to defeat the Catuvellauni and establish Roman sovereignty over parts of England. 50 B.C.E. Kingdoms of Korea Founded The kingdoms of Korea are founded around 50 b.c.e. There are the Koguryo in the north, Silla in the southeast, and Pakche in the southwest. 49 B.C.E. Caesar Crosses the Rubicon Julius Caesar and his army cross the Rubicon in northern Italy. By crossing the Rubicon, Caesar defi es the Senate and is guilty of treason. Pompey is forced to fl ee as Roman soldiers fl ock to Caesar, who successfully gains control of all Italy. 44 B.C.E. Caesar Assassinated Caesar is assassinated by a group of Roman senators that includes Marcus Brutus. The death of Caesar is followed by a power struggle between Mark Antony and Octavian. 43 B.C.E. Cicero Assassinated Cicero, the great Roman orator, denounces Antony. In retaliation, Antony orders the assassination of Cicero. 42 B.C.E. Antony Defeats Cassius Mark Antony battles the forces of Cassius at Philippi. Cassius is defeated and commits suicide. Twenty days later, forces under Brutus are also defeated, and Brutus commits suicide. 37 B.C.E. Herod the Great Herod the Great is recognized by the Roman Senate as king of Judaea. The Hasmonean dynasty that had ruled Judaea until this period allies themselves with the Parthians, who are defeated by Mark Antony’s forces. 31 B.C.E. Battle of Actium Mark Antony and Octavian fi ght a naval battle at Actium off Epirus in western Greece. Although the battle is decisive, Antony and his love, Cleopatra, fl ee to Egypt, where Antony’s army surrenders. Antony and Cleopatra kill themselves soon after. 27 B.C.E. Octavian Octavian becomes the “Augustus,” and the era of the Roman Empire begins. C.E. The Common Era begins with the birth of Jesus Christ, although Jesus probably is born between 7 and 4 b.c.e. 6 C.E. Herod Deposed Herod Archelaus is deposed by the Roman emperor Augustus. 9 C.E. German Tribes Destroy Roman Legions Three Roman legions are defeated by a German army led by Ariminus, thereby ensuring German independence from Rome. 9 C.E. Xin Dynasty Wang Mang usurps the Han throne, ending the Western Han dynasty and establishes the Xin dynasty. xxiv Chronology 18 C.E. Red Eyebrow Rebellion Peasant rebellion in China contributes to the downfall of Wang Mang’s usurpation. 25–220 C.E. Eastern Han Dynasty After the death of Wang Mang, the Han dynasty is restored, called the Eastern Han. 30 or 33 C.E. Jesus Crucifi ed Jesus Christ is put to death by the Romans in Jerusalem. 39 C.E. Revolt of Trung Sisters Unsuccessful revolt of Annam (North Vietnam) from Chinese rule. 64 C.E. Rome Burns The city of Rome is nearly destroyed in a catastrophic fi re. The fi re is said to have been set by the emperor Nero. 66 C.E. Judaea Rebels against Rome A rebellion breaks out in Jerusalem against Roman rule. The Romans dispatch an army from Syria to quell the revolt, but it is destroyed on the way to Jerusalem. 68 C.E. Year of the Four Emperors Four separate emperors rule Rome. 70 C.E. Jerusalem Falls Titus succeeds in capturing Jerusalem; he burns Jerusalem, killing or selling into slavery tens of thousands of Jews. 78 C.E. Kushan Empire The Kushan dynasty is established by King Kanishka. It extends from Afghanistan to the Indus Valley and is the melting pot of Greco-Roman, Persian, and Indian cultures. 79 C.E. Mount Vesuvius Explodes Mount Vesuvius erupts, destroying the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. 96–180 C.E. Five Good Emperors Starting with Emperor Marcus Nerva, Rome is ruled by fi ve individuals who become known as the Good Emperors.
100 C.E. Emergence of Moche Culture in Peru Moche culture, which is hierarchical with warriorpriest kings, emerges in Peru and fl ourishes until approximately 700 c.e.
100 C.E. Terminal Preclassic Period in Maya Zones The end of the Late Preclassic period and beginning of the Terminal Preclassic in the Maya zones of Mesoamerica.
122 C.E. Hadrian’s Wall Is Built The Roman emperor Hadrian orders the construction of a defensive wall stretching 70 miles across northern England to keep out the Scottish tribes.
132 C.E. Bar Kokhba Revolt The Jews of Jerusalem rise up in rebellion in 132 after the Romans build a temple to Jupiter on the site of the Jewish Temple. The revolt is led by Simon bar Kokhba and Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph but is ultimately crushed.
167 C.E. German Tribes Invade Northern Italy The German tribes cross the Danube River and attack the Roman Empire.
180 C.E. Marcus Aurelius Dies Marcus Aurelius dies and is succeeded by his son, Commodus. Commodus is the fi rst emperor since Domitian to succeed by virtue of birth, rather than by assassination.
184 C.E. Revolt of the Yellow Turbans A peasant revolt in China contributes to the fall of the Eastern Han dynasty.
200 C.E. Teotihuacán in Mexico Teotihuacán, a vast urban center with pyramids and public buildings in Mexico, fl ourishes to c. 600.
220 C.E. Han Dynasty ends Last Han emperor is forced to abdicate.
220–265 C.E. Three Kingdoms in China Era of wars between three regional states—Wei, Shu Han, and Wu—for control of China.
250 C.E. Early Classic Period in Maya Zones Beginning of the Early Classic Period in the highlands and lowlands of the Maya zones of Mesoamerica.
265–589 C.E. Period of Division Northern China is ruled after 317 by nomadic dynasties of Turkic ethnicity, while southern China remains with ethnic Chinese dynasties. Buddhism is dominant in both north and south.
267 C.E. Queen Zenobia Rules Palmyra Zenobia rules rich trading entrepôt at Palmyra in northeastern present-day Syria and fi ghts against Roman domination until her defeat in 272.
300 C.E. Axum Kingdom in East Africa Axum kingdom rules Ethiopia and later much of present- day Sudan after defeating Kushites; under King ‘Ezana, Ethiopia becomes a Christian country.
320 C.E. Gupta Dynasty The Gupta Empire is founded by Chandragupta I. Under his successor the Gupta Empire extends to include all of northern India.
324 C.E. Constantine the Great Constantine the Great initiates a civil war of succession against his potential rivals for the throne. In a series of engagements that culminates in 324 at the Battle of Adrianople (in present-day Turkey), Constantine defeats his rivals and becomes the undisputed emperor of all Rome.
330 C.E. Byzantium Constantine the Great dedicates his new capital at Byzantium, renamed after himself as Constantinople.
337 C.E. Roman Empire Divides Constantine dies, and the empire is divided with the Western Roman Empire governed from Rome and the Eastern Roman Empire governed by Constantinople.
357 C.E. Battle of Argentoratum At the Battle of Argentoratum in 357, the Roman general Julian drives the Franks from Gaul, thus reestablishing the Rhine as the frontier of the empire.
376–415 C.E. Chandragupta II India reaches its golden classical age. Both Buddhism and Hinduism fl ourish.
376 C.E. Ostrogoths Invaded The Huns, a nomadic Mongol people, sweep in from Asia and defeat the Ostrogoth Empire.
378 C.E. Valens Killed by Visigoths After their defeat by the Huns, the Visigoths seek refuge in the Roman Empire. The Roman emperor Valens gives them permission to cross the Danube as long as they agree to disarm, but the Visigoths are mistreated by Roman offi cials and revolt.
405–411 C.E. Fa Xian Travels to India Chinese Buddhist monk travels to India, records Gupta culture, and returns to China with Buddhist manuscripts.
407 C.E. Romans Withdraw from Britain Western Roman Emperor Honorius withdraws his troops from Britain.
410 C.E. Rome Sacked by Visigoths After a decade of battles, the Visigoths under Alaric sack Rome in 410.
439 C.E. Carthage Captured by Vandals The Roman city of Carthage is captured by Vandals under the command of Genseric, who makes Carthage his capital.
441 C.E. First Saxon Revolt The fi rst Saxon revolt against native Britons occurs in 441.
451 C.E. Attila the Hun Defeated Attila faces the Visigoths and Romans together in the Battle of Chalons (Châlons). Attila is defeated and forced to withdraw.
455 C.E. Saxons Crushs Britons At the Battle of Aylesford in Kent, England, the Saxons led by Hengst and Horsa defeat the Britons. This battle is an important step in the Saxon conquest of Britain.
455 C.E. Vandals Sack Rome The Vandals attack and invade Rome.
476 C.E. Western Roman Empire Ends The Western Roman Empire ends after Emperor Romulus Augustulus is deposed by German mercenaries at Ravenna. The German mercenaries then declare themselves rulers of Italy.
486 C.E. Roman Occupation of Gaul Ends The last Roman emperor of France is defeated by Clovis I, king of the Salian Franks, and Clovis establishes the Kingdom of the Franks.
488 C.E. Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy Theodoric I (the Great) invades northern Italy at the request of the Byzantine emperor. He conquers Italy and establishes the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy.
500 C.E. Ghanaian Kingdom in West Africa The Ghanaian kingdom in western Africa rises to power and reaches its apogee of power in 1050.
500 C.E. Svealand The fi rst Swedish state, Svealand, is founded around
500. The Goths inhabit the southern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. Much of what is known about early Sweden is taken from the epic Beowulf, written in 700 C.E.
500 C.E. Introduction of Zero Indian mathematicians revolutionize arithmetic by introducing zero (0) to number systems.
503–557 C.E. Persian-Roman Wars Between 503 and 557, three successive wars—interrupted by periods of peace—are fought between the Persian Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. In 567 a peace is reached under which Rome agrees to pay the Persians 30,000 pieces of gold annually, the borders between the empires are reaffi rmed, Christian worship is to be protected in the Persian Empire, and regulations regarding trade and diplomatic relations are delineated.
507 C.E. Kingdom of Franks Clovis defeats the Visigoths under Alaric II at the Battle of Vouille. The Visigoths retreat into Spain, where they retain their empire.
530 C.E. Western Monasticism Saint Benedict formulates his rule, enabling monasteries in Europe to preserve treasures of civilization as the Roman Empire decays.
532 C.E. Nika Revolt A popular uprising against the emperor Justinian occurs in Constantinople, but the emperor, with the support of Empress Theodora, crushes the revolt.
537 C.E. Hagia Sophia Basilica Built The Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is completed. The basilica represents the apogee of Byzantine architecture. It was later made into a mosque by the Ottomans in 1450.
550 C.E. Gupta Empire Ends India is disrupted by rebels and Huna invaders.
552 C.E. Battle at Taginae The Byzantine army invades Italy and defeats the Ostrogoths using a combination of pikes and bows.
552 C.E. Buddhism Introduced to Japan Buddhist missionaries from Korea reach Japan and begin to infl uence the Yamato court.
558–650 C.E. The Avars The Avars, a Turkish Mongolian group, form an empire that extends from the Volga to the Hungarian plains. In 626, they lay siege to Constantinople but are forced to withdraw.
565 C.E. Justinian the Great Justinian the Great dies in 565, bringing to an end 38 years of rule as leader of the Byzantine Empire. Under his stewardship, the empire expands to include all of North Africa and parts of the Middle East as well as Italy and Greece. Under Justinian, the fi rst comprehensive compilation of Roman law is issued, known as Justinian’s Code.
572 C.E. Leovigild, King of Visigoths Leovigild, king of the Visigoths, reinvigorates the empire and extends Visigoth dominance over all of the Iberian Peninsula.
581 C.E. Sui Dynasty Reunites China After nearly four centuries of internal divisions and strife, China reunites under the leadership of Yang Jian under the Sui dynasty. Yang uses Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism to help unite the realm.
598 C.E. Pope Greogory Obtains 30-Year Truce Gregory the Great is the fi rst monk to become pope; he controls the civil affairs of Rome and expands the power of the church. Gregory also negotiates a 30- year truce with the Lombardsto ensure the independence of Rome.
Major Themes (Prehistoric Eras to 600 c.e.) Edit
5000 b.c.e. and later became the staple food for much of Asia. By 3000 b.c.e. the Chinese had invented the plow, and by 400 b.c.e., iron-clad farming implements. The agricultural revolution occurred along the Indus River valley before 5000 b.c.e., where farmers cultivated wheat, barley, peas, and other crops. Farming became common across Europe by 3500 b.c.e., but for centuries afterward, farmers worked a piece of land until the soil wore out, then simply moved on to virgin fi elds. Such practice is roughly the same as the “slash and burn” farming of seminomadic communities in Africa, Asia, and the Americas, still in use to the present day. A remedy for soil depletion was crop rotation: One plant replenished what another plant took from the soil the previous season. This method was practiced fi rst in Europe around 1400 b.c.e. In the Western Hemisphere the agricultural revolution began fi rst in Mexico, perhaps around 5000 b.c.e. The “three sisters” of diet in this part of the world—maize, beans, and squash—provided a balanced diet and source of nutrition for the indigenous people, and they required little labor to produce. Beasts of Burden. The fi rst beasts of burden to be domesticated were the donkey, the buffalo, and the camel, all by 3000 b.c.e. The llama was used in the Andes Mountains in South America. Animal husbandry lagged behind in the Americas because horses died out early in this part of the world and were only reintroduced by Europeans after 1500 c.e. Over the centuries people as far separated as the Celts and Chinese adopted the horse to great advantage. However, at fi rst the horses were mainly used to pull war chariots; later for cavalry, and not commonly for agricultural labor. Human diet throughout the world largely consisted of cereal grains, beans, vegetable oils, fresh vegetables and fruits, dairy products, occasional fresh meat, and fermented beverages made from either fruit or grains. Consumption of cereals came in many forms, but in Europe, the Near East, and the Americas mainly through coarse bread. White bread, made of fi ne wheat fl our without the germ, was most highly prized throughout the Roman Empire and beyond. In 350 b.c.e. a new strain of wheat suitable for such bread was cultivated in Egypt, and Egypt and North Africa thereafter became a granary for the Mediterranean peoples. Fruits and vegetables were consumed locally. Trade and migrations introduced new plants across Eurasia and Africa and resulted in great improvements in food production. Sub-Saharan Africa produced food surpluses with the introduction of the banana by the Malay peoples (of present-day Indonesia). Because of this fortuitous event, in the fourth century b.c.e. the city-states of Nigeria were able to fl ourish. Another revolutionary product, sugarcane, was cultivated in India and the East Indies from 100 b.c.e., but its dissemination to Europe waited for the discovery of a process of refi nement. Instead, honey and concentrated fruit were used for sweetening throughout much of the ancient world. The New World offered a variety of plants not available in the Old World, most important maize, but also cacao, papaya, guava, avocado, pineapple, chilies, and sassafras. Several of the more common foods today originally come from the Americas: peanuts, potatoes, and tomatoes. The relationship between abundant food and community development was readily apparent in this hemisphere: Where farming fl ourished (Mesoamerica and South America), city-states and civilizations abounded; but where farming lagged (North America), population centers were few and less organized. The “discovery” of the Americas by Western explorers had an enormous impact on diet and nutritional resources throughout the world.
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS
Many ancient cultures were fascinated with the movement of the heavenly bodies because people thought that they exerted infl uence on earthly events. The ancients carefully observed astral rhythms and computed how the seasons fi t this schedule. Sumer, one of the earliest Mesopotamian cities, left behind the fi rst calendar (354 days) by 2700 b.c.e. China had developed a calendar system very similar to the modern one by 1400 b.c.e. In Central America the Maya developed an amazingly accurate calendar that could predict eclipses and planetary conjunctions that mirrored the modern way of calculating years, based on a commonly xxx Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. accepted event like the birth of Christ. Dionysius Exiguus (a Christian) invented the current dating system in the sixth century c.e. Metal Forging. Copper smelting began in Catal Huyuk (perhaps the earliest city excavated, found in modern-day Turkey) before the Bronze Age. However, the people in northern Thailand were the fi rst to make bronze (an alloy of tin and copper) around 4000 b.c.e. The fi rst bronze foundry in China developed around 2200 b.c.e. Craftspeople among the Hittites of western Asia perfected iron making for their weapons by 1200 b.c.e.; iron work was also known in central Africa. The Iron Age reached China by 500 b.c.e. Being cheaper to produce than bronze, iron soon found widespread use in war and farming. The Chinese began casting iron a thousand years before Europeans did. At about the same time they began to cast iron the Chinese also began to make steel. Researchers have recently uncovered a Chinese belt buckle made of aluminum, showing that they began to refi ne this metal some 1,500 years before Europeans. In the Andes area gold smelting, used largely for jewelry, developed around 200 b.c.e. After 600 c.e. Western Hemisphere cultures also began to smelt silver and copper but never processed iron or bronze. Rubber was fi rst found among the Chavín culture of the Andes around 1100 b.c.e. Scientifi c Tools and Speculation. Peoples of the Near East were the fi rst to develop writing. They used papyrus, animal skins, and clay tablets. The earliest surviving writing in China was found incised on animal bones and turtle shells and cast into bronze vessels. The Chinese invented paper around the beginning of the Common Era, a much cheaper medium than silk and less cumbersome than clay tablets or metal. Western civilizations made strong contributions to the speculative disciplines of mathematics and sciences. The abacus was invented in the Near East around 3000 b.c.e., an indication of fascination for numbers, mathematics, and the sciences. Famous scientists include Pythagoras (500 b.c.e.), who, in addition to fi guring out useful things related to triangles, developed both scientifi c and eccentric theories about the physical universe. Euclid (300 b.c.e.) is still studied today for his insights in geometry, and his theory profi ted another Greek mathematician, Aristarchus, who computed the distance between the Sun and the Moon c. 280 b.c.e. Archimedes in turn fi gured out pi and invented such simple machines as the lever and the pulley. Greek astronomers also made observations and deductions that were unparalleled until Galileo during the European Renaissance. Chinese mathematicians were fi rst to use exponential formulae and scientifi c notation (200 b.c.e.) and utilized several other innovations: the magnetic compass (1 c.e.), “negative numbers” (100 c.e.), and north-south, east-west parallels in maps (265 c.e.). Industry and Medicine. Two civilizations used the wheel to advantage in their development. They were the Sumer (c. 3000 b.c.e.) and the Shang dynasty in China (c. 1700 b.c.e.). One practical application of the wheel is the wheelbarrow, invented by the Chinese in the fi rst century c.e. Other “wheels” of great benefi t but unrelated to transportation were the potter’s wheel, found in Mesopotamia as early as 3500 b.c.e., and the water wheel, a technology of hydrology invented around 500 b.c.e. The wheel was not used in transportation in the Western Hemisphere. The Egyptians were the earliest glassmakers (c. 1500 b.c.e.), but by 100 b.c.e. Syria became a major exporter of high-quality glasswares. In manufacturing cloth the Chinese were the fi rst to domesticate the silkworm and to cultivate mulberry trees during the Neolithic Period. Silk-weaving technology then spread elsewhere and by 550 c.e. had reached the Byzantine Empire. Cotton was woven and traded in the Indus River valley around 2500 b.c.e. Although cotton growing and spinning are adopted by other cultures, Indian textiles remain famous throughout the period. The Chinese have a long and venerable history of homeopathy and natural remedies in health care. Acupuncture started in China (2500 b.c.e.). The Mesoamericans are known to have acquired a vast knowledge of the medicinal use of plants. Chroniclers in the New World listed some 1,200 indigenous medicinal plants that sprang from native treatments and traditions. The Greek world is known for its well-published and imitated physicians, as well as remedies for ailments. The famous Greek physician Hippocrates wrote the Corpus Hippocraticum (400 b.c.e.), a textbook for medical doctors. Other Greek physicians of note included Erasistratus of Chios who explained heart valves (250 c.e.) and Galen (third century c.e.), whose medical writings provided advice for centuries to come.
SOCIAL AND CLASS RELATIONS
The social structure of the earliest civilizations shows hierarchies and a concentration of power among certain elites. There were few matriarchal societies in the ancient world; most were patriarchal and polygamous among the wealthy social classes. As civilizations developed and expanded, their social structures often had to be modifi ed. Sometimes this resulted in a decentralization of power, even on rare occasions, as in ancient Greece, in democracy. At other times changes were forced by foreign invasions. Egypt. The apex of Egyptian society was the pharaoh since he (or more precisely, his “house” or the institution that he incarnated) stood as the intermediary between the world of gods and of human beings. The pharaoh’s main duty was to maintain maat, an apotheosized state of cosmic balance or justice for his whole realm. Pharaoh owned vast tracts of land and sometimes vied with priests for control and status. His offi ce was hereditary and dynastic. History records one woman, Hatshepsut, who served as regent for more than 20 years until the son of the previous pharaoh could assume power. When the Nile failed and Egyptian life was disrupted, the ruling dynasty lost credibility and provincial administrators, the priestly class, or foreigners intervened, resulting in the installing of a new dynasty. One group of outsiders who seized power sometime around 1600 b.c.e. was the Hyksos, a Semitic people. However, by 1300 b.c.e. a native dynasty had returned to power, and the outsiders were expelled. The conservative nature of Egyptian society, reinforced by the regularity of the Nile and the insularity of the land, made for few social and class changes in its long history. India. Plentiful artifacts and architectural remains from the Indus River civilization survive but so far the writing has not been deciphered. The Indo-Europeans brought social and class changes when they settled in northern India around 1500 b.c.e. Their hierarchic and warlike society can be seen in the mythology narrated in their Sanskrit scripture, the Vedas. Their class structure and suppression of native peoples resulted in the imposition of the caste system that dominates Indian society to this day. Although the Indo-Europeans did not settle in southern India, they nevertheless infl uenced the darker-skinned Dravidian people there, who also adopted the caste system. Aryan religion was modifi ed around 500 b.c.e. by new concepts introduced by the Upanishads and by new protest religions called Buddhism and Jainism. After reaching its maximum infl uence from the reign of Emperor Ashoka (c. 280 b.c.e.) to the Gupta dynasty (c. 350 c.e.), Buddhism largely faded from Indian society but spread to China and Southeast Asia. China. Rulers of the Shang dynasty (c. 1700–1100 b.c.e.) established themselves as the sole intermediary between the human world and the spirit world, as did its successor, the Zhou (Chou) dynasty (c. 1100–256 b.c.e.). Zhou rulers relied on a network of feudal relations to extend the Chinese empire and claimed their right to rule under the concept called “mandate of heaven.” This was a double-edged sword as heaven rewarded virtuous rulers and punished unjust ones through giving the people the right to revolt. The decline of Zhou power and centuries of civil wars culminated in the unifi cation of China under the Qin (Ch’in) dynasty. The Qin unifi ed their conquest through the imposition of absolute government power, under an ideology called Legalism. The brief experiment with Legalism made the next dynasty, Han, turn to Confucianism. Confucian society divided the people into four nonhereditary social classes: the scholar-offi cials, farmers, artisans, and merchants. Confucians taught that the family was the center of society. It remained China’s offi cial ideology from the second century b.c.e. to the 20th century c.e. Preliterate nomads along its northern frontier confronted the sedentary Chinese civilization. The most formidable among them from the late Zhou to the post-Han era were called the Xiongnu (Hsiung-nu), whose defeat by the Han rulers after c. 100 b.c.e. led to the opening of the Silk Road that would link China with India, Central Asia, Persia, and Rome. In addition to the exchange of economic goods, Buddhism and some Western ideas entered China via this commercial route. xxxii Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. Classical Greece. For all the democratic reforms attributed to the ancient Greeks, only Athens and its allies accepted this form of “equality under the law,” and even then the rights were brief in duration and limited to male citizens. Because of the stubborn autonomy that each city-state claimed for itself, it is hard to sum up Greek social and class relationships. In general, Greeks despised kings, prized local identities, often quarreled among themselves, and nonetheless cooperated in matters of athletic competition. They also agreed about the superiority of the Greek language, religion, and commerce compared with those of other peoples. They rarely mixed with non-Greek “barbarians.” Non-Greek slaves, who did the work too undignifi ed for Greeks to do, were grudgingly accepted. Family and marriage were valued because survival depended on having enough children so that the next generation would protect the city with an army and take care of the citizens in old age. Rome. Early Rome overturned its Etruscan kings and became a republic dominated by a group of men who made decisions for all the citizens. These leaders were called senators, and they came from an aristocratic class called the patricians. Commoners (or plebeians) owned small plots of land and were full citizens of the early republic, but their role in government was limited to veto power of plebiscites and election of their own spokesmen, called tribunes. Class struggles led to civil wars and the disintegration of republican institutions. As Rome acquired land outside the Italian peninsula, two changes occurred that affected Roman society: First, the patrician class benefi ted because successful wars increased its wealth and power; second, the old system of running Roman politics failed to cope with the new empire’s demands. The plebeians abandoned their small farms and moved to the city for economic opportunities. Rome’s leaders were increasingly compelled to provide “bread and circuses” to keep the unemployed citizens content. Popular disenchantment with the new arrangements and the leaders’ tendency to foment civil war motivated the likes of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony to experiment with new forms of government. Though the offi ce of Caesar (a term that came to mean both emperor and demigod) proved popular, there was still an undercurrent of discontent from classes as diverse as the original patricians of the Republic days and newly acquired slaves, numbering up to one-third of the city’s population. Spartacus led a throng of disgruntled slaves in 73 b.c.e., requiring eight legions to quash the uprising. Julius Caesar, the hero of the new imperial age, was murdered in the Senate by old guard Republicans on the Ides of March, 44 b.c.e. The Caesars adapted by expanding the opportunities for citizenship and by giving slaves and freedmen opportunities to gain wealth and improve their status. However, there is no evidence that wealth disparities diminished over the whole imperial period. The steady rise of inadequacies of the Roman religion led to the spread of Christianity among all ranks for Roman society. The Americas. Mesoamerican and Andean peoples became more hierarchical and stratifi ed as urbanization increased. Birth, lineage, and occupation determined one’s place in these civilizations. The overall class structure was pyramidal with the ruler and nobility on top, followed by a priestly class, a warrior class, merchants and traders, artisans and crafts workers, then agriculturalists, with servants and slaves on the bottom. The whole schema was cemented together by a mythology that resembled that of Shang China or pharaonic Egypt: The gods approved of the elites as guardians of the secret lore concerning such things as astronomy, calendrical calculations, and ritual, which enabled them to stay in power. While there is some evidence of lowerclass discontent, the preponderance of evidence indicates that wars, invasions, and ecological bottlenecks—not internal class confl icts—were primarily responsible for the decline of classic Mesoamerican civilizations. Literary Classics and Monasteries. The ability to read and write was considered almost magical by potentate and peasant alike in the ancient world. This fascination with the written text explains why those ancient religions that survived are scripture based. Reading and writing became particularly useful as cities and civilizations required more complex administration and organization. At fi rst, writing was complicated and unwieldy (such as Egyptian hieroglyphs and Chinese pictographs), and few could master the thousands of symbols in each written language. As a result certain societies honored the scholarly class or compelled their administrators to pass literacy tests Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. xxxiii (such as in China under the infl uence of Confucianism, beginning in the Han dynasty). In the New World only the Maya devised a written language utilizing a system of 800 glyphs. Some ancient scripts evolved and became syllabic or hybrids of pictures and sounds (such as Mesopotamian cuneiform), which reduced the number of symbols from thousands to hundreds. When Ugarit reduced its symbols to 30, cuneiform became the standard script in the Near East for laws and literature. The Phoenicians were important because they perfected the alphabet letters to represent sounds. Soon the Greeks added vowels, and the alphabet as we know it was invented. The alphabet was simple enough that many could learn it and gain access to literature and history and thus power. Israel gave an institutional place to the prophet as a critic of the ruling king and priest, and the prophet’s critique—once it was written down—became a powerful statement to future generations about the limits of power. Greece fl ourished in the fi fth century b.c.e. in the arts and sciences because it too encouraged literacy among its people. In many civilizations monastic societies were seen as separate from the secular society. The roots for Western monasticism came from Anthony of the Desert (late 300s c.e.) and the “Desert Fathers and Mothers” of Egypt (300–500 c.e.), indicating Eastern Christian infl uence on the Latin Church. Benedict (c. 500 c.e.) is called the father of the monastic movement in the West. His rule came at a critical time for Western civilization, because various barbarian tribes had broken through the frontiers and were destroying cities and institutions, yet the empire had taken few measures to preserve its manifold cultural heritage. The monasteries of Benedict and his followers provided an alternate society, a counterculture with its own meritocracy and value system. By the end of the period it was the monasteries that powerfully preserved culture and encouraged progress: They showed hospitality to displaced refugees, they developed and retaught agricultural techniques, they recopied precious manuscripts, and they eventually returned to recivilize the people that were once were proud Roman citizens. The only Western library of the sixth century c.e. that functioned after Rome’s decline was Benedict’s at Vivarium. Similarly, Hindus and Buddhists honored monastic institutions as well as individual ascetics.
TRADE AND CULTURAL EXCHANGES
From the beginning humans have migrated and mixed with one another. The fi rst migration took place out of Africa to the Near East some 100,000 years ago, when humans spread across Europe and Asia. The ice ages provided land bridges for travel to parts of Oceania (60,000 b.c.e.) and North America (14,000 b.c.e.). DNA tests indicate that every human living in the far corners of the world can be traced back to a common ancestor in Africa. This prehistoric wanderlust continued after the beginning of civilization, enriching the civilization’s heritage. Archaeological records shows that the “cradles of civilization” were not so isolated. Even the most advanced of empires had contacts with lands and peoples that they considered outsiders and inferiors. For example, Mesopotamia (3000 b.c.e.) could produce food for its burgeoning population and cities along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, but where would it obtain copper and tin for bronze making, except in far-off Cyprus? Ancient Egypt (2600 b.c.e.) acted as though it had everything it needed because of the Nile, but where would it get its wood and ivory, not to mention its slaves, except from Semitic peoples in Phoenicia and Syria? These interactions are confi rmed by physical remains found by archaeologists in each of these respective sites. As history progressed and wealth and resources became more concentrated around cities, trade and cultural exchanges become more deliberate. In fact, a reliable barometer of the health of a civilization can be found in the level of trade and exchange it maintains with others. Along with the movement of goods among the ancient cities in the river valleys of Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and China, there were movements of peoples and tribes that affected the balance of power and development. One of the most signifi cant migrations for later language and cultural development involved the expansion of Indo-European peoples around 1600 b.c.e. from their homeland between the Black and Caspian Seas. For reasons unknown they moved in several directions: toward present-day Iran and India, toward the Mediterranean Sea into Europe, and toward the Middle East into Mesopotamia. Those who moved into Iran gave their land its name. By 500 xxxiv Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. b.c.e. the descendants of these Aryans, under Cyrus the Great, had conquered the largest empire the world had yet seen. In India these hierarchical foreigners replaced the Indus River valley city-states. The new society had an Indo-European language, known as Sanskrit, and its religion based on the Vedic scriptures replaced the religion of the natives. Cultural Penetration and Subversion. Indo-Europeans met with stiff cultural resistance from the Dravidian people of southern India. Their harsher views moderated, and eventually the hybridization of their Vedic religion and local cultures emerged. All of these profound changes were the results of the Indo-European encounter with the peoples of India and resulted in the development of several great religions. The Indo-Europeans also moved to the south and west of their original homeland. They marched into Mesopotamia around 1600 b.c.e. and formed the Hittite Empire but could not keep control of the ever-shifting puzzle of native city-states. All that remained of the Hittite legacy was the war-making technology of chariots, war horses, and iron weapons. In the West they made an impact on the Mediterranean world, replacing the dominant Minoan civilization of Crete with their Mycenaean culture. Greek language, literature, and ethnic identity resulted with the mixing of the Mycenaeans and later immigrants called Dorians and Ionians. The Indo-European Greek culture formed the underpinnings of modern Western civilization. Greek culture captivated the Romans, who conquered the Greeks and were in turn conquered by the higher Greek civilization. Eventually, Roman patricians insisted on their sons being educated by Greek tutors, or on sending their sons to Athens for schooling. Most important, modern Romance languages (French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese) came from the same Latin-Greek- Indo-European family. Another people who profoundly infl uenced other civilizations through their travels were the Phoenicians, a seafaring and adventurous people from modern Lebanon who settled as far away as Britain and even navigated around the Horn of Africa. Their greatest contribution to world progress was the invention of the alphabet. With an alphabet of 24 letters, simplifying earlier writing systems of Egyptian hieroglyphics and Sumerian cuneiform, the Phoenician script was adopted by the Greeks, who incorporated vowels, and subsequently by many other cultures. Religious Exchanges. Three exchanges did not involve goods or people but, rather, religions: Christian infl uence on Rome, Jewish infl uence on Islam, and Islamic infl uence on Europe. Christianity began in the highlands of Galilee and Judaea. It showed these roots profoundly, especially when it directly clashed with the Roman emperor cult, because of its Semitic respect for monotheism and its interpretation of a Jewish doctrine called the “kingdom of God.” Such differences led to periodic persecution and martyrdom of Christians under Roman rule. Marginalization only increased the appeal of the new religion. By 310 c.e. the Christian message had reached even the ruler Constantine, who converted to Christianity, resulting in an era of Christian expansion. The early enthusiasm of the Christian preachers had already pushed beyond the traditional territories of Diaspora Jews: India claims to have had contact with the apostle Thomas by 50 c.e., Armenia by 325 c.e., Axum in Africa by 350 c.e., Persia by 488 c.e., and western Europe by 600 c.e. A second surprising cultural contact involved the Diaspora Jews in the Arabian Peninsula. When Jews were expelled from their homeland by Roman invasions, they often went into the Eastern world instead of the West. One place they congregated was Mecca (500 c.e.), a trading and religious center, halfway between Yemen and Egypt and at the crossroads of trade from the Persian Gulf. Here they established synagogues and dialogue with their Arab hosts, one of whom the Qur’an says was Muhammad. Much of the Qur’an presupposes the stories and ideas of the Jewish Bible. Exchange by Conquest. Cultural exchanges also resulted from military conquests and empire building. Alexander the Great conducted a campaign against the Persians around 330 b.c.e. Alexander, a Macedonian, had been shaped by the Greek worldview due to his being held hostage in Greece, his compliance with Greek customs and lifestyle, his education by the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle, and his own personal mission to spread Hellenism abroad. After his lightning-like world conquest, he began to set up Greek institutions throughout his empire, demanding Greek as the lingua Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. xxxv franca and violently repressing certain native religions (such as Zoroastrianism). He began to demand divine homage as king in the manner of the Persians. He diminished the role of Greek city-states and increased a sense of being an “empire citizen.” He caused trade between Asia and the Mediterranean to increase markedly. His military conquest resulted in profound cultural hybridization. Another form of exchange was caused by conquest. Since the third century b.c.e. a nomadic people called the Xiongnu had raided and warred with the sedentary Chinese. Chinese victories and expansion after c. 100 b.c.e. caused the Xiongnu to migrate westward, creating a snowball effect on the Gothic peoples who had settled on the frontiers of Rome for decades. When the Asian nomads (also known as the Huns) pushed through Hungary into Roman frontier areas in 376 c.e., the Goths fl ed into the Roman Empire. They fi rst sacked Rome in 410 c.e. In 441 c.e. Attila the Hun launched a devastating attack and advanced all the way to Rome. The whole Roman order came apart, and the ensuing chaos led to the “Dark Ages.” The Mauryan Empire at the end of the fourth century b.c.e. controlled the Indian subcontinent, but its cultural infl uence went far beyond it. Indian Buddhist missionaries began proselytizing in Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Afghanistan, and Central Asia, bringing a new religion, as well as Indian civilization. Indian trade and cultural identity not only survived the fall of the Mauryan Empire but expanded under the Gupta Empire in the fourth century c.e. The impact of the Indians on Southeast Asia was so strong that the region was called “Indianized Asia.” China dominated East Asia culturally and politically. Beginning in the second millennium b.c.e. Chinese civilization expanded from the Yellow River valley, assimilating various groups of peoples. Successive rulers of the Han dynasty incorporated present-day Korea and Vietnam into the Chinese empire. They also conquered areas deep in Central Asia, expelling or subjugating nomadic tribes including the Xiongnu. By the fi rst century b.c.e. the two great empires, the Roman and Chinese, had extended dominion over much of the Eurasian world, imposing the Pax Romana and the Pax Sinica. The resultant trade and cultural interactions along the Silk Road that linked Chang’an (Ch’ang-an, the Chinese capital) and Rome by land and sea and that included Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Persia, and the Middle East would survive the fall of both the Roman and Han and Gupta Empires. Trade exchanges between Asia and Europe picked up markedly after 500 b.c.e. due to several factors, among them improved roads and navigational techniques. New religions also encouraged missionaries to go abroad to spread their faiths. Throughout Central and South America, from as early as 2000–1500 b.c.e., there are physical remains of artifacts that were made in far-away areas of the New World, thus, proof of exchange. There was by 1000 b.c.e. a network of pan-Mesoamerican communication that connected central and southern Mexico as far south as Nicaragua. These contacts spread farming innovations into new adjacent areas. It is possible that the same sharing of information occurred between the Andes urban areas and Mesoamerica. The great city of Teotihuacán (450 c.e.) in central Mexico was a hub of travel and trade. Its road network connected the city to the North American Southwest, the Mayan highlands, and west to the Pacifi c. African connections to the outside world began during the reigns of several Upper Nile pharaohs, expanded under the Persian Empire and Ptolemaic dynasty, and reached a high point under the Romans, who utilized North Africa as a breadbasket region. Romanized Africa also became a base for Christian missionary activity. In fact, the church’s leading early thinker, Augustine, came from modern-day Tunisia. Ancient Egypt and later the kingdom of Axum in present-day Sudan acted as important links in trade and in the transmission of ideas and technologies between North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa.
The founding of cities depends on several factors but none more important than an abundant supply of food and water. For this reason, in the ancient world it was common for cities to be located near rivers and coasts. Some examples of this principle at work are the cities of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia, the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers in China, the Indus River in India, and the xxxvi Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. Nile River in Egypt. Other factors can also explain the location of cities. For example, Constantinople became a thriving city without either good local farmland or freshwater because of its strategic location. Aqueducts and massive cisterns were built to bring in water from afar. Important cities had to be defensible. Examples of ancient sites that could withstand invasion were the Phoenician city of Tyre, situated on an island; Corinth in Greece had an acropolis on a high hill overlooking the harbor; and Petra in present-day Jordan, located in a desert and reachable only via a narrow and winding route through a pass. Similarly Chang’an, ancient capital of China, was protected by nearby mountain passes that held back nomadic invaders. Even cities that did not have natural defenses could survive, for example, Sparta, located on a plain, or Rome, whose seven hills above the Tiber River were not adequate for protection, because both developed formidable armies. Protective Walls and Impressive Monuments. Walls and fortifi cations protected most ancient cities. One of the oldest cities in the world (7000 b.c.e.), Jericho was known in the Bible for its reputedly impenetrable walls that protected the 2,000 people who lived there, making it a large settlement for its day. Other cities constructed ingenious gates, towers, and moats as safeguards against enemies. Among the cities most famous for their gates were Mycenae (Agamemnon’s capital, 1200 b.c.e.), which had a famous “Lion Gate,” and Babylonia, which had its awesome Ishtar Gate (550 b.c.e.). Both of these gates were as much intended to impress as to defend. The Mauryan capital, Pataliputra (200 b.c.e.), reputedly had 570 towers and a moat. Moats were also used in Maya cities as early as 250 c.e. Rulers decorated their capital cities with monuments and public works to fl aunt their power and impress their residents and visitors. A good example is the colossal complex of Teotihuacán (450 c.e.), located near modern-day Mexico City. It had 200,000 residents and 600 pyramid temples (the largest one 700 feet long at its base, 215 feet high) in the city. Later, the Aztec described it as the “Place of the Gods.” The bas-relief monumental art of Nineveh showed foreigners cringing in fear before Sennacherib, Assyria’s king. The Egyptian pyramids of Giza were intended to solidify pharaoh’s image as the keeper of maat, or cosmic balance. The Parthenon was built by Pericles to demonstrate Athens’s preeminence among the Greek city-states in the fi fth century b.c.e. The armies and laborers who defended the cities presupposed adequate manpower. Many great states used mercenaries to staff defenses and slaves to labor on public works tasks. The fi rst emperor of China, who unifi ed the country in 221 b.c.e., made intolerable demands on his people to build walls, canals, and roads. Similarly, in the city of Jerusalem the biblical king Solomon put alien residents into servitude and taxed his subjects to poverty in order to build a temple, several palaces, and other huge projects. Rome relied heavily on the labor of its slaves, which totaled one-third of its population by 100 b.c.e. Cities of Myth and Origin. Ur (5000 b.c.e.) was situated on the banks of the Euphrates River. Ur was a Mesopotamian religious center for centuries and the site of a famous ziggurat tower, perhaps something like the Tower of Babel. Several thousand years later it was cited in the Jewish Bible as the homeland of Abraham. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa (2300 b.c.e.) were cities on the banks of the Indus River and its tributary in present-day Pakistan. Both were well populated and developed according to an urban plan. The Shang dynasty built its capitals in the fertile, silt-enriched lands of the middle Yellow River basin of China. One capital named Ao was surrounded by a wall, 30 feet high and 65 feet wide, that took 19,000 men working 330 days a year for 18 years to build. The pharaohs ruled over Memphis and Thebes on the Nile, and their urban monuments stood as testimony to the power and prestige of Egypt. According to their own reckoning, ancient Egyptians felt no need to colonize in this period because they felt that inferior peoples would come to them from abroad for their plentiful resources and superior culture. Some of the most spectacular ancient urban centers were in the Americas, along the Peruvian coastal plain, the central Andes Mountains, and in Mesoamerica. Each city celebrated its origin with a mythological tale. If a city was newly founded, it would claim continuity with some other well-known divine fi gures and traditions to buttress its quest for respect. Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. xxxvii Differing reasons attracted people to live in cities, and they debated about how to design cities to create the “good life.” Cities answered a multitude of human needs. They offered potential for civic ennoblement (temples, schools, plays, libraries, the arts, parks, and palaces), or they could be the breeding ground of demagoguery, decadence, and disease. How to create the ideal city motivated the Hebrew prophet Zechariah (the Bible), the Greek philosopher Plato (The Republic), and the Mauryan political adviser Kautilya (Arthashastra, or Treatise on Polity) to give instruction about governing ideal cities.
The main elements of war making were basically the same in 3500 b.c.e. as they were in 600 c.e., although the size of armies and the scope of wars increased signifi cantly over time. Techniques and technologies may have improved, but all wars involved the combatants in hand-to-hand struggle, usually with swords and spears, and long-distance fi ghting using bows and arrows, in siege warfare, and in cavalry combats. The following is a short list of some techniques and technologies of warfare that showed advances over the period. Cavalry. The horse came onto the battlefi eld pulling chariots as the Indo-Europeans moved out of their homeland in the crossroads of Europe and Central Asia. It was a remarkable innovation. Sumer was known to have used donkey-driven chariots a bit earlier (3000 b.c.e.), but the Indo-European Hittites (1400 b.c.e.) on horse chariots rode into the heartland of Sumer without challenge. The next advance after cavalry became an important component in warfare was the invention of the stirrup by Asian nomads around 300 b.c.e. About the same time the nomadic Huns nailed a metal horseshoe on the hoofs of their animals. With these inventions horses could go farther and faster and the riders gained fuller control over their mounts. India was the fi rst land to use elephants in battle. Alexander the Great fi rst encountered the war elephant in India. Later the Romans prized them highly. But elephants did not adapt well to cold. When Hannibal invaded Italy, only one elephant survived the march across the Alps. Infantry and Iron Weapons. The horse did not make infantry obsolete. Improvements in providing protection for foot soldiers came with Sumer’s use of the shield (2500 b.c.e.). In Alexander the Great’s day a whole company of fi ghters would march into battle linked together by shields to form a moving wall. This formation is called the “phalanx.” Ordinary citizen soldiers could learn the coordination and discipline involved with the phalanx, and this esprit de corps continued into civic life and social interaction. In ancient Greece a dynamic of participatory government sprang from this expectation of battlefi eld accountability. When combined with Athens’s newfound opportunities on the sea, the aristocracy based on cavalry gave way to democracy based on infantry and navy. Individual body armor, used with the shield, protected soldiers in battle. By 250 b.c.e. the Chinese had developed body armor made of metal plates. The idea of “knights in shining armor” doing pitched battle is a fancy of the Middle Ages, as iron was simply too heavy and valuable for large-scale use. The Parthians (c. 250 c.e.) claimed that their horses ate Iranian mountain alfalfa and were strong enough to bear their warriors in full (though mostly noniron) armor. The marauding Hittites inaugurated the Iron Age with iron weapons replacing bronze ones. By 1000 b.c.e. iron was common for weapons all over the Mediterranean world and spread to China after 500 b.c.e. Even the Celts had become experts at smelting and used wrought iron on the battlefi eld by 750 b.c.e. Sieges and Archers. The Assyrians, most feared warriors of the Near East, excelled in war-making technologies and organization (extensive secret police, propaganda), crafting a united and long-lasting empire out of Mesopotamian city-states. When they advanced against the walls and gates of cities, Assyrians used battering rams and siege engines that struck terror in the hearts of the inhabitants. When their soldiers marched outside the city walls before battle, the Assyrians would race around with their chariot-driven platforms of archers and mow down their hapless opponents. For 500 years the techniques of besieging cities did not change much, until the Romans invented the catapult in 500 b.c.e., which hurled boulder and fl aming fi reballs against the defenses of their enemies. xxxviii Prehistoric Eras to 600 C.E. The bow and arrow were among the earliest primitive weapons used throughout the world. For the Greeks of the Iliad the bow and arrow were despised and considered effeminate compared with hand-to-hand combat, the true test of heroes. Xerxes’ Persians (490 b.c.e.) and Marcus Aurelius’s Romans (170 c.e.) used archers to great advantage, as their arrows would blacken the skies before the charge of their infantry and cavalry. The Chinese found ways of perfecting aim and power with the crossbow; later the composite bow originated among the nomadic tribes of the Asian steppes. Both were more accurate and powerful than the simple bow. Navies. In the 14th century b.c.e., the Achaeans (Greeks) and others took to the sea. By 1200 b.c.e. the fi rst-known sea battle was fought: the Mediterranean Sea Peoples against the Egyptians. Assyria and India each had seagoing ships by the early 700s b.c.e. Besides the Phoenicians and possibly the Etruscans, the Athenians were one of the fi rst states to make seafaring their mainstay. From them the use of the trireme ship (a vessel with three rows of oars) took on decisive importance in warfare. Athens survived by controlling the seas. Navies became more and more important as civilizations increased their trade and social contacts. However, for the most part ships were used for cargo transportation, raiding, and exploration. In warfare they had a limited role. Thus, the natives of Oceania put their seafaring to use in colonizing places such as Hawaii and the Easter Islands, and the Phoenicians explored Britain and rounded the Horn of Africa.
Volume II - The Expanding World - 600 c.e. to 1450 Edit
List of ArticlesEdit
Abelard, Peter and Heloise
Alfred the Great
Ali ibn Abu Talib
Andes: pre-Inca civilizations
An Lushan (An Lu-Shan) Rebellion
Aquitaine, Eleanor of
Bernard of Clairvaux
bhakti movements (devotional Hinduism)
Blanche of Castile
Byzantine Empire: architecture, culture, and the arts
Byzantine Empire: political history
Caliphs, fi rst four
Chinese poetry, golden age of chivalry
Christian states of Spain
Columban of Leinster
Constance, Council of
Constantinople, massacre of
Cyril and Methodios
Damascene, John Danelaw Dante Alighieri Delhi Sultanate Dhimmi Divine Caliphate and the Ummah Donatello Dvaravati
East African city-states Edward I and II El Cid English common law Ericson, Leif Ethiopian Empire
fairs of Champagne Fatimid dynasty feudalism: Europe feudalism: Japan Ficino, Marsilio Firdawsi Five Dynasties of China Five, or Six, Pillars of Islam Florence, Council of Florentine Neoplatonism Frankish tribe Frederick I Fujiwara clan
Gempei War Genghis Khan Genoa Ghana, Mali, and Songhai Ghaznavids Ghazzali, Abu Hamid Muhammad, al- Ghiberti, Lorenzo Giotto di Bondone Godfrey of Bouillon gold and salt, kingdoms of Golden Bull of 1356 Gothic and Romanesque styles Grand Canal Gratian Greenland Gregory Palamas Gutenberg, Johann
Habsburg dynasty (early) Hafiz Hangzhou (Hangchou) Hanseatic League Harsha Vardhana Harun al-Rashid Hausa city-states Heian Henry II Henry IV Henry V Henry “the Navigator,” Prince heresies, pre-Reformation Hildegard of Bingen Hindu epic literature Hojo clan Holy Roman Empire (early) Honen Shonin (Honen Bo Genku) Horns of Hattin, Battle of the Huaxteca Huizong (Hui-tsung) Hulagu Khan Hundred Years’ War Huss, John
Ibn Batuta Ibn Khaldun Ibn Sina Ibn Taymiyya iconoclasm Île-de-France Innocent III Inquisition Irene Irish monastic scholarship, golden age of Islam Islam: art and architecture in the golden age Islam: literature and music in the golden age Islam: science and technology in the golden age Islamic law Isma’ilis Italian city-states Italian Renaissance
Jin (Chin) dynasty Joachim of Flora Joan of Arc
Kaifeng (K’ai-feng) Kamakura Shogunate Kanem Bornu kanji and kana Kemmu Restoration Khmer kingdom Kilkenny, Statutes of Knights Templar, Knights Hospitallers, and Teutonic Knights Kojiki and Nihon Shoki Koryo dynasty Kosovo, Battle of (1389) Kubilai Khan
Ladislas Lalibela Lateran Councils, Third and Fourth Latin states of the Crusades Lazar I Le dynasty of Annam Liao dynasty Lithuania, Grand Duchy of Lombard, Peter Louis IX
Magna Carta Magyar invasions Mahmud of Ghazni Maimonides Majapahit kingdom medieval Europe: educational system List of Articles medieval Europe: sciences and medicine Mehmed I mendicants Merovingian dynasty Mesoamerica: Postclassic period Mesoamerica: southeastern periphery Ming dynasty Mixtec and Zapotec Mon Mongke Khan Mongol invasions of Japan Mongol rule of Russia Moravia Moscow: Third Rome Muhammad, the prophet Muhammad of Ghur Murasaki Shikibu Muslim Spain
Nalanda Nanjing (Nanking) Naples Nara Neo-Confucianism Nevsky, Alexander Nicaea, Second Council of Nicheren Nicholas I Norman and Plantagenet kings of England Norman Conquest of England Norman kingdoms of Italy and Sicily
Ogotai Khan Olaf I Omar Khayyam Onin War in Japan Ottoman Empire: 1299–1453 P Pallava kingdom Papal States Peasants’ Revolt Pepin, Donation of Petrarch Philip II Augustus Philip IV Pico della Mirandola Pizan, Christine de Poland Polo, Marco Portugal Printing, invention in China Puranas
Quetzalcoatl Quiché Maya Qur’an
Rajput confederacies Reconquest of Spain Richard I Roland, Song of Rome, medieval Rome, papacy in Renaissance Rus
Saladin (Salah ad din, Yusuf) Salutati, Coluccio Samarkand samurai Schism of 1054 Scholasticism Scotland Sejong Seljuk dynasty Shahnamah Shi’ism Shinran Shiva Shona Shotoku Taishi Siamese invasion of the Khmer kingdom Silla dynasty Sind, Arab conquest of Song (Sung) dynasty Srivijaya kingdom Stephen I Su Shi (Su Shih) Subotai Sufi sm Sui dynasty Sukhothai Sundiata Sviatoslav Sylvester II
Taiho Code Taika Reforms Taira-Minamoto wars Taizong (T’ang-tsung) Taizu (T’ai-Tsu) Talas River, Battle of Tamil culture Tang (T’ang) dynasty Tarascans Tenchi (Tenji) Tibetan kingdom Timurlane (Tamerlane) Toghon Temur Khan Tours, Battle of (732) Truce and Peace of God Tughlaq dynasty Tului Khan
Uighur Empire Umayyad dynasty universities, European Urban II Urbino
Valla, Lorenzo Venice Verdun, Treaty of Vijayanagara Empire Vikings: Iceland, Icelandic sagas Vikings: North America Vikings: Norway, Sweden, and Denmark Vikings: Russia Vladimir I (Vladimir the Great)
Wales, English conquest of Wang Anshi (Wang An-shih) Wang Yangming (Wang Yang-ming) List of Articles xi Worms, Concordat of Wu Zhao (Wu Chao) Wycliffe, John
Xixia (Hsi Hsia) Xuanzang (Hsuan-tsang) Xuanzong (Hsuan-tsung)
Yarmuk, Battle of Yaroslav the Wise Yelu Chucai Yongle (Yung-lo) Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) Yue Fei (Yueh Fei)
Zen (or Ch’an) Buddhism Zhao Kuangyin (Chao K’uang-yin) Zheng He (Cheng Ho) Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi) Zimbabwe
List of MapsEdit
Viking Trade, Settlements, and Raids, c. 1000 M33 China during the Tang Dynasty, 626–783 M34 The Islamic World, c. 600–750 M35 Europe in c. 800 M36 Africa and the Mediterranean Region—Major Empires and Kingdoms, 400–1450 M37 The Islamic World, c. 800–1200 M38 Holy Roman Empire, 1000 M39 Byzantine Empire under Basil II, 1025 M40 Norman Conquests, 1066–1087 M41 The Crusades, 1095–1221 M42 China during the Song Dynasty, 1038–1279 M43 Norman Kingdom of Sicily, 1059–1154 M44 Religion and Scholarship in Medieval Europe, 1100–1300 M45 Holy Roman Empire, 1215–1250 M46 Mongol Invasions of Russia, 12th–13th Centuries M47 The Delhi Sultanate, 1236–1398 M48 Byzantine Empire, 1265 M49 The Hanseatic League and the Union of Kalmar, 14th Century M50 Voyages of the Polos in Asia, 1260–1295 M51 Trade in Europe, c. 1300 M52 The Black Death in Europe, 1347–1352 M53 Yuan Dynasty, 1330 M54 Major Battles in Medieval and Early Modern Japan M55 Voyages of Ibn Battuta, 1325–1354 M56 Ottoman Empire, 1359–1520 M57 Battles and Campaigns of the Hundred Years’ War, 1337–1453 M58 The Great Schism, 1378–1417 M59 Zheng He’s Voyage along Coastal Asia and Africa, 1431–1433 M60 The Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Lands, c. 1400 M61 China during the Ming Dynasty, c. 1415–1624 M62 Poland and Lithuania, 1386–1470 M63 Pre-Columbian Civilizations in Central and South America, 1200 b.c.e.–1542 c.e. M64
600 C.E. Late Preclassic Period in Maya Zones Beginning of the Late Preclassic period in the Maya zones of Mesoamerica.
604 C.E. Shotoku’s Reforms Between 593 and 628 Empress Suiko rules Japan. During her reign regent Prince Shotoku undertakes major reforms with China as a model culminating in a 17- article constitution based on Confucian principles.
606–648 C.E. Harsha Reunifi es India His work is undone at his assassination. India is divided after its short unity.
610 C.E. Prophet Muhammad Receives Revelations The prophet Muhammad in Mecca receives revelations that are set down in the Qur’an, the Muslim holy book.
618 C.E. Tang Dynasty Founded The Tang dynasty is founded by Li Yuan and his son Li Shimin at the fall of the Sui dynasty. It inaugurated China’s second imperial age.
618 C.E. Grand Canal By the fall of the Sui dynast y the Grand Canal has been extended to Hangzhou, providing an effi cient water transport system.
622 C.E. New Muslim Community Flees to Medina The fl edgling Muslim community led by the prophet Muhammad makes the Hijrah (fl ight) from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution.
627 C.E. Battle of Nineveh At the Battle of Nineveh, the forces of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeat the Sassanids.
629–645 C.E. Xuanzang Travels to India Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang’s journey and translation of Buddhist canons mark the height of Buddhism in China.
632 C.E. Muslim Rule over Mecca and Medina and the Prophet Muhammad Dies Following several battles, the Muslims retake Mecca and establish a Muslim community; following the prophet Muhammad’s death Abu Bakr is chosen as the fi rst caliph or leader.
634 C.E. Omar Chosen as Second Caliph Omar, known as the “second founder of Islam,” establishes a single authoritative version of the Qur’an and presides over the rapid expansion of the Muslim state. Within 100 years the Arab/Muslim state would stretch from the Indus River in the east to Morocco in North Africa and Spain in the west.
636 C.E. Battle of Yarmuk The Arab/Muslim forces decisively defeat the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Yarmuk and rapidly expand their new empire.
638 C.E. Arab Forces Take Jerusalem Having taken Damascus, Arab/Muslim forces take Jerusalem, the third most holy city in Islam, but grant religious freedom to “people of the book,” Jews and Christians.
642 C.E. Arab Conquest of Egypt Arab forces under the command of Amir ibn al-As attack Egypt and in 642 Egypt surrenders. 644 C.E. Omar I Assassinated While at prayers in the mosque at Medina, Omar is assassinated by a Persian slave; Uthman, from the powerful Umayyad family, is chosen as the third caliph. 645 C.E. Fujiwara Clan This clan receives its name and rises to dominate Japan under the emperor as a result of a coup d’état. 645 C.E. Taika Reform Great political and economic changes that are made in Japan according to the Chinese model. 650 C.E. Fall of Teotihuacán Partial destruction and abandonment of Classic-era city-state of Teotihuacán in the Basin of Mexico. 656 C.E. Ali Selected as the Fourth Caliph and the Battle of the Camel Following Uthman’s assassination by rebels, Ali, the prophet Muhammad’s son-in-law, is selected caliph. However, the succession is opposed by the Umayyads and A’isha, the Prophet’s favorite wife, who astride a camel leads forces against Ali at what becomes known as the Battle of the Camel, but Ali’s supporters win. 657 C.E. Battle of Siffi n At the Battle of Siffi n, Muaw’iya of the Umayyad family challenges Ali’s supremacy and wins. In 661, Ali is assassinated by opponents, thereby ending the age of the “rightly guided” caliphs. 660 C.E. Kingdom of Silla (Korea) The kingdom of Silla, on the Korean Peninsula, conquers the Paekche and Koguryo Kingdoms. They bring about the fi rst unifi cation of the Korean Peninsula. 661 C.E. Umayyad Caliphate Established Muaw’iya establishes the Umayyad Caliphate with its capital at Damascus. He establishes a centralized empire that incorporates many institutions and artistic forms from the older Byzantine Empire. 673–678 C.E. Arab Forces Fail to Capture Constantinople Arab forces besiege Constantinople. The siege fails due to both the strength of the city walls and a new invention: “the Greek Fire” that caused havoc among the Arab fl eet. In 678, a 30-year peace treaty is negotiated. 680 C.E. Battle of Kerbala At Kerbala, in present-day Iraq, supporters of the Umayyad Caliphate kill Ali’s son Husayn and his supporters. This marks the split between the Sunni Muslims and Shi’i Muslims who believe that the line of leadership for the Muslim community should follow through Ali and the Prophet’s family; Husayn becomes a martyr to the Shi’i community. 680–1018 C.E. First Bulgarian Empire The fi rst Bulgarian Empire is created when the Bulgars defeat the Byzantines. 685 C.E. Caliph Abd al-Malik Under Abd al-Malik I, reigned 685–705, Arabic becomes the major language of the Umayyad Empire and the fi rst Arab/Muslim coins are minted at Damascus; his further centralization of the empire causes internal disputes. 690–705 C.E. Empress Wu of China Wu Hou becomes the fi rst female ruler of China after serving as regent upon her husband’s death. 700 C.E. Chinese Invent Gunpowder The Chinese combine saltpeter, sulfur, and carbon to create gunpowder. It is initially used for fi reworks. xviii Chronology 700 C.E. Srivijaya Empire (Indonesia) The Srivijaya Empire becomes the leading power in Indonesia. The Srivijayas originated in southern Sumatra. They control commercial trade routes through the islands. 701 C.E. Taiho Code Elaborate Chinese-style law code is adopted by Japan as it developed a system of government based on the Chinese model. 707 C.E. Muslim Army Conquers Tangiers Tangiers is captured by Muslim armies, and the territory is placed under a governor appointed by the Umayyad Caliphate in Damascus. 710 C.E. Nara Nara becomes Japan’s fi rst permanent capital, modeled on the Chinese capital Chang’an. The court moves to Heian in 794. 711 C.E. Islamic Conquest of Spain The Islamic conquest of Spain begins when Tariq, a Muslim general, crosses the Straits of Gibraltar (Jabal Tariq). His army of 7,000 men defeats Roderick, the last king of the Visigoths, and Spain (or Andalusia) becomes a Muslim territory for almost 800 years. 712–756 C.E. Tang Xuanzong Xuanzong’s reign marks the zenith of Tang culture. It is the golden age of Chinese poetry. It ends in the disasterous An Lushan Rebellion. 730 C.E. Khazars Defeat Arab/Muslim Forces The Khazar commander Barjik leads Khazar troops through the Darial Pass to invade Azerbaijan. At the Battle of Ardabil, the Khazars defeat an entire Arab army. The Khazars then conquer Azerbaijan and Armenia and, for a brief time, northern Iraq. 732 C.E. Battle of Tours At the Battle of Tours, the Franks, under Charles Martel, defeat a Muslim expedition led by Abd al- Rahman; this marks the furthest incursion of Muslim forces into western Europe. 750 C.E. Abu al-Abbas Founds the Abbasid Dynasty Having taken most of Iran and Iraq, Abu al-Abbas and his followers overthrow the Umayyad dynasty centered in Damascus and establish a new Abbasid dynasty with its initial capital at Kufa in present-day Iraq. 751 C.E. Battle of Talas River The Chinese army is defeated by forces of the caliph near Samarkand. China withdraws from Central Asia as a result. 754 C.E. Pepin the Short Founds the Carolingian Dynasty Pope Stephen II sanctifi es Pepin as both king of the Franks and king of the Frankish Church. 755–763 C.E. An Lushan Rebellion Though put down, the Tang dynasty never recovers from the rebellion’s effects. 756 C.E. Abd al Rahman III Rules Andalusia Under Abd al Rahman III, reigned 756–788, of the Umayyad Caliphate, Córdoba, in present-day Spain, becomes one of the richest cities in the world and a center for scholarship and the arts. 762 C.E. Abbasid Caliphate under al-Mansur and the Construction of Baghdad The Abbasid Caliph Abu Jafar, or al-Mansur, reigned 754–775, builds a new capital, Baghdad, on the west bank of the Tigris River. A circular fortress, the city becomes one of the largest and richest in the world. 771 C.E. Charlemagne Charlemagne becomes the Frankish ruler in the east after the death of his brother Caroman I. Until his brother’s death, Charlemagne had ruled the Neustri and Aquitaine. In a series of campaigns, Charlemagne expands his empire to include all of Germany. 774–842 C.E. Uighur Empire Seminomadic state on the western border of the Tang Empire in China. Uighurs were vassals and troublesome allies of the Tang. 780–809 C.E. Golden Age of Islam and Harun al- Rashid Under Harun al-Rashid, reigned from 786–809, and his son Mamun, reigned 813–833, the Abbasid Caliphate reaches the zenith of its power and glory and is memorialized in the Arabian Nights. An academy for study of sciences and other disciplines, Bayt al Hikmah, becomes the center for scholars from around the world. Chronology xix 794 c.e. Heian Founded The Heian period in Japanese history begins when the emperor moves the capital from Nara to a site near that of present-day Kyoto. The Heian period was noted for its high culture. 800 c.e. Charlemagne, Roman Emperor of the West Charlemagne is crowned emperor of the West by Pope Leo III on December 25th—Christmas Day—in St. Peter’s Church. 800–900 c.e. Terminal Classic Period in Maya Zones Transition from the Late Classic to the Terminal Classic period in the Maya lowlands of Mesoamerica. 802 c.e. Angkor Period The Angkor period begins in 802, when Jayavarman II establishes his capital at Angkor. Jayavarman unites all of Cambodia and achieves independence from Java. 843 c.e. Treaty of Verdun Under the Treaty of Verdun, the Carolingian Kingdom is divided into three parts. Louis II rules the Frankish Kingdom east of the Rhine; Lothair I rules northern Italy, part of France, and Belgium; and Charles II (the Bald) rules the western Frankish Empire, consisting of most of present-day France. 851 c.e. Danish Vikings Sack London Danish Vikings sailed up the Thames in 851. They sack London and Canterbury but are defeated at Ockley by the king of the West Saxons. 860 c.e. Khazar Kings Convert to Judaism The Khazar kings convert to Judaism. A Jewish dynasty of kings presides over the Khazar Kingdom until the 960s. 862 c.e. Rurik Leads Viking Raids, Founded Russia The Viking chieftain Rurik leads raids on northern Russia, marking the beginning of the imperial Russian period. 866–1160 c.e. Fujiwara Period The Fujiwara period begins in Japan in 866. Fujiwara Mototsune becomes the first civilian dictator. 867 c.e. Basil Founded Macedonian Dynasty Basil has his co-emperor Michael III murdered and becomes the sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. Basil creates what became known as the Macedonian dynasty that lasts until 1076. 872 c.e. Harold I King of Norway Harold I creates modern Norway by deposing many of the petty chieftains to unify the country. 878 c.e. Alfred the Great Alfred the Great wins a major victory over the Danes in the Battle of Edington in southern England. 900 c.e. Ghanaian Kingdom in West Africa The Kingdom of Ghana, made rich on the trade of salt and gold, dominates West Africa. 900 c.e. Mesoamerican Civilizations Fall of the Zapotec city-state of Monte Albán in Oaxaca Valley in Mexico, and the height of Classic Veracruz states along Mexican gulf coast. 907 c.e. Five Dynasties in China At the fall of the Tang dynasty, China is divided between 907 and 959, known as the period of Five Dynasties. Five short-lived dynasties successively rule parts of North China while 10 kingdoms rule parts of southern China. 911 c.e. Treaty of St-Clair-sur-Epte The Treaty of St-Clair-sur-Epte is signed. Under the terms of the treaty, the kingdom of Normandy is established; Rollo the Viking becomes the first ruler, and he converts to Christianity. 916–1125 c.e. Liao Dynasty in Northeastern China A nomadic people called Khitan establish a state in northeastern China and force the Song to pay annual tribute. 918 c.e. Koryo Dynasty Founded The Koryo dynasty is founded by Wang Kon, who unites Korea. This dynasty remains in power until 1392. 945 c.e. Collapse of the Abbasid Caliphate and Establishment of Buyid Dynasty Ahmad Ibn Buwa, a Shi’i from Iran, takes Baghdad and is made caliph. 955 c.e. Otto the Great Defeats Magyars Otto the Great defeats the Magyars in 955 c.e. at the xx Chronology Battle of Lechfeld. This ends 50 years of Magyar raids on western Europe. 960 C.E. Song Dynasty Founded The Song dynasty is founded by Zhao Kuangyin, who reigns as Emperor Taizu. Even at its height, the Song dynasty (960–1126) does not rule the entire Chinese world. Kaifeng becomes the capital. 962–1886 C.E. The Ghaznavids The Ghaznavid dynasty is founded by Subaktagin, a Turkish slave who converts to Islam. The dynasty establishes itself in present-day Afghanistan. 962 C.E. Otto I Emperor of Rome Otto the Great is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII and revives the power of the Western Roman Empire. 968 C.E. The Fatimid Dynasty in Egypt The Fatimids establish a Shi’i Muslim dynasty in Egypt. 970 C.E. Al-Azhar, Islamic University, Founded by Fatimid Dynasty The Fatimid dynasty in Egypt founds the al-Azhar University in Cairo that becomes the premier educational center in the Islamic world. 980–1037 C.E. Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Foremost Philosopher and Medical Scholar Ibn Sina, born in Iran, spent most of his academic career in Baghdad, where he wrote extensively on medicine, religion, and philosophy. 989 C.E. The Peace of God The Peace of God is passed at the Council of Charroux. It is supported by Hugh Capet, king of France. The Peace of God attempts to reduce feudal warfare by limiting private wars to certain parts of the year, and by providing protection for noncombatants. 1000 C.E. Tale of Genji Murasaki Shikibu, author of what some claim is the world’s fi rst novel, used the Japanese written form— called kana—to describe Japanese court life. 1000 C.E. Zimbabwean Complex in Southern Africa The massive stone complex at Zimbabwe is one of the largest Bantu cites and serves as a capital for several Bantu rulers. 1014 C.E. Basil II Defeats the Bulgarians The Byzantine Emperor Basil II routs the Bulgarians at the Battle of Cimbalugu. 1016 C.E. Canute II Rules All of England On the death of Ethelred II, the king of England, Edmund II succeeds to the throne. Following his death, Canute II, a Dane, is chosen by the Witan, the advisory council to the king. 1025 C.E. Boleslas, First King of Poland Poland gains independence from the Holy Roman Empire when Boleslas I is crowned the fi rst Polish king at Gniezno. 1031 C.E. The Umayyad Caliphate of Spain Dissolves After 30 years of anarchy, the Umayyad Caliphate of Spain dissolves after the death of Hisham III and Andalusia (Spain) is divided into a number of small Muslim states. 1038–1227 C.E. Xixia a State in Western China Proto-Tibetan Xixia—a Buddhist state—was Gen ghis Khan’s fi rst victim, destroyed by the Mongols. 1050 C.E. Kingdom of Ghana at Its Most Powerful The kingdom of Ghana at its most powerful but it begins to decline in the 1070s. 1055 C.E. Seljuk Turks Take Baghdad The Seljuk Turks, under the command of Tughril, reigned 1038–63, capture Baghdad from the Buyids in 1055. 1057 C.E. Anawratha Unites Burma Anawratha, the Burmese king of Pagan, conquers the Mon kingdom of Thaton. For the fi rst time, all of Burma is under unifi ed rule. 1066 C.E. Normans Win at the Battle of Hastings At the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror defeats Harold II, king of England. The victory leads to the complete domination of England by the Normans. 1071 C.E. Battle of Manzikert At the Battle of Manzikert, in present-day Turkey, the Seljuk Turks led by Alp Arslan defeat the Byzantine forces and capture the Byzantine emperor, Romanus IV. The Seljuks subsequently take most of Asia Minor and gain control over trade routes used by Christian Chronology xxi pilgrims to reach Jerusalem. The persecution and harassment of Christians is a contributing cause to the Crusades. 1076 c.e. Kingdom of Ghana Defeated by Amoravids The Berber Almoravids who control most of Morocco conquer the Kingdom of Ghana; its capital Koumbi Saleh is sacked but the Almoravids are soon forced to withdraw. 1085 c.e. Alfonso VI Conquers Toledo Alfonso VI, the Christian king of León and Castile, captures Toledo from the Almoravids and makes it his capital. 1094 c.e. El Cid Takes Valencia Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, known as El Cid, captures the Moorish kingdom of Valencia after a nine-month siege. 1095–1099 c.e. Christian Crusades against the Seljuk Turks and Muslims The First Crusade begins with a call by Pope Urban II for Christian states to free the Holy Land from the Muslim Seljuk Turks. 1099 c.e. Crusaders Arrive in Jerusalem The crusaders capture Jerusalem and kill thousands of Muslims, Jews, and eastern Orthodox Christians indiscriminately. The Crusades establish feudal states in the territories they hold in the eastern Mediterranean. 1100 c.e. Fall of Chichén Itzá Approximate date of the fall of the Maya Postclassic state of Chichén Itzá in the northern lowlands. 1113 c.e. Khmer Empire Reaches Peak The Khmer Empire in present-day Cambodia is established in 600 and reaches its peak under Suryavarman II. 1115–1234 c.e. Jin Dynasty in North China The seminomadic Jurchen in northeastern China destroy the Liao dynasty and establish the Jin dynasty. Then the Jin drive the Song out of North China. Thus the Song is divided into the Northern Song (960–1127) and Southern Song (1127–1279). 1125 c.e. Song Huizong is Captured by Jin Huizong’s disastrous reign results in his capture by the seminomadic Jin dynasty and ending the Northern Song. 1127–1129 c.e. Tului Khan Regent of Mongol Empire Tului is the youngest son of Genghis Khan. His two sons, Mongke and Kubilai, later become grand khans. 1141 c.e. Yue Fei Murdered General Yue led a successful campaign to recover North China from the invading Jin dynasty. His murder in jail by leaders of the Southern Song government led to peace between the Song and Jin, with the Jin controlling northern China. 1143 c.e. Afonso I King of Portugal Under the terms of the Treaty of Zamora in 1143, the independence of Portugal is recognized. Afonso I becomes the first king. 1147 c.e. Second Crusade The Second Crusade is organized by Louis VII, king of Spain and Conrad III, king of Germany. The crusade comes to a disastrous end due to a lack of leadership. 1147 c.e. Almohads Conquer Morocco Morocco is conquered by Abd al-Mumin, the leader of the Berber Muslim Almohad dynasty. This conquest ends the Almoravid dynasty. 1157 c.e. Eric IX Defeats the Finns Eric IX, Christian king of Sweden, defeats the Finns and forces them to convert to Christianity. 1163 c.e. Gothic Architecture and the Building of Notre-Dame Construction of one of the most notable Gothic churches, Notre-Dame in Paris, begins. 1168 c.e. Oxford Founded The school of Oxford is founded in 1168 in England, the oldest university in the English-speaking world. 1171 c.e. Saladin (Salah ad-Din) Founds the Ayyubid Dynasty Saladin, reigned 1174–93, abolishes the Shi’i Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt and establishes the Sunni Muslim Ayyubid dynasty. 1171 c.e. Henry II Invades Ireland Henry II, king of England, responds to a request for xxii Chronology help from Ireland’s deposed king Dermot MacMurrough by sending forces to Ireland. 1174 c.e. William the Lion Defeated Henry II defeats William the Lion, king of Scotland, at the siege of Alnwick Castle. 1176 c.e. Frederick I Barbarossa Defeated The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (Barbossa) is decisively defeated by the Lombard League at Legnano and therefore fails to take northern Italy. 1180–1185 c.e. Gempei Wars Wars in Japan between two prominent clans. The Taira clan won the first round and became shogun. The Minamoto clan won the second round and gained control of the country; established the Kamakura Shogunate. 1181 King Lalibela Rules Ethiopia Under King Lalibela massive stone churches are constructed in Ethiopia. 1187 c.e. Saladin (Salah ad Din) wins the Battle of Hittin against the Crusaders At the Battle of Hittin, Saladin decisively defeats the crusaders and retakes Jerusalem and most of the main cities in the eastern Mediterranean. 1186 c.e. Second Bulgarian Empire A successful revolt takes place against the Byzantine rule of Bulgaria. This establishes the second Bulgarian empire that lasts until 1396. 1192 c.e. The Third Crusade Spurred by Saladin’s triumph, the Christians launch the Third Crusade, led by Richard the Lionhearted. Following a two-year siege, the crusaders capture Acre; Richard then negotiates a truce with Saladin that ensures Christian access to holy sites in Jerusalem, but the crusaders retain only a small area along the coast and the island of Cyprus. 1199 c.e. Richard the Lionhearted Dies Richard the Lionhearted dies of an arrow wound while besieging Chalus in western France. 1199 c.e. Rise of the Hojo The Hojo clan controls Japan through marriage into the Minamoto clan, gaining control of the Kamakura Shogunate. 1200 c.e. Rise of Mayapán Approximate date of the rise of the city-state of Mayapán in the Maya northern lowlands. 1200 c.e. University of Paris Founded Philip II, king of France, issues a charter to establish the University of Paris. 1202 c.e. Fourth Crusade The Fourth Crusade begins at the behest of Emperor Henry, king of Sicily. Pope Innocent III issues a call to European monarchs to participate in the crusade. The call is answered primarily by French nobles. 1202 c.e. Danish Empire Valdemar II succeeds to the Danish throne and expands the Danish empire to include northern Germany. 1204 c.e. Crusaders Capture Constantinople Crusaders capture Constantinople in 1204; they kill many Eastern Orthodox Christians and pillage the city; this is a devastating blow to the Byzantine Empire, and the city never regains its former power. 1206 c.e. Genghis Khan Temujin is proclaimed Genghis Khan, or universal ruler, after he unifies various Mongol tribes. His empire at his death includes northern China, Korea and Central Asia to the Caspian Sea and Don River in Russia. 1215 c.e. Magna Carta In 1215, a group of determined barons force King John of England to sign the Magna Carta, under which the British aristocracy is granted the rights of trial by jury and protection from arbitrary acts by the king. 1217 c.e. French-English Battles With the death of King John, civil war divides England. The French intervene and occupy parts of England, but the French are defeated by the English at the Battle of Lincoln and then lose their fleet at the naval Battle of Sandwich. 1222–1282 c.e. Nichiren Nichiren, a Japanese monk, founds a sect based on a militant and nationalist interpretation of Buddhism. 1227 c.e. Chagatai Khanate Established Central Asia became domain of Genghis Khan’s second son Chagatai and his descendants down to Timurlane. Chronology xxiii 1227 C.E. The Golden Horde This Mongol Khanate ruled Russia through Genghis Khan’s eldest son, Juji. 1229 C.E. Crusaders Retake Jerusalem The Sixth Crusade, led by Frederick II, gains control of Jerusalem through a diplomatic settlement with Malik al-Kamil, a nephew of Saladin. Under the agreement, the crusaders control Jerusalem but the Ayyubids rule Damascus and control the valuable trade routes to India and further east. Internal disputes further weaken the crusader-state. 1229–1241 C.E. Ogotai Becomes Khan Ogotai, Genghis Khan’s third son, is confi rmed as the second Mongol grand khan. He continues conquests in China and eastern Europe. 1232 C.E. First Known Use of Rockets The Chinese use rockets in battle for the fi rst time. This demonstrated the military use of gunpowder. From this moment the use of gunpowder spreads rapidly around the world. 1235 C.E. Sundiata Defeats King Sumanguru at the Battle of Kirina King Sundiata of Mali defeats the Ghanaian ruler King Sumanguru at the Battle of Kirina, making Mali a major power in West Africa. 1236 C.E. Córdoba Taken from Muslim Rulers Ferdinand III captures Córdoba; after 1248 with the capture of Seville, only Granada remains under Muslim rule in Andalusia, present-day Spain. 1240 C.E. Nevsky Defeats the Swedes In 1240, Alexander Nevsky, a Russian prince, defeats the Swedes, near St. Petersburg. The Swedes invade at the request of Pope Gregory IX, who wanted to punish the Orthodox Russians for helping the Finns avoid conversion to Latin Catholicism. 1243 C.E. Seljuk Turks Crushed at Battle of Kosedagh The Seljuks are crushed by the Mongols at the Battle of Kosedagh in present-day Turkey. 1244 C.E. Jerusalem Recaptured by Muslims Mamluks from Egypt take Jerusalem from the crusaders. 1250 C.E. Seventh Crusade and the Founding of the Mamluk Dynasties In 1250, the Seventh Crusade is defeated by Egyptian forces led by Turanshah who captures Louis IX whom he releases after the payment of a ransom. The Mamluks, former slaves and professional soldiers, subsequently overthrow Turanshah and continue to rule Egypt until 1517. 1250 C.E. Mali King Sundiata Conquers Ghana Sundiata, king of Mali (r. 1234–1255), conquers the older Ghanaian kingdom in West Africa and establishes a huge empire with its capital at Niani on the Upper Niger. The empire becomes wealthy from its control of the trade of salt and gold. 1250 C.E. Migration of Aztecs First wave of migration of the Mexica (Aztecs) from the northern deserts into the Basin of Mexico. 1250–1280 Chinese Invent the First Gun The technology for the manufacture of this weapon reached Europe in the 1320s. 1251–1259 C.E. Mongke Made Fourth Grand Khan Mongke is the grandson of Genghis Khan. He continues Mongol expansion against Southern Song China and in the Middle East. His death results in a civil war between his remaining brothers. 1260 C.E. Battle of Ain Jalut The Mamluks defeat the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in Palestine, ending the Mongol threat to Egypt. 1260 C.E. The Mamluk Sultan Baybars Defeats the Crusaders The Mamluk sultan Baybars (r. 1260–1277), drives the crusaders out of most of their holdings. 1260 –1294 C.E. Kubilai Khan Made Fifth Grand Kahn Kubilai’s election split the Mongol Empire. He destroys the Southern Song and establishes the Yuan dynasty centered in China. 1271 C.E. Marco Polo Marco Polo, accompanied by his father and uncle, sets off for China. They arrive at the court of the Kubilai Khan, where Marco Polo serves Kubilai Khan. He later dictates The Travels about his adventures. xxiv Chronology 1273 C.E. Founding of the Habsburg Dynasty The Great Interregnum from 1254 to 1273 ends, and Rudolf I of Habsburg is elected Holy Roman Emperor. In 1278, the Habsburgs gain control over Austria and rule a dynasty that lasts until 1918. 1274 and 1281 C.E. Mongols Fail to Conquer Japan Kubilai Khan’s naval expeditions fail to subjugate Japan. The second one involves an armada of 4,500 ships and 150,000 men. It is destroyed by Japanese resistance and a typhoon. 1282 C.E. King of Denmark Accepts Limitation of Power Danish nobility forces Eric V to sign a Danish “Magna Carta.” This document establishes a Danish parliament that meets once each year and the king is made subordinate to the parliament.
1284 C.E. Genoa Defeats Pisa The Republic of Genoa fi ghts the rival Italian citystate of Pisa.
1291 C.E. Founding of the Swiss Confederation Three Swiss cantons form the League of the Three Forest Cantons in 1291; the league is established for mutual defense.
1291 C.E. Fall of the Last Crusader Territory In 1291 Acre, the last crusader territory, falls to Muslim forces.
1298 C.E. Scottish Rebellion against the English The English under Edward I win a decisive victory over the Scots at the Battle of Falkirk. The Scots rebelled under the leadership of William Wallace.
1300–1326 C.E. Osman Lays the Foundations of the Ottoman Empire Osman (r. 1299–1326) leads his Ghazi warriors into battle and extends his rule in the Anatolian Peninsula; his son Orhan then takes Bursa that becomes the capital of the new Ottoman Empire.
1302 C.E. Philip IV Calls Meeting of the Estates General King Philip IV of France calls together representatives of the nobility, townspeople, and clergy for the fi rst time; the gathering becomes known as the Estates General.
1309 C.E. Avignonese Papacy Pope Clement V, heavily infl uenced by King Philip IV, moves the papacy to Avignon, France. Clement rescinds Boniface’s pronouncements against Philip.
1314 C.E. Battle of Bannockburn, Scotland The Scots, led by Robert the Bruce, rout a larger force led by Edward II, king of England.
1314–1317 C.E. Great European Famine The worst famine to strike Europe occurs. It is widespread and affects all of northern Europe.
1315 C.E. Swiss Victory Swiss forces gain a victory over Leopold I (Habsburg), duke of Austria, at the Battle of Morgarten. The victory leads to an expanded Swiss alliance.
1324–1325 The Mali King Mansa Kankan Musa Makes Famous Pilgrimage to Mecca At the height of his powers as king of Mali, Mansa Kankan Musa and an enormous entourage laden with gold travel from West Africa to Arabia.
1325 C.E. Foundation of Tenochtitlán According to Aztec legend, the fulfi llment of an ancient prophecy and year of the foundation of their capital island-city of Tenochtitlán in the Basin of Mexico.
1337 C.E. Hundred Years’ War The Hundred Years’ War begins when Philip VI contests the English claim to Normandy and other northern provinces in France.
1338 C.E. Ashikaga Shogunate Established by Ashikaga Takauji, the Ashikaga replaces the Kamakura Shogunate in Japan. It lasts until 1573, though exercising effective power only during its fi rst century.
1340 C.E. Battle of Crécy A smaller British force under the command of Edward III defeats a French army under the command of Philip VI.
1347–1353 C.E. Black Death The Black Death (bubonic plague) that spread throughout Europe between 1347 and 1353 is the worst natural disaster in European history. It is estimated that of a population of 75 million people, between 19 million and 35 million die.
1356 Nanjing Capital of Ming Dynasty After consolidating southern China, the founder of the Ming dynasty establishes his capital in Nanjing (Nanking). It remains capital until 1421 when it is moved to Beijing (Peking).
1356 C.E. Battle of Poitiers At the Battle of Poitiers, Edward, the “Black Prince” of Wales, defeats the French. In the course of the battle, the French king, John II, is taken prisoner and brought to England.
1362 C.E. Murad I Takes Title as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Murad I takes the title of sultan of the Ottoman Empire and leads his forces into Thrace, taking Adrianople, which then becomes the new Ottoman capital of Edirne.
1368 C.E. Ming Dynasty Established Zhu Yuanzhang leads a successful revolt that expells the Mongols from China. Zhu rules as Ming emperor Taizu and begins the rebuilding of China.
1369 C.E. Timurlane Conquers Empire A descendant of Genghis Khan, Timurlane sets out from Samarkand and conquers and despoils Russia, Afghanistan, the Middle East, and northern India.
1377 C.E. Ibn Khaldun as Pioneer in the Study of the Philosophy of History Ibn Khaldun, born in present-day Tunisia, begins his pioneering study in the philosophy of history.
1381 C.E. War of Chioggia The Venetians and the Genoese fi ght in the War of Chioggia. The Genoese blockade the Venetians after seizing Chioggia, but the Venetian fl eet defeats the Genoese thereby beginning the golden age of Venice.
1381 C.E. Peasants’ Revolt in England Peasants, led by Wat Tyler, rebel against high poll taxes, leading to reforms of the old feudal system in England.
1385 C.E. Portugal Free from Spain The Portuguese, under John the Great, fi ght Castile at the Battle of Ajubarrota; their victory ensures the independence of Portugal.
1389 C.E. Ottomans Defeat the Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo At Kosovo the Ottoman forces defeat the Serbs in a battle that becomes an important milestone in Balkan history.
1392 Yi Dynasty in Korea Founded by General Yi Songgye, this dynasty (also known as the Li dynasty), with the capital located at modern-day Seoul, lasts until 1910.
1397 C.E. Union of Kalamar Magaret, queen of Sweden, completes the conquest of Denmark and Norway. She then forms the Kalamar League, a union of all three countries.
1400 C.E. Kingdom of Malacca Founded The Kingdom of Malacca is founded on the Malay Peninsula in current-day Indonesia. Malacca, which is founded by Paramesva, soon becomes the leading maritime power in Southeast Asia.
1400 C.E. Rise of Inca Empire The beginning of the rise of the Inca Empire in the Peruvian highlands.
1402 C.E. Timurlane Defeats the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid at the Battle of Ankara At the Battle of Ankara, Timurlane defeats Sultan Bayezid; he dies in captivity and Timurlane turns over the Anatolia territories to Bayezid’s sons.
1403 C.E. Mehmed (Mehmet) I Reunites and Expands the Ottoman Empire Mehmed I (r. 1403–21), begins to reunite and expand the Ottoman Empire after the loss to Timurlane.
1403 C.E. Moveable Type Invented in Korea This was an important improvement on the block printing fi rst invented and used in China in the ninth century.
1403 C.E. Yongle Becomes Ruler of the Ming Yongle (Yung-lo) defeats his nephew and becomes emperor of the Ming dynasty. He crushes the Mongols, moves the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, and sends naval expeditions across the Indian Ocean to the east coast of Africa.
1405 C.E. Mongol Empire Divided Timurlane, the leader of the Mongols, dies suddenly while preparing to attack Ming China. With his death the Mongol Empire rapidly falls apart.
1405–1433 C.E. Explorations of Zheng He Ming admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho) sails in six maritime expeditions. The expeditions showed the fl ag, cleared pirates, and promoted trade across Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean.
1410 C.E. Battle of Tannenberg The Poles and the Lithuanians defeat German knights at the Battle of Tannenberg. Despite the victory, at the Peace of Thorn signed in 1411, the Poles fail to gain access to the sea.
1415 C.E. Battle of Agincourt The English decisively defeat the French at the Battle of Agincourt. As a result, the French nobility is shattered and the feudal system is destroyed. Normandy lays open to reconquest by the English.
1415 C.E. Henry the Navigator Takes Ceuta The Portuguese explorer and prince, Henry the Navigator, captures Ceuta on the northern coast of presentday Morocco. This begins the Portuguese conquest of coastal areas and cities around Africa.
1420 C.E. Chinese Capital Beijing (Peking) The second Ming emperor moves the capital of China from Nanjing to Beijing.
1420 C.E. Treaty of Troyes The French under Philip and England under Henry V sign the Treaty of Troyes. Under the terms of the treaty Henry becomes the king of both France and England.
1421 C.E. Murad II Enlarges the Ottoman Empire Murad II (r. 1421–44; 1446–51) brings all of western Anatolia under his control and takes Salonica.
1424 C.E. France Invades Italy Charles VIII, king of France, begins the Italian Wars by invading Italy; Naples surrenders to Charles and he temporarily becomes the king of Naples.
1428 C.E. Aztecs Gain Predominance in Basin of Mexico Aztecs become the “fi rst among equals” in the Triple Alliance with city-states of Texcoco and Tlacopán in the Basin of Mexico, the beginning of the Aztec Empire’s domination of much of central and southern Mexico.
1429 C.E. Joan of Arc Frees Orléans War between France and England continues on and off, despite various agreements for peace. In 1428, the English lay siege to the city of Orléans. Joan of Arc, a young girl from Lorraine, begins to have visions and claims to hear voices; she convinces the French dauphin to provide her with a small army that liberates Orléans. However she is ultimately captured by the English and put to death.
1431 C.E. Angkor Sacked Angkor, the capital of the Khmer, is captured and sacked by the Thai. The Khmer Empire is forced to move its capital to the present site of the Cambodian capital Phnom Penh.
1433 C.E. Tauregs Occupy Timbuktu In 1433–34 the nomadic Tauregs occupy Timbuktu; this weakens the kingdom of Mali that would fall in the mid-15th century.
1435 C.E. Peace Treaty of Arras Duke Philip of Burgundy signs a peace treaty with Charles VI that recognizes Charles as the one king of France.
1438 C.E. Inca Dynasty Founded The Inca dynasty that rules Peru until 1553 is founded in 1438. Its founder is said to have been Pachacutec. He rapidly expands the empire.
1440 C.E. Ewuare the Great Rules Benin Ewuare the Great (r. 1440–73) rules a rich West Africnan kingdom stretching from Lagos to the Niger.
1444 C.E. Ottomans Win the Battle of Varna In 1444 the Hungarians, the Byzantine emperor, and the pope join forces in a crusade to defeat the Ottomans and push them out of Europe; however, Murad II commands a victorious Ottoman army at the Battle of Varna, marking the end of Western attempts to regain the Balkans and assist Constantinople.
1450 C.E. Printing Press Invented in Europe In 1450 Johann Gutenberg invents the printing press, which revolutionizes communication and education.
1450 C.E. Decline of Mayapán The Maya city-state of Mayapán splinters into numerous petty kingdoms the in northern lowlands of Central America.
Major Themes (600 c.e. to 1450)Edit
Unlike the signifi cant advances in food production of the previous era, Europe, Asia, and Africa witnessed no revolutionary advances in agricultural technology from 600 to 1450. Nor were signifi cant new crops introduced comparable to what occurred after 1492 as a result of Europeans coming to the Americas. As during earlier eras, forests continued to be cut down and swamps drained and turned into grazing and agricultural land. More effi cient methods were developed to plant and harvest food, using iron implements. Trade and migrating peoples introduced food crops to new regions. Tea made from leaves of a bush grown in southern China became a popular drink throughout the land after the seventh century because of political unity and better transportation. From China, tea drinking and tea cultivation spread to Japan, to its nomadic neighbors, and later to Europe. Grapes and wine were introduced to China from western Asia via the Silk Road. Coffee, from a plant indigenous to the Arabian Peninsula, became a ubiquitous drink from western Asia and the Ottoman Empire to Europe. Europe. Europe suffered centuries of invasions and disruption with the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. Life fell to subsistence level, not to improve until around 1000 with the end of barbarian invasions. During the following centuries, the clearing of forests and repopulating of lands previously abandoned because of the invasions tripled available farmland, sharply increasing the food supply and population. Medieval farmers also improved productivity by adopting the three-fi eld system and crop rotation, thereby producing crops from two-thirds of the cultivated land rather than half under the previous two-fi eld system. They also farmed more effi ciently by adopting improvements such as a heavier plow, the shoulder collar and metal horseshoes for draft horses, and water and windmills. As a result, the population of Europe jumped from 25 million in 500 c.e. to more than 70 million in 1300 c.e. Most European farmers were serfs, free in person but tied to the land. They lived in villages ranging from 10 to several hundred families around a manor house that belonged to a secular lord or to the church. Each farming family was allotted strips of land scattered around the village so that all had good as well as poor land. Families shared the pastureland and woods and retained about half of what it produced for itself, giving the remainder to the lord or the church. They were subsistence farmers, though bartering took place for products that the serfs did not produce locally. By the 13th century, rising prosperity had led to improved conditions for serfs, and some were able to raise cash crops, pay off their obligations to their lords, and move to towns. However, European economies suffered sharp reverses in the 14th century due to climatic changes; colder and rainier weather caused lower harvests, higher prices, and population decline. Wars ravaged farmlands and contributed to famines. Between 1348 and 1354, the bubonic plague (Black Death) struck, reducing the population by about a third. It did not recover to pre-plague levels until about 1600; ironically, the sharply reduced labor supply resulted in better working conditions for the surviving serfs. Asia and Africa. Like Europe, northern China suffered repeated nomadic invasions and warfare between c. 200 and 600. They caused economic disruption in northern China and development in the south, which was spared invasions and saw an infl ux of northern immigrants and rapid development. The completion of the Grand Canal around 600 c.e., which connected lands from south of the Yangzi (Yangtze) River to the Yellow River valley, would be crucial for the economic integration of the Chinese Empire after reunifi cation and ensured effi cient distribution of food and other resources. Wheat and millet were the main cereal crops in northern China, and rice from irrigated fi elds was the main staple crop of the south. The introduction of early ripening rice from the Champa Kingdom (modern Vietnam) around 1000 made double cropping possible; this, together with major projects to build irrigation canals and clear land, made possible signifi cant population increases in subsequent centuries. Whereas the Chinese population remained fairly static at about 60 million during the Han dynasty (202 b.c.e.–220 c.e.) and Tang (T’ang) dynasty (618–907), it had surged to about 150 million in the early 13th century. It dropped to below 100 million, or by 40 percent, by the end of the 14th century because of disruptions caused by the Mongol invasions and subsequent Mongol misrule, including turning farmland to pasture land and hunting ground, neglecting irrigation systems, and the bubonic plague. China’s population would not reach 150 million until the early 17th century. The ability to feed an increasing population was because of effective government measures that improved agricultural technology by investment in hydraulic engineering that drained marshes and extended irrigation. Sea walls were built along the southern coast to protect delta lands from storm tides, and a well developed network of granaries, roads, and canals were maintained to store and transport food. According to nutritional experts, a wide variety of food crops, fi sh, and meat from domesticated animals made the Chinese among the best fed people of Asia, and perhaps of the world during this era, at an average daily intake of more than 2,000 calories. Except under Mongol rule, Chinese farmers during these centuries either owned their land or worked as tenants or sharecroppers. Chinese technological advances in agriculture were transferred to Vietnam, Korea, and Japan. Thus agricultural patterns and food habits followed similar patterns throughout eastern Asia. There is little information on food production from similar periods in India. Indian governments, since the Mauryan dynasty (324–c.185 b.c.e.), claimed ownership of agricultural land and let it out to the tiller for an annual rent and tax, up to about half of the product. Rice was grown along river valleys and on delta land, relying on monsoon rains and irrigation. Where water was available, up to three crops could be harvested on some lands. The farmers also cultivated wheat and millet, many kinds of vegetables, and fruits. India was famed for growing a wide variety of spices used in cooking. The Spanish and Portuguese voyages of exploration in the 15th century were motivated in part by the desire to obtain spices and other riches from India. Increasing emphasis on vegetarianism by Hindus meant that there was less raising of animals for meat in India than in many other lands. However, Indian farmers used bullocks for draft animals and raised cows for milk, which provided much of the protein in their diet. In the eastern Mediterranean and Ottoman Empire, the production of grains and fruits was the main agricultural activity. From China, Central Asia, Persia, the Middle East, to North Africa, sedentary agriculturalists and nomadic (or seminomadic) herders and pastoralists depended on one another to supply what each could not produce. Pastoralism xxx 600 C.E. to 1450 generally existed in areas less favored with rainfall. As a result, pastoralists were more dependent on outsiders for vital food items such as grains and salt than were farming societies. Therefore, hard times or inability to trade for needed items often led to nomadic raids, wars, and migrations. In sub-Saharan Africa, farming ranged from advanced to slash-and-burn methods. Herding, hunting, and fi shing were also important sources for food in many regions. In most European and Asian societies, men performed the heavy agricultural work and women spun and wove cloth, but in many African societies, men hunted and herded animals while women farmed and produced most of the food. Major crops included millet, sorghum, and ground nuts as well as some vegetables. The Americas. The method of food production and the types of food produced throughout the Americas did not change from the beginning of the Neolithic age to this period. Maize, beans, and squash remained the staple crops. The range of animals available for domestication remained the same also—dogs, turkeys, llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs. All farm work was done (by humans) with stone, bone, wooden, and sometimes copper tools, as there were no sturdy draft animals. In the Amazon basin the people combined slash-and-burn tropical forest agriculture with hunting for wild game, fi shing, and gathering of nuts and edible plants. In North America, the peoples combined agriculture with hunting both big and small game and gathering edible nuts and fruits. Peoples across the world used many methods to produce food. Incremental improvements in food production were most noticeable in Europe and eastern Asia during this period, where most of the population increases and improvements in living standards occurred.
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS
Between the seventh and mid-15th centuries, Christian and Muslim scholars of Europe and the Middle East preserved and studied the scientifi c and technological knowledge that they had inherited from ancient Greek, Roman, and Hellenistic civilizations. They also made progress in many fi elds, including astronomy, mathematics, and human physiology, that led to greater understanding of the natural world. They thus laid the foundations for the Renaissance to come. Life, culture, and learning were severely set back in Europe when the Roman Empire fell. Several centuries would elapse before the barbarian invasions subsided, allowing recovery to begin. Education. Before about 1000, monks dominated learning and education in monastic and cathedral schools where boys from elite families were educated in the seven liberal arts derived from ancient Greco-Roman civilizations. These were grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. Later they benefi ted from knowledge from the classical world transmitted through Jewish and Arab scholars. After 1000, universities were founded where monks and secular scholars taught theology, law, the sciences, and medicine. Roger Bacon (1214–94) made Oxford University famous by pioneering the inductive investigation method of observation and experimentation. He described the nervous system of the eye, made magnifying glasses, and wrote about creating gigantic mirrors that would focus the Sun’s rays to incinerate one’s enemies in warfare. A hundred years before Copernicus, Jean Buridan (c. 1300–58), rector of the University of Paris, had written that Earth was round and rotated on an axis. Many universities became famous in particular disciplines, for example, medicine at the University of Padua. Two inventions fi rst made in China and then spread across Eurasia had an incalculable affect on advancing learning. They were the introduction of paper making that spread from China to the Muslim world in the eighth century, thence to Europe, and the invention of printing and movable type, which reached Gutenberg in Germany in 1450. Theoretical advances in such areas as mathematics had practical application. For example, the architectural style for church building during the 11th and early 12th centuries was called Romanesque because it employed the plan of the Roman basilica. It featured a cross-shaped fl oor plan with intersecting aisles and a large open rectangular area called a nave to accommodate the worshippers and a semicircular apse for the altar. A new Gothic style was introduced in the 12th century, refl ecting mastery of complicated mathematical calculations and great engineering skill. Its innovative features were height, with raised high roofs supported by pointed arches and external buttresses, 600 C.E. to 1450 xxxi space, and brilliant light through soaring windows decorated with stained glass. All major European cities would build cathedrals in the Gothic style until the 16th century. Europe and the rest of the world owed much to Islamic civilization for the preservation of ancient Persian and Hellenistic manuscripts after the conquest of Persia and the eastern Mediterranean area by the fi rst caliphs. The early caliphs at Damascus encouraged the arts and education and established universities, the most famous being the al-Ahzar in Cairo, probably the oldest continuing university in the world. The famous Bayt al-Hikmah (House of Wisdom) in Baghdad attracted scholars from around the Mediterranean. Islamic culture reached its zenith between the eighth and 13th centuries. Arts and the sciences fl ourished during this era, called the golden age, and incorporated the earlier achievements of lands that the Arabs had conquered. Scholars of many cultures, including Jewish, Zoroastrian, and Christian, worked together, translating Hebrew, Indian, and Persian texts into Arabic, the lingua franca of the entire Muslim Empire. For example, major works of ancient Greek physicians and scientists such as Hippocrates and Galen were studied and advanced in centers from Baghdad to Granada in Spain. Scientifi c Developments. During the Islamic golden age from the eighth to 13th centuries, Arab and Muslim scientists and scholars were the most advanced in the fi elds of medicine and pharmacology as well as in applied sciences and mechanical engineering. Scholars like Ibn Rushd (Averroës) and al-Kindi made major contributions to the knowledge of mathematics as well as music. Muslim medical doctors and scientists were pioneers in treating such ailments as kidney stones and small pox. Hospitals were established in many cities under Muslim rule. Arab astronomers were infl uenced by the Ptolemaic (Earth-centered) system of the universe, based on which they developed new accurate tables of solar and lunar eclipses. Their superiority to earlier calculations were such that Muslim astronomers were given employment in the Bureau of Astronomy in the Chinese court and were given the responsibility for calendar making and predicting eclipses until around 1600 when they were replaced by Jesuit astronomers from the by then more advanced Europe. The fi rst paper mill in the Islamic world was established in Baghdad in 793, followed by many others. Paper was important to transmitting technological inventions among scholars of many cultures and enabled the growth of libraries with large collections. Most of India’s many contributions to world civilization, including those in the sciences and technology, occurred before 600. The Indian subcontinent suffered repeated devastating conquests after 600 from Scythians, Huns, Afghans, and Turks. Muslim raids and conquests launched by Afghans and Turks from Afghanistan were particularly destructive. Besides destroying cultural centers and libraries, the invaders amassed huge amounts of loot, massacred the population, and deported many as slaves. Indians gradually ceased sailing to other lands as they had done during earlier eras, when they had spread so much of their scientifi c and technological knowledge to the peoples of South and Southeast Asia. However, many Arabs who came to India learned and spread much of Indian learning on mathematics (for example, the zero) and astronomy to other lands. Many of China’s great scientifi c breakthroughs occurred before the era covered here, although knowledge continued to be advanced, refi ned, and spread throughout China and to other cultures. Japan in particular was the benefi ciary of many of China’s earlier inventions after 600. This was due to Japan’s policy to learn all major aspects of China’s civilization, starting around 600, that continued for several centuries. An important example of technological breakthrough and diffusion is the stirrup. The use of a loop made of rope or leather to assist people in mounting horses probably fi rst began with the nomads north of China. Expert at metal casting and needing to counter the threat of the nomads on their northern borders, the Chinese began to make cast iron stirrups in the third century. Fierce nomads called Avars in the sixth century carried this invention to Europe as Avar attacks threatened the Byzantine Empire. In response, Byzantine emperor Maurice Tiberius promulgated a military manual in 580 that specifi ed the need for Byzantine cavalry to use iron stirrups. After that, stirrups became universal throughout Eurasia. China was also the fi rst to make true porcelain in the third century through high-temperature fi ring in kilns. In the next 1,000 years and beyond, all innovations and advances xxxii 600 C.E. to 1450 in porcelain making were initiated by the Chinese, hence the name china for porcelain. This technology was later copied by every culture throughout Europe and Asia. The same is true of gunpowder used in warfare, fi rst invented by Chinese in the ninth century. Its invention and rapid spread throughout Europe and Asia forever changed the nature of warfare. Alchemy and Metallurgy. Alchemy was an area of inquiry that preoccupied many people throughout Europe and Asia. Many alchemists conducted experiments in their quest to turn base materials into gold. This quest turned out to be a dead end. However, although incidental, the experiments of the alchemists contributed to advancing scientifi c knowledge in many fi elds, including pharmacology, chemistry, and metallurgy. In China, alchemy was associated with Daoists (Taoists) and their quest for longevity and immortality as well as the search for gold. This association between science with magic and alchemy contributed to the denigration of scientifi c research by scholars in traditional China. Similarly in Europe alchemy acquired ill repute among scientists. The cultures of Mesoamerica made no dramatic advances in scientifi c and technological developments during this period, due in part to political fragmentation. The Mayan city-states had earlier developed sophisticated calendrical and astronomical knowledge, which they continued to rely on. The centuries between 600 and 1450 witnessed gradual and incremental increases in human knowledge in the sciences and technology. Islamic civilization led the way in assimilating the knowledge of the ancients, integrating them with that garnered by other cultures, and advancing them during the fi rst part of this era. Its achievements made those centuries the golden age of Islam. By the latter part of the period under discussion, Europeans were rising to the forefront in many areas of scientifi c inquiry and technological improvements. This trend of rapid progress would continue and accelerate in the following centuries and result in Europeans becoming world leaders.
SOCIAL AND CLASS RELATIONSHIPS
From 600 to 1450, social and class relationships varied greatly from society to society around the world. Within each society, developments were dependent on local circumstances, wars, invasions, and migrations. Many invasions and group migrations that occurred throughout Eurasia during this period greatly affected relationships between different peoples and social classes. While much information is available about some societies, little is known of others, especially those without written languages. In Europe the invasions and chaos that contributed to the end of the Roman Empire continued through this period as Germanic tribes, Magyars, and Vikings raided, conquered, and settled. Feudalism emerged because governments failed to provide the needed protection. Under feudalism, lords provided protection in return for allegiance and service from their vassals. It was a graded social relationship with the king at the apex, followed by nobles of varying ranks who served their superiors in war and governed the fi efs that were granted to them. The bulk of the population were serfs, free in person, but obligated to remain on the land that they worked, living in villages around a manor. Slavery was rare. Marriages in Europe were monogamous because of the teachings of the Christian Church. Most marriages took place within the individual’s social group. The church also functioned to mitigate the harsher aspects of feudalism. As in lay society social class divisions were rigid within the church; whereas most parish priests came from the common people, high-ranking clerics almost invariably came from the aristocracy. However religious orders, beginning with the Benedictine order from the sixth century, presented an alternative class structure and a powerful source of social organization because they were independent of the political rulers of the land and were put directly under papal control after the 10th century. Missionaries, some belonging to religious orders, notably the Knights of the Teutonic Order, spread Catholic Christianity and culture to northern and parts of eastern Europe that had not been part of the Roman Empire. Throughout this period in Europe, religious orders of monks and nuns provided education for boys and girls in monastic and convent schools and, later, for young men in the universities. European economy prospered after 1000 because of the waning of outside invasions, technological advances in agriculture, and new lands brought under cultivation. The church also promoted economic growth because the lands that belonged to it were among the best administered and, as 600 C.E. to 1450 xxxiii a result, most productive. Local and international trade also increased. These factors led to the growth of towns, many of them self-governing and not subject to the strict feudal social order. The fl ight of serfs to towns and the need for workers to develop new lands led to better and freer conditions for serfs who remained on the land, leading to the eroding of serfdom. In Asia, Japan was the only country where social and class relationships approximated those in Europe. Beginning in the sixth century, Japanese leaders attempted to replicate China’s political and social institutions in order to achieve rapid progress. However, conditions in Japan differed signifi cantly from those of more developed China. Thus Japanese society failed to advance into the more meritocratic and open Chinese model; instead, it developed along feudal lines. Paying lip service to powerless emperors, feudal lords, descended from aristocratic clans that traced their lineages to antiquity, were served by hereditary warriors (called bushi or samurai). They ruled the land that was worked by peasants whose position approximated that of European serfs. Social mobility was extremely rare. In contrast to Europe and Japan, Chinese society became more egalitarian as the great families that were descended from ancient aristocratic clans declined and lost power. Although individuals were rewarded with high rank and titles, a hereditary aristocracy had ceased to exist by the end of the ninth century. Bureaucrats recruited through civil service exams dominated government. The invention of paper and printing, both of which took place in China, and government and private support of education all contributed to the development of an increasingly egalitarian society where many family fortunes rose and fell through the educational attainment of their sons. The social leveling and increasing egalitarianism was severely set back when the Mongol Yuan dynasty completed its conquest of all China in 1279. The Mongols instituted a class structure in China that placed themselves on top, followed by their subjects of non-Chinese ancestry from Central Asia, then northern Chinese, with southern Chinese at the bottom. Huge numbers of Chinese were made slaves. A similarly iniquitous class structure characterized Mongol rule in Persia and Russia. In Russia, local princes were obliged to render tribute of gold and human beings to their Mongol overlords. The Chinese rebel who expelled the Mongols from China and founded the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) was an orphan from an impoverished family and felt great compassion for the poor. He emancipated people enslaved by Mongols and enacted laws that favored the poor and dispossessed. Thus Ming Chinese society was more egalitarian than that of pre-Yuan eras, and people enjoyed social mobility that was determined by economic and educational success. Marriages were monogamous for the majority, though rich men could take concubines. Divorces were rare and favored men when they occurred. Indian society continued to be divided by caste, which originated with the Aryan invasion or the migration of Indo-Aryans from the Eurasian plains into the Indian subcontinent during the second millennium b.c.e. Caste was a method to separate the Aryans from the non-Aryans—the Dravidians and aboriginal tribes—and was a more peaceful solution than the victors enslaving, killing, or evicting the conquered. The four castes were Brahman, who were priests and scholars; Kshatriya, who were warriors and rulers; Vaisya, who were farmers, artisans, and merchants; and Sudra, who were servants. The fi rst three castes claimed Aryan origins, while Sudras were the natives. Each caste was subdivided into numerous occupational groups or subcastes called jati. Below the four castes were outcasts, also called untouchables—peoples relegated to the bottom of society who performed scorned functions. They were probably descended from tribal peoples or those that had been thrown out from their original places in society because of crimes or other misdeeds. Over the centuries, invaders and immigrants had assimilated into the caste structure. Around 500 b.c.e., Buddhism and Jainism, two major new religions that evolved out of the Aryan Vedism- Hinduism, both rejected caste, but by 600 c.e. Buddhism was in decline in India, while Jainism never claimed the loyalty of large numbers of people. Thus the caste system remained the prevailing method of social organization. While there were many local variations in marriage customs, most Hindus were monogamous, although the ruling elite had concubines. While many earlier incoming groups had been absorbed, Muslims who came into India after 712 either as conquerors, settlers, or traders maintained their own religious and social structures. Since xxxiv 600 C.E. to 1450 the Muslim impact was felt mainly in northern India, many Hindus fl ed southwards, while those who remained retreated into the relative safety of their caste social structure, which became stricter as a result. Hindu women in northern India began to veil themselves in public, and girls married earlier partly due to fear for their safety in an area that was constantly under threat of Muslim raids and conquest. Some Hindus, mainly from lower castes, converted to Islam voluntarily. However, many were forcibly converted. Social intercourse between Hindus and Muslims was restricted. Even among Hindus, interdining between castes was taboo, and intermarriages were severely frowned upon. Vegetarianism, especially among upper castes, was encouraged, and the immolation of widows at the cremation of their husbands was esteemed and encouraged among the upper castes. Great divisions existed between the upper classes and the majority farmers, and while many men and women of the upper classes/castes were educated, the majority of both faiths were illiterate. Until the rise of Islam in the seventh century, much of eastern Europe and western Asia was ruled by the Byzantine Empire. It was ethnically and culturally diverse, with many Arabs, Slavs, Armenians, and Jews among the population, but was dominated by peoples of Greek descent. Much of the land was owned by wealthy aristocrats and worked by free tenant farmers. The small numbers of slaves mostly worked in the home. Society was hierarchic, and while a few highly placed women wielded power, most women tended to affairs related to the home. Missionaries from the Byzantine Empire converted the Slavic peoples of eastern Europe to Christianity and also passed to them the ideals and mores of Greek civilization. In western Asia, the rise and spread of Islam had signifi cant impact on all aspects of life. Victorious Muslim leaders did not attempt to force the conquered people to adopt Islam and allowed them to maintain their own laws, content with collecting taxes in lands under their control. Those who did not convert were sometimes treated as second-class subjects. Thus, in time, many of the local populations converted to Islam and were then treated as equals within the community. Islamic law also strictly regulated the treatment of slaves. Muslims could not enslave other Muslims, and slave owners were encouraged to free their slaves. Most slaves in Islamic societies were used for domestic chores, or as soldiers. Although women in Islam enjoyed higher status than did women in many other contemporary societies, men remained dominant. They were allowed a maximum of four wives and were favored in divorce, among other advantages. By the eighth century, as in most of the world, there was great disparity between the ruling wealthy and the rest of the community in the Islamic realms under the Abbasid Caliphate. While northern Africa was Islamized, the many peoples who lived in sub-Saharan Africa followed diverse cultures with different social patterns. Islam spread peacefully to sub-Saharan Africa through commerce and the movement of peoples. Societies and polities of sub-Saharan societies were extremely varied. Some, for example the Kikuyu of Kenya, were open and egalitarian, while others in societies in central Africa were narrowly hierarchic. Work in most was divided along gender lines; men were hunters, warriors, and herders, while women farmed and produced most of the food. Assignment of tasks by age was also common. One group, the Bantus, migrated from central to eastern and southern Africa, spreading their language from a common language group. Bantu societies were often led by tribal chieftains who also maintained armies. The societies were generally polygamous and patriarchal, although a few passed descent or “blood” through women.
The peoples in North America lived in tribal groups, including the Hohokam, the Mogollon (Zuni), and Anasazi in the Southwest, the Algonquian and Iroquoian in the East, and the Hopewell and Cahokia in the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers region. Very advanced cultures developed in regions from modern Mexico to southern America, including the Teotihuacán northwest of the Mexico Valley (ended c. 650), the Mayan city-states in southern Mexico and Central America, and in the highlands of Peru. In general, as the states became more advanced and expanded, they also became more hierarchic, and greater social distinctions prevailed. In Mesoamerica and the Andes, the exceedingly elaborate social and class distinctions were based on birth, lineage, and occupation. A hereditary 600 C.E. to 1450 xxxv ruler and the nobility topped the class structure, followed by a priestly class, a warrior class, merchants and traders, farmers, servants, and slaves at the bottom. The rulers claimed divine sanction and jealously guarded astronomical and calendrical knowledge, aided by priests who served them. On the other hand, there was less stratifi cation among the less urbanized and developed peoples in the Amazon basin and in the grasslands of southeast South America. No overall trend characterized social and class relationships on any continent. Within each society, class distinctions ranged from the extremely hierarchic in medieval Europe, feudal Japan, and Hindu India to the gradually more open one in China. Two factors instigated dramatic upsets and lasting changes in social and class relationships in many societies during these centuries. One was internal—the result of economic and technological changes that eroded feudalism in Europe and made Chinese society relatively more egalitarian. The other was war that brought a new religion: Islam introduced a new way of life to much of Asia and northern Africa. Invasions—Mongol, Viking, and others—disrupted and forced the reorganization of societies in much of Europe and Asia.
TRADE AND CULTURAL INTERACTIONS
From 600 to 1450, many old patterns of trade continued, others were disrupted, while new ones developed among Europe, Asia, and Africa. The Western Hemisphere continued isolated from the rest of the world. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fi fth century and subsequent centuries of barbarian invasions severely disrupted trade in western Europe and between western Europe and the rest of the world, although the Byzantine Empire continued to serve as go-between for European and Asian goods. Eastern Christian missionaries from the Byzantine Empire converted most Slavic peoples of eastern Europe from the Balkans to Ukraine and Russia to Orthodox Christianity and Greek cultural traditions. In western Europe, Catholic missionaries converted the Anglo-Saxons, Lombards, and others to the Catholic Church and Latin culture. By the late eighth century, there had been suffi cient recovery in western European lands controlled by Emperor Charlemagne to warrant calling the period the Carolingian Renaissance. However, subsequent widespread Viking invasions would bring back a “Dark Age” for much of Europe. Asia. These centuries were highly active ones along the Silk Road that connected China with India, Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan, Persia, the Byzantine Empire, and the Umayyad and later Abbasid Caliphates. Traders, missionaries, and conquering armies linked cultures and spread innovations across continents. European lands became linked to the international trading network as a result of the Crusades that brought large numbers of English, French, Germans, and Italians to western Asia and introduced them to goods from Asia. The taste for Eastern luxuries led to increased trade overland and via sea routes. In the 12th and 13th centuries Marco Polo became world famous for traveling vast distances and writing colorful accounts about other peoples and ways of life. Polo traveled from Italy to China. Arab seafarers also traveled along the east coast of Africa and in Southeast Asia. Other Europeans had traveled via land to the Persian Gulf and then by sea to India and China. Political and other obstacles encountered on these traditional routes would motivate Spanish and Portuguese navigators to seek alternate routes to the East in the latter part of the 15th century. In East Asia at the beginning of this era, the emerging Japanese state made a concerted effort to learn all it could from the higher civilization of China by sending many embassies, each with around 500 students, to spend years studying in China and then spread what they had learned in Japan. Japan adopted China’s written script, system of government, philosophy, art and architectural styles, legal codes, and Chinese schools of Buddhism. During the early centuries, Japan exported raw materials such as pearls and shells to China in return for books, textiles, art works, ceramics, and even Chinese metal coins that became currency in Japan. In time, as Japanese culture advanced, it began to export its manufactures to China; these included steel swords, folding fans, and painted screens that the Chinese prized. The Silk Road that connected India and China through Afghanistan brought goods between the countries—mainly silks from China for cottons, optic lenses, and precious stones from India. It also xxxvi 600 C.E. to 1450 brought Buddhist missionaries from India and Central Asia to China and Chinese pilgrims to study in India. Buddhist missionaries fi rst entered China at the beginning of the Common Era and continued to come until cut off by Muslim forces in the eighth century. Buddhism was the single most infl uential foreign ideology that affected the Chinese civilization until modern times. Buddhism, then fl ourishing in Central Asia, acted as a melting pot of Greco-Roman, Persian, and Indian cultures. It brought to China the art and architectural styles of all the lands that had infl uenced it, enriching Chinese intellectual and artistic life. Chinese Buddhists then synthesized the foreign with native Chinese traditions and passed on Sinicized Buddhism to its cultural satellites—Vietnam, Korea, and Japan. The Silk Road was so called because China’s most prized export was silk. By the seventh century, India and other lands had acquired the art of raising silkworms and the technology of silk weaving. However, Chinese silks continued to be prized. China imported cotton from India. Later, China also began to cultivate the cotton plant and manufacture cotton cloth and passed the skill to Japan. Cotton cloth became widespread for clothing because it was cheaper than silk. The Silk Road was also the conduit of innumerable food items from different lands that enriched all people’s diets and introduced items that changed people’s lifestyles. For example the ancient Chinese sat on futons placed on raised fl oors. Buddhist monks introduced the chair to China. Initially only Buddhist monks sat on chairs, but by the 10th century, chairs had become universal in Chinese households. The Tang (T’ang) Chinese garments, like many other Chinese artifacts, were adopted by contemporary Japanese, who modifi ed them and continued to wear them as the kimono, even after the Chinese had changed clothing styles. The Silk Road also brought peoples of many ethnic groups to new lands throughout Eurasia and created cosmopolitan cultures. This was especially true during the seventh century when a vibrant Tang dynasty in China exchanged ambassadors, merchants, and religious pilgrims with a fl ourishing India under Emperor Harsha, the Sassanid Empire in Persia, and the Byzantine Empire. Although early Muslim conquests disrupted trading and political relations, they would be resumed between China and the Muslim caliphate in Damascus and Baghdad. The Muslims who conquered the eastern Mediterranean lands became heirs of the Hellenistic and Byzantine cultures of the region. The early caliphate continued many Byzantine institutions, especially in taxation and the bureaucracy, and employed Greek architects to design mosques that incorporated the architectural style of Byzantine churches. Muslim scholars became the best mathematicians and astronomers; for centuries they would be employed by the Chinese governments as offi cial astronomers and put in charge of issuing the calendar. Muslim scholars held primacy in these fi elds until the Renaissance. The Crusades brought major disruptions in the eastern Mediterranean region during the 11th and 12th centuries, but they also accelerated cultural contacts and created new tastes for luxuries. They in turn led to land and sea voyages of exploration to create new trade routes, leading to vast discoveries in subsequent centuries. Asia, the Middle East, and eastern Europe suffered major disruptions in the 12th and 13th centuries as a result of Mongol imperialism under Genghis Khan and his successors. Huge areas across Eurasia were devastated and depopulated as a result. However, once established, the Mongol Empire, largest in the world, would encourage trade and provide security in a Pax Tatarica, similar to the Pax Romana and Pax Sinica of earlier centuries. Examples of cultural interactions that took place under the Mongols would be the adoption of Tibetan Buddhism by the eastern Mongols and Islam by those Mongols who had migrated westward. Another example is the import of cobalt from Persia to China for creating a blue color for decorating porcelains that became prized from Japan, India, and the Middle East to Africa. Cobalt blue underglaze porcelains from China would be imitated from Iznik in Turkey to Delft in Holland. The collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fi fth century and subsequent power changes in western Asia disrupted the fl ourishing sea trade with India of previous centuries. However, Indian merchants, settlers, and missionaries remained active in Southeast Asia, sailing from ports along the Bay of Bengal to Burma (modern Myanmar), Malaya, Cambodia, and Java, Sumatra, and other islands of the East Indies. They brought Hinduism and Buddhism, Indian art and architectural styles, Sanskrit-based written scripts, and many other elements of India’s great civilization to the entire region, which entered the historic era due mainly to the infl uence of India. Outside their 600 C.E. to 1450 xxxvii home regions, Chinese and Indian cultures met at the southern tip of mainland Southeast Asia—in a region called Indochina, named for that reason. Chinese culture and political control prevailed in Vietnam, whereas Indian culture predominated in Laos and Cambodia. Africa. Just as the Silk Road spread goods and ideas across Eurasia, trading routes spread Islam from North Africa across the Sahara to sub-Saharan West Africa. In a reverse pattern, export of salt and gold northward via camel caravans made West African kingdoms of salt and gold fabled lands of wealth. West African Muslims also traveled through North and East Africa and Arabia to make a hajj, or pilgrimage, to Mecca and Medina. The hajj was a major factor in the exchange of goods and ideas among Muslims from Africa to Asia. Ivory from African elephant tusks was valued as material for art and ritual objects from medieval Christian Europe to China. East Africa developed a cosmopolitan culture as a result of trade with Arab Muslims. Many Arabs and Persians settled in coastal regions in East Africa, and Islam spread there through intermarriage and conversion. Swahili, an African language infused with many Arabic and Persian words, became the international language of trade in East Africa. War also created opportunities for cultural exchanges. Chinese prisoners of war captured by armies of the Muslim caliphs in the mid-eighth century taught their captors paper making, which spread from the Middle East to Europe. Likewise, gunpowder, cannons, and guns spread from their Chinese inventors to their Mongol enemies, westward across Eurasia, and changed the nature of warfare throughout Eurasia. Wars also resulted in relocations of populations, either forcibly as refugees or deportees, or willingly by conquering powers. In either case, the transfers of peoples to new lands resulted in cultural interactions. The Americas. In the Americas, there was a continuation of regional exchange networks and cultural interactions that had developed before 600. The people of the Mississippi River valley area in North America made signifi cant advances after about 700; that culture reached its zenith between 1200 and 1400 and disappeared about 1700. Archaeologists have excavated large settlements with earthen temple mounds shaped like truncated pyramids, on top of which the people had built major community buildings. The Mississippian Culture extended its infl uence throughout northern America east of the Rocky Mountains, probably through trade and travel along the various river systems. In Central America, long-distance trade depended on the strength of states that could protect it. In central Mexico, the fall of Teotihuacán around 650 splintered both political and trading structures of previous centuries. To the south, the city-state of Monte Albán dominated regional exchange for several centuries after 650. In Central America after 900, powerful city-states, most notably Tikal, conducted trade throughout the region. Two main state systems, the Tiwanaku and Wari, dominated the Andes region of South America, with textiles as major trading items. Despite major disruptions caused by the rise and fall of empires and the introduction of new religions, international trade continued along long-established routes in Europe and Asia. While Islam was spread by military conquest in much of western and southern Asia, its gradual acceptance by many peoples in eastern and sub-Saharan Africa was the result of trade. Christian and Buddhist missionaries mostly worked to convert through peaceful means. Chinese culture spread to Korea and Vietnam aided by Chinese political control, while Japan’s acceptance of all things Chinese was entirely voluntary. Except for the Mongol conquest of Eurasia, which only benefi ted the Mongols, and some Turko-Afghan raids on northern India, other cultural contacts, even those imposed by war, had some benefi cial results.
During 600–1450, military technology throughout Eurasia retained the principal characteristics of earlier times. Iron and steel weapons had long since replaced those made of bronze. In large empires such as those of China and the Byzantine, Persian, and Islamic Empires, large-scale industrial production of weapons became commonplace. Japan, Damascus in present-day Syria, and Toledo in Spain were famous centers for the production of swords. Refi nements and improvements were continuously made to older inventions, such as poison gas and smoke bombs. The crossbow was fi rst xxxviii 600 C.E. to 1450 manufactured in China in the fourth century b.c.e. and possibly in Greece about the same time and then disappeared in Europe. It reappeared in western Europe in the 10th century (some scholars suggest, reintroduced through Central Asia by the Khazar people), and was reputedly used by the forces of William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings. Its effects were so lethal that its use was condemned at the Second Lateran Council of the Catholic Church in 1139 for use against Christians. Its use was, however, accepted by the Catholic Church against the infi dels (Muslims). It was one of the main weapons used by Hernán Cortés to subjugate Mexico in 1521. China revitalized the ancient means of defense of wall building in the early 15th century. The Romans had built Hadrian’s Wall in Britain in the second century c.e., and the Chinese had built a longer Great Wall during the Qin (Ch’in) dynasty and Han dynasty before the Common Era. The Great Wall had fallen into disuse between the 10th and 14th centuries because nomads controlled northern, and later all of China. Even though the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) had ousted the Mongols, they remained a threat, hence the rebuilding and reinforcing of the Great Wall along China’s northern frontiers. The survival of large sections of the Ming Great Wall is a testimony to the technical excellence and engineering skills applied in its construction. Several signifi cant inventions and advances in military technology and weaponry made warfare more destructive. One formidable weapon was called “Greek fi re,” a petroleum-based incendiary substance that combined sulfur and saltpeter and could be shot from tubes and could not be extinguished by water. It was invented in India in the 600s, refi ned and used in China as a continuous fl ame-thrower on land in the 10th century, and used by the Byzantine Empire in naval warfare that allowed it to maintain naval supremacy. Gunpowder was invented in China. It was given military application in the 10th century in response to attacks by its formidable nomadic neighbors, most notably the Mongols. In the 11th through 13th centuries, the Chinese invented rockets, and a protogun called a “fi re-lance,” which worked as a fl ame-thrower. From these evolved guns and cannons made from cast iron, which became ever bigger and more sophisticated. A Chinese manual dating to 1412 described a cannon that weighed 60 pounds called the “longrange awe-inspiring cannon.” By the mid-15th century, a “great general gun” had been made with a barrel six feet long that weighed 330 pounds and could be placed on a wheeled carriage. It fi red an eight-pound “grandfather shell” that traveled 800 paces. Unfortunately for China, the advantage gained by its inventions were short-lived because skilled prisoners of the Mongols quickly replicated the new weapons. In short order, gunpowder, cannons, and guns became available throughout the Middle East and Europe, revolutionizing warfare and castle building. Soon so-called gunpowder empires emerged, including the Ottoman Empire. Wars among Chinese and between Chinese and their neighbors involved hundreds of thousands of men on both sides and infl icted huge casualties that made contemporary European campaigns fought seasonally by a few thousand combatants seem puny by comparison. Although the European knights wore formidable chain-mail armor in battle, it proved too cumbersome against the light armor worn by Mongol horsemen. Armies of great empires consisted mainly of infantry soldiers, supported by cavalry, and in India, by elephant corps. Soldiers were either conscripts, professional long-term recruits, or came from hereditary military families. In India kshatriya clans called Rajputs (which means “sons of kings”) proudly bore arms as elite soldiers fi ghting among themselves and unsuccessfully against Muslim raiders and invaders from Afghanistan. In Japan, hereditary elite fi ghting men called samurai or bushi enjoyed a position in society similar to that of knights in medieval Europe. They lived by their own severe code of conduct and were distinguished from commoners by their right to bear arms. As Japan was an island nation, only the Mongols threatened invasions in late 12th century; thus it never needed to develop large infantry armies. Western Asian and African Warfare. Among nomadic and seminomadic tribal peoples that included Mongols, Afghans, and Turks, every able-bodied adult male was a soldier, and society was highly militarized. Their mobility and elusiveness made nomads especially diffi cult for sedentary peoples to defend against. Thus nomads could conquer and control large numbers of sedentary peoples. The Mongols under Genghis Khan and his descendants conquered the largest land empire in history, their 600 C.E. to 1450 xxxix realm at its maximum stretched from Korea on the eastern rim of Asia, across China, Afghanistan, Persia, Central Asia, Russia, and eastern Europe to Hungary. Mongols discovered no new weapons or technology. Their phenomenal success was because of leadership, planning, intelligence gathering, strategy, speed, and above all ruthlessness. Mongols struck like lightning and were willing to exterminate all inhabitants in any area that had opposed them. Their military campaigns infl icted unprecedented destruction throughout Eurasia. On the other hand, victorious nomadic rulers, Mongols included, quickly lost their martial spirit, corrupted by the soft lifestyle they enjoyed as rulers. Thus they were soon overthrown by their subject peoples or by other hardier nomadic tribes. Then they were either assimilated into the majority population or reverted to nomadism in the steppes. Arabs, inspired by religious fervor, conquered a huge empire in the seventh–eighth centuries. Even some Arab women went to war during the initial campaigns of conquest. The swift expansion of Islam, the limited human resources among the Arabs, and the luxurious lifestyle adopted by the conquerors made fi nding new sources of soldiers an urgent necessity by the ninth century. The remedy came in the form of the Mamluk (the word means “slave” in Arabic) system, whereby young boys from non-Muslim tribes in the Eurasian steppes, many Turkish, were purchased and brought to Muslim lands. They were given a rigorous military training and Islamic education, converted to Islam, and then freed. Faithful to their masters and comrades, Mamluks became elite soldiers to Muslim rulers; later they became the rulers. Mamluks were a one-generation aristocracy because their sons, who were born free and Muslim, could not become Mamluks. In other words, new batches of boys were continuously bought from the Eurasian steppes to be trained to be the next generation Mamluks. The institution survived for 1,000 years, mainly in Egypt and Syria. Similarly, in northern India former Turkic slaves to Muslim rulers turned the tables on their masters and established slave dynasties. Likewise, the Ottoman Empire instituted a Janissary Corps (from Turkish words meaning “new soldiers”) with boys taken from Christian lands that it conquered. The boys were given military training, converted to Islam, and became elite loyal soldiers to the rulers; they played a key role in the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. Sundiata, the fi rst king of Mali in West Africa, maintained a standing army clad in padded cloth suits of armor or chain mail as well as cavalry with horses and camels. In Africa, some tribes or ethnic groups, such as the Tauregs and Zulus, dominated their weaker neighbors because of their military prowess. Maritime Warfare. Most major empires during this era relied primarily on land power, but sea power also played a role. The Vikings were expert seafarers who traded and raided throughout the coastal waters and several inland waterways of Europe, traveling in their long boats. One group of Vikings fi rst raided the English coast and later invaded England from their new stronghold in Normandy, France. Another crossed the Baltic Sea to Russia and then sailed southward along the rivers to the Black Sea to Constantinople and to the Mediterranean to conquer ports in Sicily and other areas. Muslims also developed formidable naval forces and merchant fl eets, but all of India’s Muslim invaders came overland across the mountains from the northwest; China’s enemies also came overland during this period. However, as the Mongols pressed southward across the Yangzi (Yangtze) River and encountered Chinese resistance along the coastal waterways, they, too, ordered their Chinese prisoners to construct a fl eet. The last Song (Sung) emperor drowned at sea after suffering fi nal defeat at the hands of the Mongol navy. In 1274 and 1281, Mongol ruler Kubilai Khan launched two invasions of Japan with a huge armada of Korean and Chinese built ships that carried 140,000 soldiers during the second expedition. The ships were no match against typhoons, and both invasions failed. Between 1405 and 1433, Chinese naval power dominated the Asian waters, as six huge armadas fought pirates, intervened in local civil wars, and conducted trade and diplomacy from Java to India, Sri Lanka, to the east coast of Africa. The magnetic compass, discovered centuries earlier, had been used by Chinese sailors in navigation since the ninth century and was passed on to sailors of other lands. China’s government abandoned its interest in naval affairs after the last great voyage of Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho) in 1433. The Americas. Isolated from Europe and Asia, the civilizations in the Americas did not develop iron and steel technology, nor did they possess the horse. Across Mesoamerica there was intensifi ed xl 600 C.E. to 1450 warfare, militarization, and the glorifi cation of the warrior class during this era. Warfare became endemic; hence this period is called a “Times of Trouble.” In both Mesoamerica and among the Mayan city-states, the principal goal of warfare was the creation of subordinate tributary states among the defeated to obtain tribute, although the Maya sometimes occupied the lands of the defeated citystates. Thus the defeated states were often left intact to collect the required tribute. Another goal of warfare was to take captives for prestige and to provide labor for the victor. Artwork depicted warfare and glorifi ed the warrior. As a result, warfare was often endemic in the regions and contributed to the depletion of resources and, combined with ecological degradation and burgeoning population, led to the decline and fall of Classic Maya in the ninth century. Scholarly debate prevails concerning the nature of warfare in the Andes region. While one school of thought contends that warfare was more ritualized and ceremonial than destructive, another argues that the wars waged in this region was extremely destructive, with the winner achieving domination and rule over the vanquished. Throughout the world, most successful states relied on formidable military forces to conquer and defend their empires. They also devoted considerable resources and effort to developing successful strategies, tactics, and advanced weaponry to maintain their rule and defeat their competitors and enemies.
Volume III - The First Global Age - 1450 to 1750 Edit
List of ArticlesEdit
Abbas the Great of Persia
Africa, Portuguese in
Akan states of West
Alawi dynasty in Morocco
Albuquerque, Afonso de
Almagro, Diego de
Alvarado, Pedro de
Araucanian Indians (southwestern South America)
art and architecture
Ashanti kingdom in Africa
Atlantic islands of Spain and Portugal
Augsburg, Peace of
Austrian Succession, War of the (1740–1748)
Aztecs (Mexica) Aztecs, human sacrifice and the
B Babur Bacon, Sir Francis Bacon’s Rebellion bandeirantes in Brazil baroque tradition in Europe Bible traditions Bible translations Boabdil (Muhammad XI) Book of Common Prayer, the Borgia family Bourbon dynasty in Latin America Boyne, Battle of the Braganza, House of the Brazil, conquest and colonization of Brest, Council of British North America Bull of Demarcation Bushido, Tokugawa period in Japan C Cabeza de Vaca, Álvar Núñez Cabot, John (c. 1451–c.1498) and Sebastian (c. 1483–1557) Cabral, Pedro Álvares cacao caciques in Latin America Cajamarca, Peru Calvin, John Caribbean, conquest of the Central America, conquest of Charles I Charles II Charles V Chilam Balam, books of (Latin America) Christian century in Japan Christina Vasa Church of England Clement VII Clive, Robert coca Colbert, Jean-Baptiste Columbian exchange Columbus, Christopher ix Copernicus, Nicolaus Coronado, Francisco Vásquez de Cortés, Hernán Cossacks Counter-Reformation (Catholic Reformation) in Europe Cromwell, Oliver Cuautemoc Cuzco (Peru) D De Soto, Hernando Delhi and Agra Descartes, René Dias, Bartolomeu Díaz del Castillo, Bernal Diet of Worms dissenters in England divine faith in Europe Dominicans in the Americas Dorgon Drake, Francis Dutch East India Company (Indonesia/Batavia) Dutch in Latin America Dutch in South Africa E Eck, Johann Maier von Edo period in Japan Edward VI Elizabeth I encomienda in Spanish America epidemics in the Americas Erasmus of Rotterdam Ewuare the Great exclusion laws in Japan expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492) and Portugal (1497) F Fénelon, François de Salignac de la Mothe- Ferdinand V and Isabella I of Spain Francis de Sales, St. Franciscans in the Americas French East India Company Fronde, the G Galileo Galilei Gama, Vasco da Geneva Genroku period in Japan George I George II Glorious Revolution Goa, colonization of Godunov, Boris Great Wall of China, the Guicciardini, Francesco H Habsburg dynasty hacienda in Spanish America Harvard College Henry IV Henry VII Henry VIII Hobbes, Thomas Hohenzollern dynasty in Brandenburg and Prussia Holy Roman Empire honor ideology in Latin America Hudson’s Bay Company Huguenots humanism in Europe Humayun Hutchinson, Anne I Ibn Ghazi, Ahmed indentured servitude in colonial America indigo in the Americas Inquisitions, Spanish and Roman Isfahan (Persia) Ivan III the Great Ivan IV the Terrible J Jahangir James I James II Jamestown Janissaries Jesuits in Asia Jiménez de Quesada, Gonzalo João III the Pious John III Julius II justification by faith K Kaikhta, Treaty of Kangxi (K’ang-hsi) Kepler, Johannes King Philip’s (Metacom’s) War (1675–1676) Knox, John Kongo kingdom of Africa Koprülü family Korea, Japanese invasion of L Landa, Diego de Las Casas, Bartolomé de Lebna Dengel Le dynasty of Vietnam Leo X Leo Africanus (Hassan El Wazzan) literature Locke, John Louis XI Louis XIV Louis XV Loyola, Ignatius of, and the Society of Jesus Luba-Lunda Luther, Martin M Macao, Portuguese in Machiavelli, Niccolò Magellan, Ferdinand Malacca, Portuguese and Dutch colonization of Malinche, La (Doña Marina) Mamluk dynasties in Egypt Marie-Thérèse of Austria Maroon societies in the Americas Mary I Mary, Queen of Scots Maryland List of Articles Mary Tudor Massachusetts Bay Colony Mather, Increase (1639–1723) and Cotton (1663–1728) Medici family Mehmed II Melancthon, Philip mercantilism Mexico, basin of Mexico, conquest of Ming, Southern Ming dynasty, late mita labor in the Andean highlands Moctezuma II Mohács, Battle of Montaigne, Michel Eyquem de Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat, baron de la Bréde et de More, Sir Thomas Mughal Empire Münster commune music N Nadir Shah Nagasaki Nahua (Nahuatl) Nantes, Edict of Natives of North America Neo-Confucianism in Japan Nerchinsk, Treaty of Netherlands, revolt against Spanish rule in the New France New Netherland New Spain, colonial administration of New Spain, Viceroyalty of (Mexico) Newton, Isaac northwestern South America, conquest of Nurhaci Nzinga Mbandi O obrajes in colonial Latin America Oda Nubunaga Omani empire in East Africa Oñate, Juan de Osaka Ottoman Empire (1450–1750) Ottoman-Safavid wars P Panipat, Battles of Peasants’ War Penn, William Pernambuco (Recife, Brazil) Peru, conquest of Peru, Viceroyalty of Peter I (the Great) Philip II Philippines, Spanish colonization of the piracy in the Atlantic world Pizarro, Francisco Plassey, Battle of Popul Vuh Potosí (silver mines of colonial Peru) Powhatan Confederacy printing press, Europe and the Pueblo Revolt Puritanism in North America Puritans and Puritanism Q Qing (Ch’ing) dynasty, rise and zenith Qing (Ch’ing) tributary system Quietism R race and racism in the Americas Rajputs Raleigh, Sir Walter reducciones (congregaciones) in colonial Spanish America Reformation, the repartimiento in Spanish America Ricci, Matteo Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, duc and cardinal de rites controversy in China Ronin, 47 Roses, Wars of the S Sa’did dynasty Safavid Empire Savonarola, Girolamo scientific revolution Scottish Reformation Sekigahara, Battle of (1600) Selim II Sengoku Jidai Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de Seville and Cádiz Shah Jahan Shimabara Rebellion, Japan ships and shipping Shivaji Sikhism and Guru Nanak silver in the Americas Sinan, Abdul-Menan slave trade, Africa and the Songhai Empire Spanish Armada Spanish Succession, War of the Stuart, House of (England) sugarcane plantations in the Americas Suleiman I the Magnificent Sunni Ali Swiss Confederacy T Tabin Swehti Taj Mahal Teresa of Ávila and John of the Cross Thirty Years’ War tobacco in colonial British America Tokugawa bakuhan system, Japan Tokugawa Hidetada Tokugawa Ieyasu Toledo, Francisco de Tordesillas, Treaty of Toyotomi Hideyoshi Trent, Council of Tudor dynasty V Valdivia, Pedro de Valois dynasty Vasa dynasty List of Articles xi Vespucci, Amerigo Virgin of Guadalupe voyages of discovery W Wanli (Wan-Li) William III Williams, Roger Winthrop, John witchcraft Wu Sangui (Wu San-kuei) Y Yi dynasty (early) Yongzheng (Yung-Cheng) Yucatán, conquest of the Z Zenger, John Peter Zheng Chenggong (Cheng Ch’eng-kung) Zwingli, Ulrich
List of MapsEdit
1453 Constantinople Falls to Mehmed II The Byzantine Empire comes to an end when the forces of Mehmed II capture Constantinople, which becomes capital of the Ottoman Empire. 1455–1487 War of the Roses in England A civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York. The war is limited to English nobility and involves few of the populace. 1467–1477 Onin Wars These wars in Japan show the Ashikaga Shogunate in terminal decline. 1480 Treaty of Constantinople The 15-year war between the Ottoman Empire and Venice ends with this treaty. Under its terms Venice cedes cities along the Albanian coast to the Ottomans. 1487 Dias Circles South Africa Bartolomeu Dias, the Portuguese explorer, sails around the Cape of Good Hope. He is the first European explorer to round southern Africa. 1492 Columbus Sets Sail for the New World Queen Isabella of Spain finances the explorations of Christopher Columbus, whose goal is to find a sea route to Asia by sailing westward. He departs on August 3 with three ships and 52 men. On October 12, 1492, land is sighted on an island in the Bahamas that Columbus names San Salvador, though the natives call it Guanahani. 1492 Jews Are Expelled from Spain The Jews of Spain are expelled by the government. Some convert and stay, while over 100,000 leave Spain. Many travel to the Ottoman Empire, while some settle in Portugal. 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas This treaty between Spain and Portugal grants most of the New World to Spain. 1498 Cabot Claims North America On June 24, John Cabot, sailing on behalf of King Henry VII of England, sights the coast of modernday Canada and maps the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland. He claims the land for England. 1498 Vasco da Gama Reaches India Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama reaches India by sailing around the coast of Africa. xv 1501 Battle of Shurer Shi’i rule of Iran is consolidated when Ismail I of Arabadil defeats the leader of the White Sheep dynasty at the Battle of Shurer. 1502 Slavery in the New World First African slaves are transported to the West Indies. 1502 Aztec Emperor Is Chosen Moctezuma II is selected as the emperor of the Aztecs. 1503 Da Vinci Finishes Masterpiece Leonardo da Vinci completes his painting the Mona Lisa. 1504 Ferdinand of Aragon Conquers Naples On January 1, Ferdinand of Aragon completes the conquest of Naples when French forces at Gaeta surrender. 1508 Michelangelo Paints the Sistine Chapel Ceiling Michelangelo spends four years painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. 1510 Portugal in India Portugal establishes a settlement in Goa, on the west coast of India, which becomes the center of the Indian trade. 1511 Portugal in Southeast Asia Portugal establishes a trading base at Malacca and retains control for 130 years. 1513 Balboa Reaches the Pacific Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crosses the isthmus of Panama and discovers and names the Pacific Ocean. 1514 War between Ottomans and Persians The Ottomans, who are Sunni Muslims, attack the Shi’i Persians. They defeat the Persian army at the Battle of Chaldiran on August 23, 1513. 1517 Martin Luther Breaks with Church The Protestant Reformation begins when Martin Luther nails his criticism of the Catholic Church on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral. 1517 Cabot Discovers Hudson Bay Sebastian Cabot discovers the entrance to Hudson Bay in 1517. 1519 Cortés Enters Tenochtitlán Spanish conqueror Hernán Cortés enters the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán and captures Moctezuma II. 1519 Ferdinand Magellan Sets Sail around the World On August 10 Portuguese navigator Magellan leaves Seville with a fleet of five ships. He finds a route around South America through the straits that now bears his name. 1520 Suleiman the Magnificent Is Crowned Selim, the Ottoman sultan, dies and is succeeded by his son Suleiman I. Suleiman becomes known as Suleiman the Magnificent. 1524 German Peasants’ Rebellion Peasants in southern Germany take heed of Luther’s call for religious reform and extend it to include a call for social reform as well. The peasants overthrow the local government in Muhlhausen and demand an end to serfdom, feudal dues, and tithes. 1524 Verazzano Discovers New York Bay Sailing under a French flag, Giovanni da Verrazano discovers New York Bay on April 17. 1526 Babur Wins First Battle of Panipat Babur leads an army across the Kybur Pass and defeats Ibrahim Lodi at the first Battle of Panipat, resulting in the founding of the Mughal dynasty in India. 1527 Guatemala City Is Founded The Spanish found Guatemala City and create the Spanish Captaincy General of Guatemala. 1529 Algeria Expels Spain The Ottomans expel Spain from Algeria with the help of the pirate Barbarossa II. Algeria becomes a vassal state of the Ottomans. 1529 Treaty of Cambrai After a failed war in Italy, France agrees to renew the Treaty of Madrid. 1531 Pizarro Conquers Peru In 1531 Pizarro begins his conquest of Peru. He arrives from Panama with 300 men and 100 horses. By August 1533 Pizarro completes his conquest of the Incas. 1532 Ottomans Invade Hungary The Ottoman army led by Suleiman II invades Hungary xvi Chronology and march toward Vienna. He is stopped by the forces of Charles V and the Protestant League. Peace is concluded in 1533. 1534 Portuguese Traders Reach Japan First Portuguese trading ship arrives in Japan, beginning a century of trading and missionary activity. 1534 England Breaks with Church in Rome After the Church of Rome cancels his annulment to Catherine, and has Henry VIII excommunicated for marrying Anne Boleyn, Henry breaks with Rome. He has the parliament pass the Act of Supremacy, which states that the king is the supreme head of the English Church, and he is the one to appoint all clergy. 1534 Cartier Claims Canada Jacques Cartier, sailing under the patronage of King Francis I of France, arrives at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. After exploring the area, he claims the area for France. 1535 Portugal and Macao Portugal establishes a trading station at Macao in agreement with the Ming government of China. 1536 Calvin Publishes Institution Chrétienne John Calvin publishes his treatise Institutes of Christian Religion. The book becomes a roadmap of Protestant thought. 1540 First Known Native American Composition A Native American singer from the city of Tlaxcala, Mexico, composes a mass. 1541 De Soto Explores Mississippi River Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto discovers the Mississippi River. 1542 Westerners in Japan The first European visitors arrive in Japan aboard a shipwrecked Chinese ship. 1543 Copernicus Claims Earth Circles the Sun Nicolaus Copernicus publishes De revolutionbu orbium coelestiium. This work proves that Earth and the other planets circle around the Sun. 1545 Silver in Peru Spanish begin mining silver at Potosí in Peru. 1547 Ivan the Terrible Becomes Czar On January 17 Ivan IV has himself crowned the czar of all the Russias. 1549 Jesuits Arrive in Japan Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier arrives in Japan, beginning a century of successful Christian missionary work. 1549 New Granada Is Created The Spanish viceroyalty of New Granada is created, comprising South America east of the Andes and north of the Amazon River. 1552 Treaty of Passau The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V attempts to force the Protestant princes of southern Germany to return to Catholicism. Prince Henry II of France takes advantage of the situation by allying himself with the Protestants and seizes Metz, Toul, and Verdun. Charles is forced to leave Germany and sign the Treaty of Passau, granting the Protestants religious liberty. 1555 Jews Are Restricted to Ghettos in Italy Pope Paul IV issues his bull Cum nimis absrudam. Under its terms, Jews in the cities are restricted at night to their own quarters. 1555 Treaty of Amasya In 1555 the Treaty of Amasya is signed between the Ottoman Empire and Persia, bringing the war between the parties to an end. 1555 Akbar the Great Akbar becomes third ruler of Mughal Empire in India. 1556 First Music Book Printed in the New World An Ordinarium is published on a printing press in Mexico. 1556 Second Battle of Panipat Jala-ud-Din returns from exile after his father, Humayun, the Mughal emperor, dies. He defeats Hindu forces at the Battle of Panipat on November 5. 1558 Elizabethan Age Begins The Elizabethan age in England begins with the death of Queen Mary and the ascension to the throne of Elizabeth, the daughter of Henry VIII by Anne Boleyn. Chronology xvii 1560 Treaty of Edinburgh Mary, Queen of Scots declares herself Queen of England in 1559. The next year French troops in Scotland try to assert the claim of Mary against Elizabeth, who the Catholics claimed was illegitimate. The French troops are besieged at Leith, and the French are forced to sign the Treaty of Edinburgh, ceasing their interference in the affairs of Scotland. 1562 First French War of Religion France becomes embroiled in a religious war between the Huguenots and Catholics. The war is touched off by the massacre of Huguenots at Vassy on March 1. 1565 Spain in the Philippines Spain establishes the first permanent settlement in the Philippines. 1568 Eighty Years’ War Begins A war that lasted for 80 years breaks out when Flemish opponents to the Spanish Inquisition are beheaded. The Flemish and Dutch then begin a rebellion against Spanish rule. 1569 Northern Rebellion Dukes of northern England stage an unsuccessful revolt against Queen Elizabeth in order to restore Catholicism to England. The rebels hope to free Mary, Queen of Scots from captivity. 1571 Battle of Lepanto On October 7 the Ottoman fleet of 240 galleys is defeated by a fleet from the Maritime League. The league’s fleet consists of ships from Spain, Malta, Genoa and Venice. 1571 Manila Is Founded Miguel López de Legazpe, leading a Spanish force, subjugates the Philippine natives. He goes on to found Manila. 1573 Ashikaga Shogunate Ends The Ashikaga Shogunate in Japan, long in decline, is ended by Oda Nobunaga. 1574 Tunis Is Annexed by Ottomans An Ottoman army under the command of Sinan Pasha retakes Tunisia. 1578 Portuguese Army Is Defeated in Morocco Sebastian, the king of Portugal, leads an army to restore the deposed sultan of Morocco. Moroccans at the Battle of Alcazarquivir annihilate the Portuguese army. 1581 Battle of Pskov Stepen Bathory leads the Poles to a victory over the forces of Ivan the Terrible at the Battle of Pskov. 1581 Tartar Khanate of Siberia The Russians double the size of their country by taking control of the Tartar Khanate of Siberia. 1582 Jesuits in China Matteo Ricci is the first Jesuit missionary to reach China, beginning a long cultural relationship between China and Europe. 1585 Roanoke Is Founded Walter Raleigh establishes a colony on Roanoke Island off the coast of present-day Virginia, but it soon fails. 1585 Eighth War of Religion The Eighth Religious War, otherwise known as the War of the Three Henrys, begins when the Holy League vows to deny Henry of Navarre the French throne. 1587 Drake Attacks Spanish Court of Cádiz The Spanish plans under Philip II to invade England are delayed when Sir Francis Drake attacks the Bay of Cádiz. Drake destroys 10,000 tons of Spanish shipping and delays the Spanish assault for a year. 1588 Spanish Armada The Spanish fleet sets sail on July 12. It consists of 128 ships carrying 29,522 sailors. The British fleet consistes of 116 large ships and numerous coastal vessels. On the morning of the 21st, elements of the British fleet attack the superior Spanish. The fight continues on and off for five days. There are no decisive battles, just continued engagements in which the English consistently achieve the upper hand, at which point the Spanish withdraw. 1590 Japan Is Unified Japan is unified by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. A series of military campaigns together with his vassal Tokugawa Ieyasu lead to a single unified government. 1592 Japan Invades Korea Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a Japanese lord, invades Korea as a first step to invading China. It is defeated by Chinese intervention. xviii Chronology 1595 Battle of Fontaine-Française The French House of Bourbon is officially established on February 27, 1594. The next year Henry IV declares war on Spain. He wins an important battle at Fontaine-Française near Dijon. 1597 Shakespeare’s Career Begins Love’s Labour’s Lost, the first play under William Shakespeare’s name, is published. 1598 Edict of Nantes Henry IV, king of France, issues the Edict of Nantes on April 13. The edict gives full civil rights to Protestants in France. 1600 Battle of Nieuwport On July 2 the combined forces of the Dutch and English defeats the Spanish Habsburgs at the Battle of Nieuwport. The Habsburg defeat secures the independence of the Netherlands. 1600 East India Company The English East India Company is formed to trade in Asia. 1600 Battle of Sekigahara Japanese general Tokugawa Ieysasu is victorious in the Battle of Sekigahara against the other contenders for power in Japan. 1602 Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company is founded and becomes the premier trading company of the Netherlands. 1603 Tokugawa Shogunate Tokugawa Ieysasu is appointed shogun by the Japanese emperor, beginning the Tokugawa Shogunate. 1604 Time of Troubles Begin in Russia The Russian Time of Troubles begins with the appearance of a false Dimitri—a pretender to the Russian throne. He gains support from the Poles and the Cossacks. For a period of nine years, virtual anarchy reigns in Russia, as the various parties fight over rule. 1605 Gunpowder Plot On November 5 the Gunpowder Plot is discovered. The planners of the plot, Guy Fawkes, Thomas Percy, and Thomas Winter English, are all Catholics who plan to assassinate King James I and blow up Parliament. 1607 Jamestown Is Established King James I of England grants the London Company a charter to settle the southern part of English North America. The settlers endure many trials but establish the first permanent English settlement in North America. 1610 Galileo Proves Copernican System Correct In 1610 Galileo Galilei publishes the results of his telescopic observations in Sidereus nuncius. Galileo shows that the Copernican system in which the planets circle the Sun is correct. 1610 Sante Fe Is Founded The Spanish government establishes Santa Fe as the capital of New Mexico in December 1610. 1613 Romanov Dynasty On March 3 Michael Romanov, then 17, is elected czar of Russia. Thus begins the Romanov dynasty, which lasts until being overthrown by Vladimir Lenin in 1917. 1614 Christians Are Ordered Out of Japan The Japanese shogun orders the immediate expulsion of all Christian missionaries. He begins to persecute all Christians in Japan. 1616 Rise of the Qing Nurhaci begins laying the foundations of a state that would rule all of China as the Qing (Ch’ing) dynasty. 1618 Thirty Years’ War Begins The Thirty Years’ War begins when two Catholic members of the Prague Diet are thrown out of a window by Protestants. 1620 Mayflower Lands at Plymouth One hundred and two individuals, most of whom are Puritans, receive a grant of land on which to set up their own colony. They set sail from England on the Mayflower, arriving in Massachusetts in December. 1628 Petition of Rights The English parliament passes the Petition of Rights. Under its terms the king cannot levy any new taxes without the consent of Parliament. 1630 Massachusetts Bay Colony On June 12 the flagship of the Massachusetts Bay Company arrives in Salem to officially found the new colony. Chronology xix 1631 Taj Mahal Construction Begins Shah Jahah, Mughal Emperor of India, begins to build the Taj Mahal, a mausoleum for his wife. It takes 17 years to complete. 1635 Shimabara Uprising Persecuted Christian peasants in Japan rebel, but they are cruelly put down. 1635 Roger Williams Founds Rhode Island Roger Williams, a Puritan clergyman in Massachusetts, is banished for his religious beliefs and flees to Rhode Island, where he establishes his own colony. This colony provides complete religious freedom for all people. 1636 Exclusion Laws in Japan Exclusion laws in Japan outlaw all contact with Europeans until 1854. 1637 Settlers Kill 500 Native Americans On June 5, some 500 Indians (men, women, and children) are killed, thus ending the Pequot War. 1640 Triennal Act In April the English parliament meets for the first time in 11 years. This meeting, which lasts four years, becomes known as the Long Parliament. 1642 New Zealand Is Discovered by Dutch On December 13 Abel Janszoon Tasman discovers New Zealand. He sails on commission of the Dutch East Indies Company. 1642 English Civil War Begins Disputes lead to civil war between Parliament and the king. Oliver Cromwell leads the Roundheads against the Royalists. 1644 End of the Ming The Qing, or Manchu, dynasty replaces the Ming. 1648 Treaty of Westphalia The Treaty of Westphalia is signed at Münster on October 24, bringing to an end the Thirty Years’ War. 1651 Charles II Is Defeated, Flees to France Charles II arrives in Scotland from France and is proclaimed king of Scotland and England. He is defeated in September 1650 at the Battle of Dunbar by Oliver Cromwell. 1652 Cape Town Is Founded Cape Town, South Africa, is founded by the surgeon of a Dutch ship, Jan van Riebeeck. He goes ashore with 70 men. 1658 Last Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb seizes the throne of India and reigns until 1707 as the last great Mughal emperor. 1660 Peace of Breda Charles II, in exile in France, issues the Declaration of Breda in which he offers to reconcile with the English parliament, which meets after the death of Oliver Cromwell. Parliament accepts his declaration, and Charles returns to England. 1664 New York Peter Stuyvesant reluctantly surrenders New Amsterdam to the English, and the city becomes known as New York. 1664 French East India Company France establishes the French East India Company to trade in Asia. 1672 Newton Founds Study of Mechanics Isaac Newton founds the study of mechanics. The underlying basis is Newton’s three laws of motion. 1673 Mississippi River Is Explored French priests Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet explore the upper reaches of the Mississippi River. 1674 Hudson’s Bay Is Established English establish the Hudson’s Bay trading post. 1675–1676 King Philip’s War English colonists fight King Philip’s War against a Wampanoag-led alliance of Indians in southern New England. 1679 Habeas Corpus Act Is Passed The English parliament passes the Habeas Corpus Act. The act requires judges to present a writ of Habeas Corpus which demands that a jailer produce a prisoner and show cause why the prisoner is being held. 1681 Pennsylvania Founded William Penn, who had embraced Quakerism as an adult, obtains a land grant from the king of England. xx Chronology Penn receives the grant in lieu of money owed to his dead father. The land is called Pennsylvania. 1681 Qing Triumphant The rebellion of the Three Feudatories ends, consolidating the Qing dynasty in China. 1682 Louisiana Territory Is Claimed French explorer Robert de La Salle reaches the mouth of the Mississippi and claims the Louisiana Territory for France. 1683 Turkish Siege of Vienna The Ottomans, under Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa, begin a siege of Vienna in July. The siege is lifted in September by a combined German and Polish army. 1683 Last of the Ming The Qing dynasty defeats the last Ming loyalist forces on Taiwan. 1685 Edict of Nantes Is Revoked King Louis XIV of France revokes the Edict of Nantes, which guarantees religious freedom in France. 1686 New England Unites English colonies in North America are organized into the Dominion of New England. 1688 The Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution ends four years of Catholic rule in England. 1689 War of the Grand Alliance Begins The League of Augsburg, which combines Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, and the Palatinate, begins a war against France. 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk This treaty between China and Russia demarcates the borders shared by the two nations. 1690 Battle of the Boyne River The Protestants complete their conquest of Ireland when England’s William III defeats the Catholic pretender James II at the Battle of the Boyne. 1690 British Establish Fort at Calcutta The British East India Company founds Calcutta. Leading the effort is John Charnock. 1690 John Locke John Locke, the English philosopher, publishes the Two Treatises of Civil Government. The book presents the theory of a limited monarchy. 1692 Witchcraft Trials Witchcraft trials are held in Salem, Massachusetts. 1697 Battle of Zenta The Ottomans suffer an overwhelming defeat at the Battle of Zenta on September 11. After the battle, the Treaty of Karlowitz is signed. The Ottomans are forced to cede Croatia, Hungary, Transylvania, and Slovenia to Austria. 1697 Russian Czar Visits Western Europe Czar Peter becomes the first Russian leader to leave his country. Peter returns to Russia determined to Westernize the society. 1697 Treaty of Ryswick The Treaty of Ryswick ends the 11-year War of the League of Augsburg. All of Spanish lands conquered by France are returned to Spain. 1700 Great Northern War A war breaks out that becomes known as the Great Northern War. Russia, Poland, and Denmark join forces to oppose Sweden. 1701 War of the Spanish Succession Begins The War of the Spanish Succession begins when Charles II dies and names the grandson of Louis IV, Phillip V, king of France. 1704 Battle of Blenheim The English and the Dutch win a stunning victory over French and Bavarian forces in the Battle of Blenheim on August 13. The French and their allies lose 4,500 dead and 11,000 wounded. The British capture 11,000 prisoners. They suffer 670 dead and 1,500 wounded. 1704 Newton Publishes Optick Isaac Newton publishes his work Optick. This is the result of Newton’s work on reflection, refraction, diffraction, and the spectra of light. 1706 The Act of Union Great Britain comes into being with the union of England and Scotland. Chronology xxi 1709 Battle of Poltava The Russians, under Peter the Great, are victorious at the Battle of Poltava in the Ukraine. The Russians victory is so decisive that it makes Russia the dominant power in northern Europe. 1712 Treaty of Aargau The Protestant victory over Catholic forces in the Battle of Villmergen leads to the peace Treaty of Aargau. This treaty establishes Protestant dominance in Switzerland while protecting the rights of the Catholics. 1713 Peace of Utrecht The War of the Spanish Succession comes to an end with the Peace of Utrecht. Under its terms Philip V from the Bourbon House of France is officially recognized as the king of Spain. 1716 Battle of Peterwardein The Austrians declare war on the Ottoman Empire on April 13. On August 5, they defeat the Ottomans at the Battle of Peterwardein. 1718 Treaty of Passarowitz The Austrians and the Ottomans sign the Treaty of Passarowitz. The treaty establishes the Danube River as the border between the Islamic Ottoman Empire and Western Christian states. 1720 Chinese Assault Tibet The Chinese Emperor Kangxi attacks Tibet and drives off the final Mongol influence on China. A pro-Chinese Dalai Lama is installed to rule Tibet. 1720 Treaty of the Hague The Treaty of Hague is signed between Spain and the Quadruple Alliance made up of Britain, France, Holland, and Austria. 1721 Treaty of Nystad Under the Treaty of Nystad, Russia receives Estonia, Livonia, and parts of the Baltic Islands. This brings the Great Northern War to an end. 1724 Treaty of Constantinople The Ottomans and the Russians sign the Treaty of Constantinople on June 23. The treaty partitions Persia between the Ottoman Empire and Russia. 1730 End of Safavid Dynasty The Safavid dynasty, which ruled Persia since 1502, comes to an end when Abbas III, the four-year-old shah, dies. 1733 War of Polish Succession Begins With the death of Poland’s King Augustus II a war breaks out to determine who will succeed him. 1737 Treaty of Kaikhta This treaty between China and Russia defines the far eastern boundary between them. 1739 War of Jenkins’ Ear The War of Jenkins’ Ear begins between England and Spain, when the Glasgow brig Rebecca is boarded by a Spanish man-of-war. 1740 The First Silesian War The First Silesian War occurrs when Frederick II, the son of Frederick William, comes to power in Prussia on the death of his father and seizes Silesia from the Austrians. 1740 The War of the Austrian Succession Begins The death of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI on October 20 begins a contest of succession. 1741 Handel Composes The Messiah George Frideric Handel composes the oratiorio Messiah in London, England. 1742 Chinese Rites The papacy rules against Chinese rites that had been advocated by Jesuit missionaries. 1743 King George’s War Hostilities between Britain and Spain become absorbed into King George’s War, the American phase of the War of the Austrian Succession. 1743 Treaty of Åbo The Treaty of Åbo is signed between Russia and Sweden. Under its terms, Sweden maintains part of Finland, but accedes to having Russia’s candidate become the king of Sweden. 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle The War of the Austrian Succession comes to an end with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
Major Themes (1450 to 1750)Edit
For the vast majority of the world’s inhabitants during this period, technologies of food production changed slowly and haltingly, if at all. Most people farmed in the way of their ancestors, using mostly human and animal labor and simple tools to produce enough for their own subsistence and, in class-based societies governed by states (the domain of most agriculturalists), to pay taxes. The “agricultural revolution” in technology associated with the Industrial Revolution was just beginning at the end of the period under discussion here, and only on a tiny fraction of the globe’s cultivated lands. Yet despite this slow pace of change in farming technologies, the early modern period also saw the world’s population more than double, from 250–350 million to 850–1,200 million (all figures are estimates for the period 1500–1800). Some areas saw spectacular growth, especially China (from less than 100 million to more than 300 million) and Europe (from 70 million to 190 million). Other areas saw even more spectacular declines, most notably the indigenous populations of the Americas, especially the Caribbean (from 3 million to 5 million to virtually zero) and Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central America, from 25 million to 1 million). Some areas saw demographic stagnation or declines, especially Africa (around 100 million throughout this period). Despite these uneven demographic patterns, the overall global trend was clearly toward rapidly rising world populations. The explanation lies not in technology but in the social relations governing the production and distribution of foods. In other words, while farming technologies for most of the world’s people changed little during the early modern period, the politics and social relations of food production, exchange, and consumption changed dramatically. These changes were rooted in the birth and expansion of a genuinely global economy from the 1490s in consequence of the formation of western European empires in Asia and Latin America, empires that also encompassed Africa as a source of slaves for New World plantation agriculture. Related developments in science, technology, commerce, and empire-building in the 1600s and 1700s laid the groundwork for the dramatic transformations in agricultural technologies that accompanied the Industrial Revolution. Indeed, it was western European’s quest for foods—in the form of spices and flavorings—that lay at the root of their search for a sea route to Asia, which in turn led to their “discovery” of the Americas, their formation of overseas empires, and major transformations in global markets, commercial relations, and relations of power and privilege. Similarly, the western European quest for sweets—most tangibly represented in sugar—led to the establishment of expansive sugar plantations in the Caribbean and Brazil, the enslavement and subsequent annihilation of the Caribbean’s indigenous inhabitants, the transatlantic slave trade, race-based chattel slavery, and the largest forced migration in world history. Other “drug foods,” which were made into drinks to be consumed by themselves or with other foods—especially tea, coffee, and cocoa—or smoked, in the case of tobacco—became integral to the growth and expansion of empires. In short, to trace the manifold changes in the production, exchange, and consumption of various types of foods in the early modern period would be to go a long way toward tracing the principal forces transforming the planet. The most important shifts in food production, exchange, and consumption during this period were associated with the Columbian Exchange, in which certain plants indigenous to the Americas were spread to the rest of the world, and plants and animals from the rest of the world were introduced into the Americas. The resultant dietary improvements led to substantial population increases in many parts of the globe, especially in Europe and Asia. China under the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) saw dramatic increases in food production as a consequence of an aggressive government policy of land rehabilitation following the destruction of agricultural land and neglect of irrigation under the previous Mongol rule. The introduction of crops from the Americas via the Spanish Philippines—especially maize, peanuts, and sweet potatoes—resulted in huge increases in food production and substantial population increases (populations had plummeted by an estimated 40 percent under the Mongols). The construction of an extensive seawall on the coast of the Yangzi (Yangtze) Delta and points south prevented flooding and tidal surges that in the past had devastated rich agricultural lands. Improvements in transportation also facilitated more efficient food distribution. Thanks to these and related developments, in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Chinese under the Ming ranked among the best fed people in the world. Populations soared. India and Japan. In India and Japan, cultivators also adopted a diversity of New World foods, though India’s Mughal government did not actively promote irrigation or flood-control measures, leaving many cultivators vulnerable to the region’s frequent cycles of drought and flooding. In Champa (South Vietnam) and elsewhere in Southeast Asia and Indonesia, the introduction of early ripening rice strains began around 1450 and became more widespread in subsequent decades, permitting a double cropping of rice in many areas, further increasing food supply. The generally improving conditions across much of Southeast Asia from the mid-1400s gave way in the 1600s to generalized political and economic crisis, as the Portuguese, Spanish, and especially the Dutch waged wars of conquest, burning cities and towns and reconfiguring production and trade relations in order to supply more effectively European markets with nutmeg, cloves, peppers, and other prized commodities. Europe. In Europe, the early modern period was marked by a growing divergence between different types of agricultural regimes and peasant-landlord relations. These changes unfolded in the aftermath of Europe’s “calamitous 14th century,” a period marked by wars, plague, the Black Death, and steep population declines across most of the continent. By the mid-15th century, many areas had begun to recover from the devastation and turmoil of the preceding century, permitting populations to expand and unused or abandoned lands to be brought under the plough. Different regions experienced different trajectories of agricultural recovery, depending on a multitude of factors, especially the nature of the state and the dominant social relations in land and labor among peasants and landlords. In England, the enclosure of open fields and commons, beginning in the 1400s and continuing through the 1700s, concentrated land ownership in fewer hands, creating a large rural wage labor force and landless population and swelling the cities with paupers and the unemployed. The first enclosures were sparked especially by growing demand for wool, which prompted many landlords xxiv 1450 to 1750 to fence off (enclose) sheep meadows from common pastures and peasant grain fields. Much of the migration to British North America from the 1630s was undertaken by men, women, and families who had been dispossessed of their lands and forced to migrate to urban areas in consequence of the enclosures. The enclosures caused growing landlessness, the spread of wage labor, concentration of landownership, differentiation of the peasantry into rich and poor classes, production geared less toward subsistence and more toward the market, and increased migration to the major cities, which provided a low-wage labor force for the growing factory system. Since the writings of Adam Smith (Wealth of Nations, 1776), scholars have debated the question of Europe’s transition from feudalism to capitalism. Much of that discussion has focused on England: the rise of its overseas empire; the rise of its factory system; its central role in the Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, and transatlantic slave trade; and the role of enclosures in propelling these changes forward. One influential school of thought holds that the seeds of global capitalism lie in the English countryside, where rural capitalist social relations first developed through the separation of direct producers (peasants) from the means of production (land), thus creating a large urban wage labor force for the emergent factory economy. Other scholars offer competing accounts of the origins of capitalism in Europe, stressing the rise of cities and towns, growing accumulations of capital among merchants, and increasing monetarization of local and regional economies. One result of increasingly market-oriented production in England was a broad movement in many areas toward “scientific farming,” especially after around 1700. Landlords introduced new crops and farming techniques to increase efficiency, reduce fallow periods, and increase yields, and, thus, profits. Exemplifying this trend was the English agricultural innovator Jethro Tull (1674– 1741), who advocated such techniques as soil pulverization, more thorough tilling, mechanized seed drills, selective plant and animal breeding, and integration of crop and livestock production, especially through intensified use of manure as fertilizer. Such innovations were the exception, however. Across most of the British Isles the pace of change was slower, though many cultivators did adopt a number of New World crops—especially corn (maize) and potatoes, improving and diversifying diets. In Ireland, unequal social and class relations combined with the rapid spread of a particular variety of Andean potato (the white potato), on which peasants grew increasingly dependent, to the exclusion of other crops. This culminated in the Irish Famine of the late 1840s. The situation in France contrasted sharply with the English case. Here the enclosures were far more limited, with peasants, in feudal relations with landlords, retaining access to most of the country’s arable land. Through most of the 1600s and 1700s, agricultural production stagnated, remaining geared mostly toward subsistence and paying taxes to feudal lords. Even in zones closest to burgeoning markets, such as Normandy and Cambrésis, agricultural productivity stagnated or declined, while technical innovations were rare. Similar dynamics characterized the Germanspeaking principalities and kingdoms to the east. But despite the slow pace of change, by the end of the early modern period, much of northern and western Europe had undergone a long-term shift toward more market-oriented agriculture, with important implications for the economic changes and political and social upheavals of the 19th century. Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, global shifts in the social relations of food and agriculture during the early modern period had ambiguous consequences, though overall these were profoundly detrimental to most Africans’ nutritional well-being. On the one hand, American maize, manioc, ground nuts (peanuts), and many fruits and vegetables provided a more diverse range of foodstuffs and improved diets across broad swaths of the continent. On the other hand, tropical plantation agriculture in the Americas, especially sugar production, was the driving force behind the transatlantic slave trade, which drained sub-Saharan Africa of its most productive laborers, caused demographic stagnation, and sparked devastating spirals of war and upheaval across much of the continent. Americas. In the Americas, social relations in food and agriculture underwent profound changes. In Spanish America, the demographic catastrophe caused by warfare, enslavement, and epidemic diseases introduced from Europe caused steep declines in both indigenous populations and the amount 1450 to 1750 xxv of cultivated arable land. In the most densely populated zones in central and southern Mexico and the Andean highlands, agriculture remained oriented mainly toward subsistence and meeting tribute and tax obligations. Surpluses were siphoned by government and ecclesiastical authorities, while vast tracts were appropriated by the church and an emergent class of hacienda owners. In the Caribbean and Brazil, the explosive growth of sugar production led first to enslavement of Native peoples, then to the massive import of African slaves. In the sugar mills of Bahia (Northeast Brazil) and the Greater and Lesser Antilles, slave-labor plantation agriculture melded with proto-industrial boiling and refining factories—a fascinating instance of early proto-industrialization in the New World linked directly to agriculture and empire. In British North America, the rapid expansion of tobacco cultivation in the Chesapeake Bay area from the early 1600s engendered a highly stratified society, marked by profound divisions of class and race, the latter especially after Bacon’s Rebellion in 1675, which solidified Euro-American solidarity and an emergent ideology of whiteness. Further north, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and New England, small farms utilizing mostly family labor predominated. Abundant land, appropriated from Native peoples, formed the basis for an expanding agrarian empire that by the 1750s reached into the eastern Appalachian piedmont.
Scientific and Technological Developments
In the years covered in this volume, roughly corresponding to the “early modern period,” the scope and direction of historical change around the globe were fundamentally transformed. Global history was born as western European empires, struggling for supremacy within Europe, struck out across the planet in search of treasure and power. In 1450, the world was divided into at least eight major empires and more than a dozen major culture zones, most out of direct contact with each other; modern science, as a collective enterprise devoted to the systematic investigation and accumulation of empirical knowledge about the natural world, did not exist. By 1750, most parts of the globe had become enmeshed in a rapidly evolving global capitalist system dominated by western Europe, and modern science was flourishing. The vast majority of the world’s inhabitants employed technologies in use for centuries, even millennia, while technological “progress” was partial, uneven, punctuated, and decidedly nonlinear. The historical evolution of the reciprocating steam engine, a device crucial to the 19th-century Industrial Revolution, is a good case in point. The first known application of steam power was among the Alexandrians (in modern Egypt) in 62 c.e. Falling into disuse in the West, steam engines were developed independently in China from the early 1200s. Five centuries later, in 1712, the English inventor Thomas Newcomen (1663–1729) patented his steam engine, building on the work of Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli (1608–47) and German inventor Otto von Guericke (1602–86), who in turn built mainly on Greek antecedents. Yet half a century later, when Scottish inventor James Watt (1736–1819) and English engineer Richard Trevithick (1771–1833) sought to resolve key technical problems in Newcomen’s design, they reached back far beyond Newcomen to 13th-century China. Similar discontinuities and ruptures characterize almost every other major field of technology and science in the Age of Empires to varying degrees: not only the harnessing of mechanical energy but also the production of thermal energy, as well as in agriculture, transportation, warfare, metallurgy, printing, navigation and geography, mathematics, medicine, and other fields. Thus, in lieu of chronicling the most prominent European scientists, inventors, and inventions during this remarkable age, here we broaden the canvas to survey the sciences and technologies that most shaped the lives ordinary people in different parts of the globe. Harnessing of Mechanical Energy. Human and animal power easily comprised more than 95 percent of the mechanical energy used during this period. Other major sources were water and wind engines, used mainly for grinding grain, as well as for irrigation and iron-smelting bellows. In the West, such engines saw significant advances from the 11th to the 13th centuries, mainly with running water turning wooden wheels driving systems of wooden gears. In the mid-1600s, there were some 1,200 watermills and 20 windmills in and around Paris, most used to supply the city with bread. xxvi 1450 to 1750 Urban zones in Spanish Galicia, England, and elsewhere saw similar densities. By 1800, Europe boasted an estimated half a million watermills. China and the Muslim world also employed watermills from at least the ninth century. Peoples in sub-Saharan African and the Americas relied exclusively on human labor, the latter at least until the growth of sugar and slavery in Brazil and the Caribbean from the 16th century, when animaldriven sugar grinding mills were introduced. From the 15th century, the Dutch introduced major innovations in windmill technology, permitting extensive reclamations of land from the North Atlantic. Sails comprised the other major way to harness mechanical energy, used mainly in oceanic transport, discussed below. The steam-engine did not begin to replace these and related engine technologies in a significant way until the Industrial Revolution. Production of Thermal Energy. Wood and its derivatives provided the overwhelming preponderance of thermal energy during this period—it was used for heating homes, cooking food, refining ores, and stoking furnaces to manufacture objects of iron, steel, glass, and ceramics, among other materials. For centuries coal had been used in China, Europe, and elsewhere, and began to be used on a large scale in the Liège basin and Newcastle basin from the early 1500s. By the 1650s, Newcastle, in England, was producing an estimated half a million pounds per year, used in saltworks, glassworks, ironworks, breweries, lime-kilns, and many other industries. Techniques to produce coke from coal were developed in England by the 1620s, though smelting iron with coke did not become commonplace until the 1780s. Throughout this period, wood remained the only available fuel for the vast majority of the world’s people. Deforestation became a major problem in some areas, prompting diverse responses, ranging from rising coal use in England to the invention of wok cooking techniques in China, an adaptation to perennial firewood shortages. In thermal energy production, if the 20th century was the Age of Oil, and the 19th the Age of Coal, the early modern period, like all previous epochs in human history, was the Age of Wood. Food and Agriculture. The major transformations in agricultural technologies consisted principally of incremental improvements to iron-tipped wooden ploughs, an implement dating to around 1000 b.c.e. Overall, the pace of agricultural change in the early modern period was slow, despite the biospheric revolution brought about by the Columbian Exchange. The “agricultural revolution” had only begun by the end of the period under discussion here. Most agriculturalists around the world continued to employ technologies handed down from generation to generation: fire and digging sticks in sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas; draft-animal drawn plows in Europe and Asia; animal, waterwheel, and human-powered irrigation systems, using technologies dating back centuries or millennia. On the whole, and despite some important innovations, agricultural and food technologies did not undergo dramatic changes until the final decades of the early modern period, and even then on a tiny fraction of the globe’s tilled surface. Transportation. Until the 18th century, sea transport was slow and expensive, land transport slower and more expensive still. The principal overland conveyances were beasts of burden, wheeled carts, and carriages. Horses and mules were common across Europe, the Asian steppes, and the post-conquest Americas; camels from North China, India, and Persia to North Africa; pack-oxen and elephants in India. Sub-Saharan Africa had no such wheeled conveyances or beasts of burden (limited by the tsetse fly), in common with most of the pre-conquest Americas, save the Peruvian Andes, where llamas were used as pack animals—though by the mid-1700s herds of wild horses, introduced into Mexico by the Spanish, had migrated into North America and were adopted by the indigenous peoples of the Southwest and Great Plains. Roads, unpaved and seasonal, were generally poor and unreliable, with some exceptions, like the imperial Inca road system built from the 1450s. Throughout the early modern period, the maximum distance coverable by land in one day was around 60 miles (100 km); as one historian has observed, “Napoleon moved no faster than Julius Caesar.” River transport was generally faster and cheaper, in canoes (North America), poled barges, and other floating or rowed conveyances, and seasonal in northern latitudes. Oceanic transport, dating back millennia, saw major advances during this period, based mainly on improved shipbuilding designs and technologies in northern Europe dating to the 1100s and 1450 to 1750 xxvii accelerating from the early 1400s. Europe’s domination of the world’s seas from the 1500s was based in large part on its superior ships, most notably the Portuguese caravel, dating from around 1430, measuring about 21 meters in length and eight meters across, and compared to other vessels fast, maneuverable, and versatile, with its multiple sails and centerline rudder. With the caravel and its refinements, European empires came to dominate much of the globe. Overall, however, oceanic transport remained slow, expensive, dependent on currents and seasonal winds, and dangerous, and would not see a major technological shift until the adoption of the steam engine in the 19th century. Metallurgy. The production of iron and steel—the quintessential metals of modern civilization — saw important advances during this period, though did not begin to approach an industrial scale until the 19th century. High-quality carbonized “damask” steel had been produced in China and India since at least the 13th century, while the Chinese had begun to fabricate objects of cast iron as early as the fifth century b.c.e. Europeans did not learn to cast molten iron until the 1300s, though made significant advances in iron smelting using waterwheel-driven bellows from the 1100s. The frequent wars of early modern Europe heightened demand for iron and steel swords, pikes, cuirasses, cannons, balls, arquebuses, and other weapons, supplied by thousands of small workshops in and around major population centers—demand that dropped sharply when wars ended. In the late 1400s, Brescia, at the foot of the Italian Alps, had some 200 iron workshops employing several thousand workers; other major European iron-producing centers were the Rhine, the Baltic, the Meuse, the Bay of Biscay, and the Urals. The Ottomans and the Mamluks also excelled in ironworking of finely wrought dishes, ewers, and armaments. Almost everywhere, iron production was dispersed among a multitude of small shops run by master craftsmen who often jealously guarded their secrets, and, when not meeting wartime demand, produced a wide array of utilitarian items, from iron pots and horseshoes to buckles, rings, spurs, and nails. Ironworking was not developed by the indigenous peoples of the Americas, whose metallurgy was limited to copper, gold, silver, tin, and bronze, almost exclusively objects of art crafted for elites and ceremonial purposes. The Incas were the Americas’ most sophisticated metalworkers; their silver and gold work astounded the invading Spaniards, though the Aztec, Maya, and other civilizations also developed highly refined gold, silver, and copper-working skills. In the Andes, Atahualpa’s ransom in 1533 yielded some 13,000 pounds of gold and 26,000 pounds of silver; the pillage of Cuzco yielded far more, and its magnificent artistic objects were melted down into ingots before shipment to Europe. After the conquest and the Spaniards’ discovery of the “mountain of silver” at Potosí, the colonizers employed indigenous technologies and craftsmen to harness the high Andean winds to fire the silver-smelting furnaces. The mercury amalgamation process, refined in the 1570s, represented a key technological advance in the exploitation of Peruvian and Mexican silver. Printing. In China baked-clay movable type dates to around 1040, metal movable type to Korea around 1230. By the 1500s, Ming China had a flourishing print culture, with wide circulation of printed texts. In Europe around 1450, the independent invention of movable type, in tandem with advances in papermaking, made books and other printed works vastly cheaper and more accessible and comprised a key element in the dissemination of advances in science and technology across Europe and beyond. By the mid-1500s, these technological innovations combined with increased literacy resulting from the Protestant Reformation and other factors to engender a revolution in print culture. Books, pamphlets, instructional manuals, religious literature, and other printed texts proliferated across much of Europe and were spread across much of the globe by European empires. Newspapers were not common until the 18th century, while colonies’ adoption of print technology often lagged for centuries after the initial colonization. While print culture flourished in British North America from the late 1630s, for instance, Brazil, “discovered” by the Portuguese in 1500, did not see its first printing press until 1808. Despite Europe’s revolution in print culture, however, throughout the early modern period the vast majority of the world’s inhabitants remained nonliterate. Navigation, Cartography, Geography, Geology. Thanks mainly to their practical utility in the larger enterprise of empire building, the sciences and technologies of navigation, cartography, geography, and geology witnessed a major revolution in the early modern period. European scientists xxviii 1450 to 1750 not only mapped the whole of the Earth but measured it, weighed it, determined its distance from the Sun, calculated its position in the solar system, estimated its age, approximated its evolution, and greatly refined understanding of its constituent elements and their practical applications. With the “discovery” of the Americas, published maps and atlases proliferated; notable there was the work of Flemish geographer Gerardus Mercator (1512–94), whose 1538 world map and 1541 terrestrial globe were superseded by his famous projection of 1569. While cartographic technologies saw major advances, navigational technologies lagged. Devices in use long before the Age of Empires —mainly the compass and astrolabe—were not significantly refined until the invention of the sextant in 1731 and a method for accurately determining longitude in 1761. Throughout most of this period, most seafarers continued to rely on technologies and knowledge many centuries old. Mathematical Technologies. Integral to the Scientific Revolution was a revolution in mathematics, tied closely to astronomy and physics, culminating in the extraordinary mathematical achievements of Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727), especially his invention of calculus. Among the many monumental mathematical achievements of these years was the invention of the decimal system in 1585, accompanied by a host of advances in accounting, banking, measurements of time and space, and related mathematical technologies. Still, throughout the early modern period the vast majority of the world’s inhabitants reckoned time by the Sun’s position in the sky and the cycles of the seasons, and distance by the time required to traverse it. Medical Technologies. The first emergence of genuinely empirical science can arguably be traced to a millennium’s worth of trial and error regarding the nutritional and medicinal properties of plants. Throughout the early modern period, centuries-old herbal remedies comprised the overwhelming preponderance of medical technology for the vast majority of the world’s people. By this time, Chinese acupuncture, herbalism, and related bodies of knowledge dated back thousands of years. The major advances in medical technologies in the West were related to increased knowledge of human anatomy and physiology, gained mainly through systematic dissections, artistic renderings, and publication and dissemination of the knowledge thus gained. The discovery by William Harvey (1578–1657) of the circulation of the blood, combined with the invention of the microscope in the early 1600s, revolutionized the study of human anatomy. (Contrary to many popular and scholarly accounts, practitioners of ancient Chinese medicine did not discover or describe the circulation of the blood, though in 1242 the Arab physician Al-Nafis did, and in considerable empirical detail.) If clinical medical practices saw few tangible advances during the early modern period, the rapid accumulation and wide circulation of empirical knowledge in all spheres relating to health and disease laid the groundwork for the revolutions in medicine in the 19th and 20th centuries. As this brief and selective survey suggests, the conventional narrative of the revolutionary transformations in science and technology in the early modern period needs to be combined with an appreciation of long-term continuities, and of the partial, uneven, and nonlinear nature of scientific and technological progress. Understanding these transformations further requires situating them within broader contexts of European empire building and the quests for power and profit that comprised one of their essential motives. Science and technology have always been intimately related to politics, economics, culture, and every other sphere of human activity, a fact especially apparent during the period covered in this volume.
Social and Class Relations
Wherever states have formed, so too have social classes and hierarchies characterized by unequal access to power, privilege, and other social resources. Through codes and laws, states “write the rules” about how society should be organized. The vast majority of all states, throughout world history and in the period under discussion here, codified into law the dominance of some social groups over others, enforcing those laws through their superior coercive powers, including military force. During the early modern period, an estimated 80 to 90 percent of the world’s population lived in territories dominated by states, and were thus designated by virtue of birth, gender, race, language, religion, and other factors, as members of specific social groups. Such states often developed elaborate ideological 1450 to 1750 xxix systems, based on shared religious beliefs, that legitimated and “naturalized” these socially constructed hierarchies. Such hierarchies were defined mainly by differential access to economic and political resources, that is, access to wealth and power. Relations of gender were dominated by men the world over, with males exercising greater control over property and other resources than females, and women’s class status derivative of men’s. Relations of social class mainly concerned control over the fruits of labor and production, with “social class” most usefully conceived as a social relationship determining who owned what and who produced what for whom. Most class structures around the world were pyramidal, with laboring people (perhaps 80–90 percent of the populace) occupying the bottom strata, a small middling group (around 5–10 percent), and a much smaller number of persons of rank and privilege toward the top (1–5 percent). From the 1450s to the 1750s, the world was witness to a dazzling array of social classes, groups, and state forms, many in the throes of dramatic change. Around 1500 some states consisted of vast empires stretching thousands of kilometers and embracing millions of people of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, such as Ming China, Mughal India, Safavid Persia, Ottoman Southwest Asia and North Africa, Songhai West Africa, Aztec Mesoamerica, and Inca Peru. Most were much smaller. Principalities, kingdoms, fiefdoms, and city-states of myriad types proliferated throughout Southeast Asia, East Africa, Mesoamerica, the northern Mediterranean, and Europe. In all cases, the formation of social classes and hierarchies was intimately entwined with the formation and development of states. Power and Privilege. During this period, most state-governed societies were characterized by numerous, often overlapping social classes defined by relative access to power, privilege, and rank. Within each social class, and with very few exceptions, men were dominant and women subordinate. At the top, almost everywhere, were emperors, kings, queens, and supreme rulers or sovereigns of various kinds. Ruling families often comprised a “social class” by themselves, their internal struggles frequently the source of much social conflict. Beneath such supreme rulers and their families, one can distinguish at least eight broadly defined social classes common to most societies: (1) bureaucrats, administrators, and other agents of the state; (2) landowning aristocrats and nobility; (3) religious officials and authorities; (4) warriors and/or members of the military; (5) merchants and traders; (6) artisans and craftworkers; (7) peasants and farmers; and (8) slaves, servants, and other forms of bound or unfree labor. These categories often overlapped or blended together, especially at the upper echelons—as in the Ottoman Empire, Mughal India, or Spanish America, where state officials could also be religious leaders, nobles, and landowners, or, as in Tokugawa Japan, where leading warriors (daimyo and samurai) were also aristocrats and agents of the state. Merchants often owned land, though sometimes did not, as with Jews in Christian Europe or the Aztec pochteca (traveling merchant class). In some polities, some of the categories listed above did not exist—merchants among the Incas, for instance, or landowning aristocrats in Ming China. Generally, however, most societies had an overwhelming majority of taxpaying laboring people subordinate to a small elite, overwhelmingly male, whose power derived from birthright, divine sanction, or control of key political and economic resources. Surveying the many types of class relations and social hierarchies around the world during this period reveals a number of patterns. Beginning at the bottom of the social hierarchy, slavery and other forms of bound or unfree labor were features of almost every state-governed society, though the precise nature of the master-slave relationship varied enormously. In the great majority of cases (excepting Atlantic world slavery, c. 1500–1870), slavery was not hereditary or based on “race” or ethnicity, while slaves enjoyed certain rights, including the right to live, to form families, and not to suffer excessive punishment. In the Muslim world, slaves, purchased in markets or captured in wars, generally were used as household servants or soldiers; manumission was actively encouraged. Muslims could not enslave fellow Muslims. Elite Slaves. Similar patterns characterized the domains of the Mughal Empire, where slavery was not hereditary, and most slaves were either debtors enslaved until debt repayment, children sold as slaves by poor parents, or war captives, especially from tribal frontier zones. In Safavid Persia, xxx 1450 to 1750 as in other Muslim polities, the emperor (shah) appointed slave elites (ghulams) who often enjoyed high status, including in the royal court. Among the Aztecs, slaves, usually captured in war, were either integrated into households or ritually sacrificed to honor one of the numerous gods in the Aztec pantheon. In Ming China, slavery was actively discouraged. The race-based chattel plantation slavery of the Atlantic world, which began around 1500 and ended in the late 1800s, was unique in world history for its hereditary nature, its exclusively racial character, and the absence of constraints on slave owners, who generally enjoyed the legal right to dispense with their “property” as they saw fit, including breaking up families, torture, and murder, and the “breeding” of slaves through rape and forced reproduction. Peasants. Far and away the largest social class in most state-governed societies during this period was peasants, farmers, and pastoralists—people who earned their living by the soil, paid taxes, contributed military service, and owed allegiance to the state and/or its local agents. Comprising 80 to 90 percent of the population, peasants and pastoralists were generally at or near the bottom of the social hierarchy, a notch above slaves, though not always, as in Ming China, where slaves were rare and farming was esteemed far more than mercantile activity or military service. In most societies, peasants, farmers, and pastoralists enjoyed certain customary rights, such as a relaxation of tax obligations in times of drought, flood, or pestilence; usufruct rights to land; familial autonomy; and control over livestock, tools, the labor process, and rhythms of work and rest. In many cases, especially in tributary empires comprised of multiple ethno-linguistic groups, peasants exercised substantial religious autonomy as well, as among the Aztecs (where subordinate polities and their religious infrastructures were kept largely intact if they did not actively resist the authority of the central state and met tribute obligations), the Mughals, the Ottomans, Songhai, the Incas, and others. In many smaller states, such as the German-speaking principalities and fiefdoms of northern Europe, or the city-states of Italy, religious freedoms for ordinary people both increased and grew more circumscribed, depending on events, particularly after the onset of the Protestant Reformation from around 1517. Peasants, farmers, and pastoralists did not form a monolithic whole, of course; some were richer, most poorer, while within households, families, and communities, males almost always exercised greater power and authority than females. In most societies, artisans and craft workers, generally dwelling in cities or towns, comprised another major social class. Membership in a specific craft was often restricted to certain individuals, almost always male, who had served a certain period of apprenticeship under a master artisan (generally seven or eight years) and had acquired a high degree of skill and proficiency. Exemplary here were the craft guilds of medieval Europe that grew through the early modern period, similar to the craft guilds of Tokugawa Japan and the akhis of the Ottomans. Sometimes specific types of craft workers clustered in certain neighborhoods and were identified by both craft and place of residence, as in the Aztec island-capital of Tenochtitlán. Fine gradations generally distinguished different types of craft workers, with some trades conferring greater honor and prestige, such as the sword craftsmen in Japan and Persia; the gold- and silversmiths of Cuzco (Inca Peru); and the feather workers and jade artisans in pre-conquest Mesoamerica. Most towns and cities also had a laboring class of porters, street sweepers, sanitation workers, and casual laborers whose occupations carried far less prestige than skilled artisans. Commerce. Merchants and traders, also characterized by many fine gradations and types, ranged from street peddlers, itinerant traders, and small shopkeepers toward the bottom to wealthy merchants with imperial connections commanding huge stocks of goods and capital at the top. Merchants were generally superior in social position to farmers and craft workers, and inferior to landowning aristocrats, nobles, and state officials, though not always, as in Ming China, where mercantile activity was less esteemed than farming, or Inca Peru, where a merchant class did not exist. In early modern Europe, as in the Ottoman realms, Safavid Persia, and Mughal India, merchants were among the most prized allies of kings and nobles for the stocks of capital they controlled, from which ruling groups often borrowed to pay for wars, public works, and lavish consumption. Among the Aztecs, a distinctive class of traveling merchants (pochteca) served 1450 to 1750 xxxi to integrate different parts of the empire by their exchange of goods, while also acting as spies and informants for the central state. Soldiers, warriors, and others whose primary occupation centered on warfare often comprised a distinctive social class, as in Ming China, where membership in the military was hereditary and of low esteem, or Tokugawa Japan, where membership in the class of military leaders (samurai) was also hereditary but conferred enormous social prestige. Among the Ottomans, the janissary corps formed an elite group of de-ethnicized professional soldiers who served at the behest of the sultan and his underlings; among the Aztecs, members of elite jaguar, eagle, and other warrior castes enjoyed high rank and prestige. Ordinary foot soldiers, invariably male, were rarely esteemed anywhere, while military officials generally enjoyed superior social status. Upper Classes. At the highest echelons of society—state officials and bureaucrats, landowners, hereditary nobles and aristocrats, religious leaders of various kinds—the waters were frequently muddied, as these groups often melded into each other, and the types and characteristics of upper classes varied enormously. Suffice it to say that these groups comprised but a tiny fraction of most societies’ populations and by law and custom exercised far greater privileges and rights than the vast majority of their fellows. In a key dynamic, especially in Europe, as early modern states coalesced, the broad tendency was for hereditary nobles to be brought into the state as coequals with the sovereign, because kings and princes needed their material and social resources to exercise their authority or pay for wars and other ventures. Conflicts between sovereigns and upper classes (and, in Christian Europe, between sovereigns and the church) were common, and, along with conflicts between states, comprised one of the major causes of warfare. The degree of mobility between social classes was generally very small. People born into a particular social class had a very high likelihood of staying there. This was not always true, as in Ming China, where performance in state-sponsored exams, even by poor peasants, determined eligibility for entry into the most esteemed social class of scholar-officials, though the fluidity of social class diminished by the late 1500s as the ruling dynasty ossified. In many contexts, including Aztec Mesoamerica, martial skills could lead to quick ascent in rank and privilege. This was also true of the invading Spanish conquistadores and the officials who followed, some of whom profited immensely from conquest and colonization and became the founders of powerful lineages in Spain and the Americas. Rapid downward mobility also occurred, as when African notables captured in the slave trade became chattel on New World plantations or when resisting polities were conquered by expanding empires and their upper classes wiped out, as practiced by the Aztecs, Incas, Spanish, Ottomans, and others. The castes of Hindus in India represent perhaps the most extreme instance of class stasis, of fixity over long stretches of time, though caste-like class structures characterized most state-ruled society during this period. In global terms, the major transformations in social class were propelled by European empire formation in the Americas, Asia, and Africa from the early 1500s, and the subsequent expansion of capitalist exchange relations within Europe and around the world. As European empires expanded, there emerged within Europe a powerful class of merchant capitalists that was key to the growth of markets and an incipient industrial revolution, especially in England, France, and Holland. Along with merchant capitalists there also emerged an incipient industrial proletariat, or working class. Capitalist relations of production, defined by the emergence of a distinctive social class of people without access to land or other resources, compelled to sell their labor power on the market, were very rare in most parts of the globe, forming only a small number of urban centers in England and western Europe. Soon, however, capitalist social relations would spread throughout much of Europe and beyond, in the modern period becoming one of the key axes of social, economic, and political struggle around the world.
Trade and Cult ural Exchanges
With the dawn of the early modern period, roughly corresponding to the Spanish “discovery” of the Americas and Portuguese voyages around Africa to Asia in the 1490s, expansionist states xxxii 1450 to 1750 and commercial interests in western Europe began knitting together, for the first time in history, a truly global economy. Over the next three centuries, markets and commerce, ubiquitous features of almost every preindustrial society, reached a qualitatively new stage of development. By the time of the American and French Revolutions in the late 1700s, a dense and expanding web of commercial networks linked every major populated landmass on the globe: Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Trade and commerce, the engines of empire, in turn became the handmaids of modernity. Prior to the formation of European overseas empires, a series of commercial and migratory networks that evolved in the preceding centuries already linked large parts of the globe. The most expansive stretched from East Asia to South Asia to East Africa and the Levant, woven together by Chinese, Japanese, Southeast Asian, Mughal, Persian, Ottoman, and East African polities, merchants, and traders. This Asian trade emporium was linked to the Judeo-Christian-Islamic world of the Mediterranean via land routes honeycombing Southwest Asia from the Black Sea to Arabia, and via land and river routes extending northward from East and sub-Saharan Africa. In the West African Sahel, the kingdom of Songhai was linked south to Benin, the Akan states, and Kongo, east to Ethiopia and the Levant, and north to Europe via the trans-Sahara gold trade. Increasingly dense trade and migration networks also connected the kingdoms of northern Europe to Iberia and the Mediterranean. The Americas were wholly isolated from the Asian-African-European world, with the Mexica (Aztecs) dominating trade and commerce in central and southern Mexico; the Postclassic Maya forming complex trading networks within and beyond the core Maya zones of Yucatán and Guatemala; the Incas in the Peruvian Andes thriving without recourse to markets or trade as conventionally understood; and a plethora of lesser polities in North and South America also engaging in extensive local, regional, and long-distance trade. European Expansion. The roots of European expansionism ran deep, from the Crusades of the 11th to 14th centuries, which piqued the interest of Christian kingdoms and merchants in the commercial wealth of Asia, especially its spices and silks, to the desire to dominate the centuries-old trans-Saharan trade in gold, ivory, and other prized commodities. Western European merchants and kingdoms, propelled by visions of power and treasure, took to the seas mainly because overland trade routes were blocked by Islamic polities: to the east, the expansionist Ottomans—especially after their conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453—and, further east, the Safavids and the khanates of Central Asia; and to the south, the Ottomans, Berbers, and Songhai. Unable to conquer these states and empires, and unable to go through them (at least without paying high taxes), Christian western Europe opted to bypass them altogether. The global capitalist economy thus originated as a kind of second-best solution to western Europe’s problem of establishing direct and sustained commercial relations with Asia. The Portuguese were the first, under Prince Henry the Navigator from the 1430s, to systematically explore west into the Atlantic and south along Africa’s west coast. By the time Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope and sailed to India in 1498, the Castilians, in dynastic alliance with the Aragonese and finally successful in the Christians’ 774-year effort to expel the Moors from Iberia (718–1492), had already “discovered” the Indies. These “Indies” turned out not to be India but a hitherto unknown landmass, soon dubbed “America” after the Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci. The Castilians (Spanish), long accustomed to wars of conquest against non-Christians, soon established the world’s largest empire, embracing much of the Caribbean, central and southern Mexico, Central America, and the Peruvian Andes, destroying local states, subordinating the inhabitants, and siphoning their wealth. The Portuguese, less interested in conquering territory than in expanding commerce, established a series of coastal trading forts in Africa, Brazil, and Asia. Emergent Empires. Spain and Portugal were soon followed by the Netherlands, Britain, and France, emergent empires eager to partake in the spoils of trade and conquest but too late to replicate the fabulous successes of Spain in America. Instead they played catch-up, competing with one another and the Spanish and Portuguese over the most accessible parts of the Americas and Asia. In the Americas, that meant the Atlantic seaboard of North America stretching into the Great Lakes, 1450 to 1750 xxxiii and what remained of the Caribbean. In Asia, it meant the vast territories stretching from India to Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and the South Pacific. Some polities successfully resisted European conquest and colonization, most notably Ming and Qing (Ch’ing) China, Tokugawa Japan from the early 1600s, the Ottomans, and, until the 1750s, Mughal India. Other zones remained too inaccessible, especially sub-Saharan Africa (save the Cape, colonized by the Dutch from 1652) and most of the North and South American interiors. One crucial result of these global transformations was the Columbian Exchange, in which American plants, animals, and microorganisms, isolated from the rest of the world for millennia, were disseminated across the globe, accompanied by the flooding of European, Asian, and African organisms into the Americas. The resultant changes in the Earth’s biosphere profoundly shaped all subsequent human and environmental history. As imperial competition intensified, commerce expanded, markets deepened, and increasingly dense trade networks came to encircle the planet. Mexican and Peruvian silver poured into Spain and flowed out again—thanks mainly to Spain’s lack of an industrial base—primarily into the hands of English and Dutch merchants and their governments’ treasuries, who poured it into further conquests, especially in Asia. The torrent of silver caused a price revolution worldwide in the late 1500s and early 1600s, from Europe to Persia, India and China; one historian estimates that half the silver mined in the Americas from the 1520s to the 1820s ended up in China; others estimate one-third. Both estimates are plausible, especially given the brisk trade in spices, silks, porcelain, tea, and other goods linking New Spain to the Philippines and the rest of Asia. Atlantic World. The epicenter of the emergent global economy became the Atlantic world and its “triangular trade” linking Europe, Africa, and the Americas. In its simplest form, ships laden with manufactures (mainly textiles and firearms) would sail to West Africa, trade manufactures for slaves, sail to the West Indies, trade slaves for sugar, and return to their home port. In practice, the commerce was far more than triangular, with endless offshoots and ancillary linkages connecting different parts of Europe, the Mediterranean, Africa, and the Americas. West Indian sugar, for example, fueled the North American rum industry, while North American lumber, bread, fish, and other goods poured into the West Indies, stimulating economic growth from New England to the mid-Atlantic colonies. On a typical journey, a ship might depart Marseilles for Cyprus, sailing thence to Senegal, across the Atlantic to Martinique, north to Acadia (Canada), then back to the Caribbean to Guadalupe and Saint-Domingue, thence north to Boston before heading back east across the Atlantic to the Canaries, to Venice, finally returning to Marseilles, carrying dozens of commodities at any given time, and profiting at each stop along the way. Despite its endless complexities and branches, however, at the core of the system were European manufactures, African slaves, and American sugar and silver. From the 1500s to the 1800s an estimated 9.8 million Africans were enslaved and transported to the Americas in the largest forced migration in the history of the world, roughly 80 percent to Brazil and the Caribbean (and only 5 percent to North America). The height of the transatlantic slave trade in the 18th century coincided with the maturation of the Scientific Revolution, the dawn of the Enlightenment, and the first Industrial Revolution in England, based mainly on textiles. Through synergies and feedback loops, each development fueled the others. Some scholars, pointing to Britain especially, attribute the emergence of Europe’s Industrial Revolution in the 18th century to the burgeoning stocks of capital accumulated over the preceding centuries through the triangular trade. The slave trade prompted the formation of powerful coastal states on Africa’s Atlantic coast that waged increasingly destructive slaving expeditions into the interior, causing massive internal migrations and wreaking havoc with existing societies and polities. Similar destructive patterns came to characterize the Americas, as expanding European colonies either incorporated indigenous Americans as a subordinate labor force, or compelled migrations away from the zones of European domination, generating ripple effects far into the interior. Migration. By the end of the 18th century, several million Europeans had migrated to the Americas, Africa, and Asia. From the 1580s to 1800, some 750,000 Spaniards migrated to Spanish xxxiv 1450 to 1750 America; the Dutch East India Company employed more than a million European migrant laborers; and some 2.4 million Portuguese and their descendents lived outside Europe. By 1700, the British Americas contained around 270,000 persons of British ancestry, while another quarter-million would arrive between 1700 and 1775. Of the western European empires, France had the lowest emigration rates; to the 1760s, around 75,000 French had migrated to French America. In the 19th century, these European flows, especially to the Americas, would become a flood. If the Atlantic world formed the epicenter of the emergent global capitalist economy, Asian and East African polities and peoples accessible to European imperial power found themselves increasingly caught up in the whirl of changes. Southeast Asia is a good example of a peripheral commercial zone brought firmly under the dominion of European empires and markets, illustrating how warfare, empire building, expanding commercial relations, and migrations became mutually reinforcing. From 1498 to the 1570s, the Portuguese, rounding the Cape of Africa, conquered and occupied coastal trading polities from Mozambique and Mombasa (East Africa) to Hormuz (Arabia), Goa (India), Malacca (Malay Peninsula), Macao (China), and Nagasaki (Japan). The Dutch, better financed and more capable of waging sustained wars of conquest, followed after 1600. Displacing the Portuguese, from 1619 to the early 1680s the Dutch East India Company became the region’s preeminent power, waging successful wars of conquest against a string of independent Southeast Asian and Indonesian polities—including Batavia, Banda, Makassar, and Malacca—reconfiguring trade relations in tin, pepper, nutmeg, cloves, and many other commodities and leaving most of the region in prolonged crisis from which it would not begin to recover until the 18th century. For many years, scholarly treatments of these processes were dominated by a Eurocentric approach that privileged the agency of European actors. In more recent years, scholars have paid greater attention to the agency of Asians, Africans, and indigenous Americans in shaping these processes, generating a more nuanced and holistic understanding of the profound transformations in states, economies, and cultures around the globe that marked the tumult of the early modern period.
The nature of warfare changed in profound and lasting ways in the period covered in this volume, in almost every arena: the weapons used, tactics deployed, strategies pursued, the scale and organization of land and sea forces, and the impact of warfare on states and societies. One thing that did not change was that making war remained an exclusively male pursuit, thus reinforcing gender inequalities and patriarchal modes of domination. Another was that, worldwide, the poor and subordinate did most of the fighting and dying. In 1450, European powers were roughly at par with the Ottomans, Chinese, and other major powers around the world. By 1750, European states commanded militaries of unprecedented violence-making capacities, qualitatively different than anything before. The cumulative changes in the theory and practice of warfare over these three centuries have prompted scholars to speak of the Military Revolution, originating in Europe, that was both cause and consequence of the Scientific Revolution, the transition from feudalism to capitalism, the Industrial Revolution, the emergence of early modern nation-states, and the formation of overseas empires. Transformations in the scale and character of European warfare during this period marked a major watershed in world history and comprised one of the principal engines of modernity. For these reasons, this essay focuses mainly on Europe, the birthplace of modern conceptions and practices of warfare as practiced by states and militaries around the world today. Weapons. The “gunpowder revolution” began in Europe in the mid-1400s, a development that would permanently transform the nature of warfare worldwide. Gunpowder, invented in China by the 900s and brought to Europe in the 1200s, soon became the key ingredient in a revolution in ballistic (projectile-firing) weapons. By the early 1300s, European smiths had developed hollow cylindrical barrels capable of firing spherical projectiles. Artillery makers quickly seized on the innovation, such that by the mid-1300s, early cannons firing stone balls became an important siege weapon, on par with centuries-old trebuchets. By the early 1400s, gunpowder technology 1450 to 1750 xxxv was incorporated into a portable, hand-held ballistic weapon, the arquebus, forerunner of all subsequent types of small arms and rifles. Prior to this, the principal infantry and cavalry weapons consisted of pikes, spears, lances, swords, crossbows, bows and arrows, and other types of handheld, human-powered thrusting, cutting, projectile, and trauma-inflicting devices. Incremental refinements to the arquebus led to the matchlock musket in the early 1600s, followed by the flintlock musket, by the mid-1700s the principal infantry weapon in Europe and North America. In a gradual and uneven evolution, muskets did not displace pikes, bows, and other hand-held weapons but were often used in combination with them. Artillery, both land and naval, underwent a parallel transformation. By the 1700s, stone projectiles had been gradually displaced by iron spheres. Exploding cannonballs were developed in the 1500s, though many technical problems limited their use until the 1800s. Rifling, which imparts a spin on projectiles and thus greatly increases their accuracy and range, was limited to small arms utilizing lead, which was malleable enough to accommodate the intended rifling effect. Rifled artillery did not appear until the mid-1800s. The gunpowder revolution also transformed the weapons of siege warfare, beginning with the petard (a kind of portable bomb). From the 1420s heavy gunpowder artillery, first developed by France, spread rapidly throughout Europe. By the late 1400s wheeled artillery pulled by teams of beasts rendered castles and other fortifications far more vulnerable to siege. Cast bronze muzzle-loaded cannons, firing cast iron spheres of 12 to 24 kilograms, comprised the principal weapon of siege warfare from the early 1500s to the mid-1800s. Tactics. All of these and many more technical innovations, based overwhelmingly on gunpowder technologies, led to major transformations in tactics, both on land and at sea. On land, the most effective tactical innovations combined mobility and firepower, and older technologies and techniques (pikes, bows, cavalry charges, etc.) with new ones. Emblematic here was King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (1594–1632), who creatively combined musketeers, pikemen, archers, heavy and light cavalry, field artillery, and diverse other weapons and specialized field units to forge one of the most formidable fighting forces of the early modern era. At sea, naval tactics were revolutionized both by improved shipbuilding technologies (which made sailing ships faster and more maneuverable), cannons, and new fleet formations. Representative of these shifts was the English defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, in which the Royal Navy combined speed, superior firepower, and disruptive tactics to defeat the 130-ship armada dispatched by King Philip II of Spain. Strategy. As weapons and tactics changed, so too did strategy and strategic thinking. It is arguable that there have been no substantial contributions to strategic theory since the writings of the Chinese general Sunzi (Sun Tzu) from the sixth century b.c.e. in his tract The Art of War. Emphasizing stealth, surprise, deception, intelligence, mobility, nimbleness, exploiting the weaknesses in the enemy’s strengths, and avoiding battles in order to win wars, Sunzi’s writings did not begin to circulate in the West until the late 1700s. The first major strategic thinker of the modern era, Carl von Clausewitz (1780–1831), in his book On War (1832), encapsulated much of the strategic thinking that developed in Europe in the preceding centuries. The British strategy of achieving naval supremacy by trying to maintain a “balance of power” on continental Europe—in effect dominating the sea by pursuing policies intended to divide and wear down their enemies on land—is a good example of the era’s most successful kind of strategic thinking. Overall, the most effective European war strategists worked to develop ways to integrate more fully their national economies with their war-making capacities, to achieve the most effective combinations of older and newer weapons and technologies and to pursue both military and extra-military ways to weaken their enemies and strengthen their allies. From the 1400s until the late 1700s, most European states built on the medieval practice of employing mercenary forces or private armies-for-hire (condottiere in Italian; Söldner and Unternehmer in German), at land and at sea, complemented by conscripts commanded by officers commissioned by nobles and sovereigns. Yet by the early 1800s, the era of mercenaries had largely ended, and national armies had become the norm. The reasons were complex, rooted in the risks xxxvi 1450 to 1750 entailed in hiring private armies (rivalry, rebellion, banditry), the relative advantages of mobilizing national populations, and the high costs of paying for war. The cumulative effect of the more or less continuous warfare wracking Europe and its colonies from the 1450s to the 1750s was for state expenditures to grow dramatically and for states to expand their bureaucracies, extend their administrative reach, intensify taxation of their populations, and establish long-term structural relationships with merchants and capitalists. Just as states made war, wars made states. Some scholars argue that the dynamics set in motion by centuries of intensive military conflicts among early modern European nation-states created the preconditions for the emergence of republican forms of government, understood as a contractual relationship between states and citizens. Paying ever higher taxes, and serving in national militaries in ever higher numbers, men demanded something in return—namely, their rights, guaranteed by the state. Thus, Enlightenment notions of citizenship and citizens’ rights, some scholars argue, found their origins in the crucible of early modern European wars. Women, as non-taxpayers and excluded from military service, were also excluded from the attendant rights demanded by men, thus reinforcing patriarchal norms and gender inequalities relative to the state and within the broader society. Warfare, Capitalism, Empires, and Local Responses. The Military Revolution in Europe was intimately linked to empire formation, the transition from feudalism to capitalism, the Scientific Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the Enlightenment, and all of the other defining characteristics of the era. Precisely how this occurred remains the topic of much scholarly research and debate. So, too, is the process by which cultures and civilizations around the world responded to these novel methods of waging war. The Japanese, for instance, rapidly adopted gunpowder weapons in the 1500s only to close their society to Western influences from the 1610s and largely purge guns and cannons from the island’s repertoire of military technologies. In Mesoamerica in the early 1520s, the Aztecs suffered defeat in part because of their different cultural conceptions of warfare, in which capturing enemy soldiers, not taking enemy territory and destroying its state, was the principal goal. The ways in which people around the world responded to the European military revolution were as diverse as the world’s peoples.
Volume IV - Age of Revolution and Empire - 1750 to 1900 Edit
List of ArticlesEdit
abolition of slavery in the Americas
Adams, John, and family
Afghani, Jamal al-Din al-
Afghan Wars, First and Second
Africa, exploration of
Africa, imperialism and the partition of
Africa, Portuguese colonies in
Aigun and Beijing, Treaties of
Algeria under French rule
Alien and Sedition Acts, U.S.
Aligarh College and movement
American Revolution (1775–1783)
American temperance movement
Anglo-Chinese Opium Wars
Anglo-French agreement on Siam (1897)
Arabian Peninsula and British imperialism
Arab reformers and nationalists
art and architecture (1750–1900)
Asian migration to Latin America
Australia: exploration and settlement
Australia: self-government to federation
B Balkan and East European insurrections Banerji, Surendranath Banks of the United States, First and Second baroque culture in Latin America Beecher family Berlin, Congress of (1878) Bismarck, Otto von Bolívar, Simón Bourbon restoration Brahmo and Arya Samaj Brazil, independence to republic in Brethren movements British East India Company British Empire in southern Africa British governors-general of India British occupation of Egypt Buganda, kingdom of Burlingame, Anson, and Burlingame Treaty (1868) Burmese Wars, First, Second, and Third C Canadian Confederation Canton system Catherine the Great caudillos and caudillismo Cavour, Camillo Benso di Central America: National War Ceylon: Dutch to British colony Chakri dynasty and King Rama I Chicago Fire (1871) China, spheres of infl uence in Chinese Exclusion Act Civil War, American (1861–1865) Cixi (Tz’u-hsi) coffee revolution ix Colombia, War of the Thousand Days in (1899–1902) comuneros’ revolt Congo Free State Constitution, U.S. Cook, James Crimean War Cuba, Ten Years’ War in Cuban War of Independence D Darwin, Charles Declaration of Independence, U.S. Díaz, Porfi rio diplomatic revolution, European Disraeli, Benjamin Dost Mohammed Douglass, Frederick Dreyfus affair E Eastern Question Eddy, Mary Baker (1821–1910), and the Christian Science Church enlightened despotism in Europe Enlightenment, the Ethiopia/Abyssinia F Fashoda crisis Fenian raids Ferdinand VII fi nancial panics in North America Finney, Charles Grandison Francia, José Gaspar Rodríguez Franco-Prussian War and the Treaty of Frankfurt Franklin, Benjamin Franz Josef Frederick the Great of Prussia Freemasonry in North and Spanish America French Equatorial Africa French Indochina French Revolution Fukuzawa Yukichi G Garibaldi, Giuseppi gauchos German unifi cation, wars of German Zollverein Gilded Age Gladstone, William Gokhale, G. K. Gong (K’ung), Prince Gordon, Charles Government of India Act (1858) Grant, Ulysses S. Great Awakening, First and Second Great Plains of North America Greek War of Independence Guangxu (Kuang-hsu) H Haitian Revolution Hamid, Abdul (Abdulhamid II) II Hamilton, Alexander Harris, Townsend, and Japan Hart, Robert Hawaii Hidalgo y Costilla, Miguel Hohenzollern dynasty (late) Hong Xiuquan (Hung Hsui-ch’uan) Humboldt, Alexander von Hundred Days of Reform I immigration, North America and Indian Mutiny Industrial Revolution Iqbal, Muhammad Irish Famine (1846–1851) Ismail, Khedive Italian nationalism/unifi cation Iturbide, Agustín de J Jackson, Andrew Jefferson, Thomas Jiaqing (Chia-ch’ing) Johnstown fl ood Joseph II Juárez, Benito K Kader ibn Moheiddin al-Hosseini, Abdul Kang Youwei (K’ang Yu-wei) Khayr al-Din Korea, late Yi dynasty L labor unions and labor movements in the United States La Pérouse, Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Latin America, Bourbon reforms in Latin America, economic and political liberalism in Latin America, export economies in Latin America, independence in Latin America, machismo and marianismo in Latin America, positivism in Latin America, urbanism in League of Three Emperors Leo XIII Leopold II Lewis and Clark Expedition Liberian colonization Li Hongzhang (Li Hung-chang) Lincoln, Abraham Lin Zexu (Lin Tse-Hsu) literature (1750–1900) Lobanov-Yamagata Agreement (1896) Louis XVI Louisiana Purchase M Macartney mission to China Macdonald, John Alexander Madison, James Malay states, Treaty of Federation and the (1895) Manifest Destiny Maori wars Maria Theresa market revolution in the United States Marshall, John Martí, José Marxism, Karl Marx (1818–1883), and Friedrich Engels (1820–1895) Mazzini, Giuseppe Meiji Restoration, Constitution, and the Meiji era Metternich, Prince Clemens von x List of Articles Mexican-American War (1846–1848) Mexico, early republic of (1823–1855) Mexico, from La Reforma to the Porfi riato (1855–1876) Mexico, independence of Mexico, New Spain revolts in Midhat Pasha Mississippi River and New Orleans Mitre, Bartolomé Monroe Doctrine Mormonism Mughal dynasty (decline and fall) Muhammed Ali Muhammad al-Mahdi music Muslim rebellions in China mutiny on the Bounty (1790) N Naoroji, Dadabhai Napoleon I Napoleon III Napoleonic conquest of Egypt Native American policies in the United States and Canada Netherlands East Indies Newman, John Henry newspapers, North American Nian Rebellion in China (1853–1868) Nightingale, Florence O O’Higgins, Bernardo Olmsted, Frederick Law Omani empire Omdurman, Battle of P Pacifi c exploration/annexation Paine, Thomas papal infallibility and Catholic Church doctrine Paraguayan War (War of the Triple Alliance) Paris Commune Pedro I Pedro II Perry, Matthew Pius IX Poland, partitions of Polish revolutions political parties in Canada political parties in the United States prazeros public education in North America Q Qajar dynasty Qianlong (Ch’ien-lung) Qing (Ch’ing) dynasty in decline R Raffl es, Thomas railroads in North America Rama V Reconstruction in the United States revolutions of 1848 Rhodes, Cecil Riel, Louis Rivadavia, Bernardino Romanov dynasty Rosas, Juan Manuel Ortiz de Roy, Ram Mohan Russian conquest of Central Asia Russo-Ottoman Wars Russo-Turkish War and Near Eastern Crisis S Salafi yya movement (Africa) Salvation Army Santa Ana, José Antonio López de Santeria Sanusiya Sarmiento, Domingo Faustino Satsuma Rebellion (1877) savants/Rosetta Stone Second and Third Republics of France Seven Years’/French and Indian War (1754–1763) Shaka Zulu Siamese-Burmese War Sikh Wars Singh, Ranjit Sino-French War and the Treaty of Tianjin (Tientsin) Sino-Japanese War and the Treaty of Shimonoseki slave revolts in the Americas slave trade in Africa Smith, Adam Social Darwinism and Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) socialism South Africa, Boers and Bantu in Spain in Africa Spanish-American War Spanish Bourbons Statue of Liberty St. Petersburg, Treaty of (1881) Sucre, Antonio José de Sudan, condominium in Suez Canal T Taiping Rebellion Talleyrand, Charles-Maurice de Tanzimat, Ottoman Empire and Texas War of Independence and the Alamo Tilak, B. G. Tocqueville, Alexis de Tokugawa Shogunate, late Tongzhi (T’ung-chih) Restoration/ Self-Strengthening Movement Toussaint Louverture transcendentalism Triple Alliance and Triple Entente (1882) Tunisia under French rule U ultramontanism Urabi revolt in Egypt Uruguay, creation of Usman Dan Fodio V Vatican I Council (1869–1870) Victor Emmanuel II Victoria Vienna, Congress of Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) voodoo (Vodun), Haitian List of Articles xi W Wahhabi movement Waitangi Treaty War of 1812 War of the Pacifi c (1877–1883) Washington, George Watch Tower Society Wesley, John (1703–1791) and Charles (1707–1788) White Lotus Rebellion women’s suffrage, rights, and roles Y Young Ottomans and constitutionalism Z Zeng Guofan (Tseng Kuo-fan) Zho Zongtang (Tso Tsung-t’ang) Zionism and Theodor Herzl
List of MapsEdit
Cities and Economic Life in Europe, c. 1750 M97 The Seven Years’ War in Europe, 1756–1763 M98 Major Battles of the Revolutionary War, 1775–1783 M99 European Colonies and Exports from the Americas M100 Revolutionary France, 1789–1794 M101 Explorations of the Pacifi c, 1768–1788 M102 Empires of Western Africa, c. 1800 M103 India, 1805 M104 The Napoleonic Wars, 1803–1815 M105 Europe after Congress of Vienna, 1815 M106 Growth of Russia, 1801–1855 M107 Latin America, 19th Century M108 Ottoman, Arab, and European Presence in Africa, 1830 M109 European Revolutions, 1815–1849 M110 The Balkans after the Serb and Greek Revolutions, 1830 M111 American Indian Territorial Losses, 1850–1890 M112 Western Expansion of the United States, 1787–1912 M113 Industrialization in Europe, 1850 M114 Industrial Revolution in Britain, 1770–1870 M115 British North America, 1849 M116 Urbanization of Europe, 1850 M117 Japan at the Time of Commodore Perry, 1853 M118 Crimean War, 1853–1855 M119 Confl icts in the Qing Empire, 1839–1899 M120 Unifi cation of Italy, 1859–1870 M121 Major Battles of the American Civil War, 1861–1865 M122 Wars of German Unifi cation, 1864–1871 M123 Balkan Peninsula after the Treaty of Berlin, 1878 M124 European Colonialism in the Pacifi c, 19th Century M125 European Possessions in Africa and Arabia, 1895 M126 Growth of Russia, 1855–1904 M127 World Trade, 19th Century M128
1754 French and Indian War Begins For almost nine years, a war rages between British and French soldiers in North America. 1756 The Seven Years’ War The Seven Years’ War includes all the major Western powers. It begins when Prussia under Frederick the Great invades Saxony. 1757 British Establish Sovereignty The British establish their sovereignty in India when they defeat the Bengalese nabob at the Battle of Nabob. 1762 Treaty of St. Petersburg On May 5 the Treaty of St. Petersburg is signed between Prussia and Russia. The treaty brings about a switch in the alliances in the war. 1763 Treaty of Paris The Treaty of Paris is signed, bringing to an end the French and Indian War in North America and the Seven Years’ War in Europe, Asia, and Africa. 1765 Stamp Tax Passes In an effort to raise additional revenue, Britain imposes a tax on all documents issued in the colonies. 1770 Cook Claims Australia James Cook, the English explorer on board the Endeavor, sights the east coast of Australia. He lands at Botany Bay and claims the land for Britain. 1770 Parliament Repeals Townshend Acts The British parliament repeals the Townshend duties on all but tea. 1770 Boston Massacre A group of British soldiers fires on a mob of colonial protesters killing five and wounding another six. 1772 First Partition of Poland Russia, Prussia, and Austria agree on the partition of Poland. 1772 Colonists Burn the Gaspee On the afternoon of June 9, the British revenue schooner Gaspee runs aground. That night eight boatloads of men led by merchant John Brown storm the ship. After overwhelming the crew, they burn the ship. 1773 Boston Tea Party Boston colonists begin boycotting tea. The governor refuses to allow arriving merchants to leave the harbor xv with their tea. On the night of December 16 Patriots dressed up as Native Americans board the merchant ships and throw the tea into Boston Harbor. 1774 Coercive Acts The British parliament gives its speedy assent to a series of acts known as the Coercive Acts or, in the colonies, the Intolerable Acts. These acts include the closing of the port of Boston. 1774 Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji On July 21 the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji is signed between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, ending the confl ict between them. 1774 First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia, from September 5 to October 26. 1775 Lexington and Concord Forewarned by Paul Revere, American militiamen fi ght 700 British troops on April 19. This marks the beginning of the Revolutionary War. 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill The Americans occupy Bunker Hill overlooking Boston, and the British respond by attacking. While the British are victorious, they suffer heavy losses. 1775 King George Declares the Colonies in Revolt On April 23, King George III of Great Britain declares, “The colonies are in open and avowed rebellion. The die is now cast. The colonies must either submit or triumph.” 1776 Watt Builds Steam Engine James Watt develops a steam engine, enabling the advent of the Industrial Revolution. 1776 Declaration of Independence Twelve American colonies vote in favor of the Declaration of Independence. New York abstains. 1777 Battle of Saratoga A British force commanded by General Burgoyne is defeated by American forces at Saratoga, New York. 1778 War of Bavarian Succession Begins The War of Bavarian Succession breaks out when Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, declares war on Austria and invades Bohemia. 1778 France Signs Treaty of Alliance On February 6 France signs a treaty of alliance with the United States of America. France recognizes the independence of the country and offers further aid. 1779 Cook Dies James Cook is killed by natives in Hawaii. Cook is considered the preeminent explorer of his time, and by introducing a regime of fresh fruit he eliminates scurvy from his ships. 1780 Tupac Amaru Revolt The natives of Peru revolt under the leadership of Tupuc Amaru. Tupuc Amaru declares himself the liberator of his people. The Spanish crush the revolt, and Tupuc Amaru is killed. 1781 Battle of Yorktown British forces are obliged to surrender to converging American and French forces. The surrender at Yorktown marks the last major campaign of the Revolutionary War. 1781 Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation are fi rst approved by the Continental Congress in 1777. They are sent to each state for ratifi cation. 1782 Rama I Rules Siam The Chakri dynasty is established in Siam. Its fi rst ruler is Chao P’ya Chakri, who rules as Rama I. The dynasty rules to this day (2008). 1782 Russia Invades Crimea The Russian army invades Crimea in December. 1783 Treaty of Paris The Treaty of Paris is signed between the United States, Great Britain, France, and Spain. It brings an end to the American Revolutionary War. 1784 India Act Under the terms of the India Act, the reorganized East Indian Company cannot interfere in native Indian affairs or make a declaration of war unless in selfdefense. 1786 Shays’s Rebellion Daniel Shays, a farmer and Revolutionary War veteran, leads other farmers to revolt. Shays and 1,200 followers demand relief from various taxes and debts. xvi Chronology 1787 States Approve Constitution On September 17, after weeks of debate, the Constitution of the United States is approved. It calls for a strong central government. Thirty-nine delegates, representing 12 of 13 states, sign the document. 1787 Amar Singh’s Reign Begins During the reign of Amar Singh in southern India, three Brahman musicians reform the art of Carnatic music and establish a new heritage for future generations of southern Indian musicians. 1789 Washington Becomes President George Washington becomes the fi rst president of the United States, after being unanimously elected by the members of the electoral college. 1789 French Revolution A revolt breaks out in France, overturning the monarchy. When it ends, both Louis XVI and Mary Antoinette will have been executed. 1789 Judiciary Act Passes This act establishes the U.S. federal court system and sets the size of the Supreme Court. It also gives the Supreme Court the right to review state court decisions. 1791 Blacks Gain Full Rights in Saint-Domingue The French National Assembly grants free blacks in Saint-Domingue full French rights. The white colonists refuse to implement the decision, and the blacks revolt. 1791 National Assembly The French National Assembly passes a new constitution. Under its terms France becomes a limited monarchy. 1791 Bank of United States Alexander Hamilton urges the founding of the Bank of the United States. Thomas Jefferson opposes the idea. 1792 France Declares War on Austria On April 20 France declares war on Austria, beginning the War of the First Coalition. The French suffer initial defeats on the battlefi eld. 1792 French National Convention On September 21 the French National Convention meets for the fi rst time. There are 749 members at the convention. 1792 Russia Invades Poland On May 19 Russia invades Poland. The Russians fear the strengthening of Poland under its new constitution. 1793 Whitney Invents Cotton Gin Eli Whitney, a young New Englander, invents a cotton gin that automatically cleans cotton. 1793 Second Partition of Poland The second partition of Poland divides Poland between Prussia and Russia. 1793 Reign of Terror Begins Maximilien Robespierre, the leader of the Jacobins, the most radical faction of the National Convention, begins the Reign of Terror in France. 1794 Whiskey Rebellion The Excise Tax of 1791 incites many U.S. western settlers, who begin a rebellion against the central government. 1794 Haiti Independent After defeating a 5,000-man army sent by Napoleon, Haiti is declared a black republican government. All slaves are freed and almost all whites still on the island are killed. 1794 Uprising in Poland After Poland is partitioned for the second time, the Poles, led by Thaddeus Kos´ciuszko, rise up against the Russians. They are ultimately defeated. 1795 Siam Annexes Western Cambodia King Rama I of Siam extends his kingdom by annexing parts of Cambodia, including the ruined Khmer capital. 1795 Treaty of Basel The French and Austrians reach a peace agreement at Basel, Switzerland, on April 5. 1795 Jay’s Treaty Under Jay’s Treaty, the British agree to leave areas in the U.S. Northwest Territory, which they had been required to leave earlier under the Treaty of Paris. 1796 Battle of Arcole The French, led by General Napoleon Bonaparte, invade Italy. Napoleon successfully defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Arcole (Arcola). Chronology xvii 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio Austria and France sign the Treaty of Campo Formio, ending the War of the First Coalition. 1798 Battle of the Nile The Battle of the Nile between the French and British fl eets occurs in Aboukir Bay near the mouth of the Nile River. All of the French ships are either captured, destroyed, or run aground. 1798 Battle of the Pyramids The Egyptian Mamluks are easily defeated by Napoleon at the Battle of the Pyramids on July 21. Napoleon occupies Cairo on the next day. 1798 Alien and Sedition Acts The Alien and Sedition Acts mark an attempt by U.S. Federalists to strengthen the federal government and suppress opposition from the Republicans. 1798 War of the Second Coalition Begins In December Great Britain and Russia sign a treaty of alliance against France, beginning the War of the Second Coalition. 1800 Act of Union Great Britain annexes Ireland in the Act of Union on May 5. The Irish parliament is dissolved and Ireland gains representation in the British parliament. 1800 Peace Treaty with France The United States signs the Convention of Paris with France. Under this treaty, France accepts U.S. neutrality rights at sea. 1802 Treaty of Amiens The War of the Second Coalition comes to an end with the Treaty of Amiens. The British give up all claims to the French Crown and territory. 1803 War of the Third Coalition Begins The War of the Third Coalition begins when, on May 18, Great Britain declares war against France believing that Napoleon is violating the Treaty of Amiens. 1803 Louisiana Purchase The United States purchases the vast Louisiana Territory for $15 million from France. 1804 Lewis and Clark Expedition On May 14, the Lewis and Clark Expedition sets off from St. Louis to the Pacifi c. 1804 Serb Uprising In February Serbs, under the leadership of Kara George, rise up against the Ottomans. 1805 Battle of Trafalgar The Battle of Trafalgar establishes British naval superiority for over 100 years. 1807 Invasion of Portugal Portugal refuses to participate in Napoleon’s continental system that was designed to deny food and other products produced on the continent to Great Britain. Napoleon sends an army to conquer Portugal. 1808 Beethoven Completes Fifth Ludwig van Beethoven composes his Fifth Symphony. 1809 Napoleon Occupies Vienna On May 13 Napoleon’s forces occupy Vienna. His initial victory is short-lived, and he is soon forced to withdraw across the Danube after his defeats at the Battles of Aspern and Essling. 1810 Argentina Independent A provisional junta is established in the provinces of the Río de la Plata (Argentina). The leaders declare their independence from Spain. 1811 Colombia Independent On August 7 Simón Bolívar wins a decisive victory over Spanish forces at the Battle of Boyacá in presentday Colombia. The Congress of Angostura is then convened to declare the Republic of Colombia. 1811 Paraguay Independent On August 14 Paraguay proclaims independence from Spain. 1811 Venezuela War of Independence Begins A congress of the criollos (Creoles) declares independence, starting a process that ends in 1823. 1812 War of 1812 The war between Great Britain and the United States lasts for more than two years. It ends in a stalemate, but confi rms American independence. xviii Chronology 1812 Battle of Borodino Napoleon defeats the Russian army at the Battle of Borodino. The Russians withdraw, opening the road to Moscow for Napoleon. On September 14, the French occupy the nearly deserted city. 1812 Napoleon Retreats from Moscow Napoleon maintains his army in the burned Russian capital for five weeks in the hope of bringing the Russians to terms; finally on October 19, with winter setting in and his armies far from home, Napoleon retreats from Moscow. 1812 Treaty of Bucharest On May 28 the Ottomans sign the Treaty of Bucharest with Russia, ending their six-year war. 1812 Spanish Regain Control of Venezuela An earthquake in Venezuela is used by the clergy to claim that heaven opposes the revolution. With support weakened, the rebel forces capitulate to the Spanish under the terms of the Treaty of San Mateo. The treaty calls for the granting of clemency to the rebels; however, the Spanish renege. 1812 Mexico Independent After a victory at Cuautla, 45 miles south of Mexico City, José María Morelos y Pavón captures Orizaba and Oaxaca from the royalists. The next year Acapulco is captured and independence is declared. 1812 Treaty of Ghent British and American negotiators meet in August at Ghent, Belgium, to negotiate a settlement in the War of 1812. They reach an agreement that restores all territory as it was before the war, without resolving the territorial issues. 1814 Hartford Convention Delegates from Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island convene in Hartford from December 15, 1814, to January 5, 1815. The majority vote for a platform demanding a change in the Constitution, requiring a two-thirds vote by Congress to impose an embargo, admit a western state into the Union, or begin a war, except in the case of an invasion. 1814 Congress of Vienna One of the greatest international assemblies in history takes place in Vienna between September 1814 and June 1815. It successfully works out the various claims of the nations of Europe and establishes a framework that avoids a major European war for 50 years. 1814 Napoleon Abdicates Napoleon is defeated in a series of battles, each bringing the allies closer to Paris. On March 31 a victorious allied army enters Paris. On April 11 Napoleon abdicates and is sent to the island of Elba. 1814 Steam Engine In 1814 George Stephenson develops his first locomotive, which was called the Blücher. 1815 Battle of Waterloo Napoleon once again seizes power. The other nations of Europe unite to fight him. On June 18 at the Battle of Waterloo Napoleon’s forces are defeated, and he flees back toward Paris. On June 22 he surrenders to allied forces. 1815 German Confederation One of the results of the Congress of Vienna is the establishment of the German Confederation. The Confederation consists of 39 member states. 1815 British Establish Colony in Sierra Leone The British establish a Crown Colony in Sierra Leone. 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty Under the terms of the Adams-Onís Treaty, the United States acquires Florida from Spain. In return, the U.S. government assumes $5 million worth of Spanish debts. 1820 Revolts in Spain and Portugal A revolt breaks out in Spain when Colonel Rafael del Riego demands that the French constitution of 1812 be restored. On August 24 a revolt against British regency in Portugal occurs. A liberal constitutional monarchy is created and João VI, living in exile in Brazil, is invited to head it. 1820 Missouri Compromise Under the terms of the Missouri Compromise, Missouri is admitted as a slave state, while Maine is admitted as a free state. Slavery was prohibited in the former Louisiana Territory north of the 36°30' parallel. 1821 Greek War of Independence The Greek revolution breaks out when Greeks in Moldavia begin a revolt against the Ottomans. Chronology xix 1822 Ashanti War Begins The Ashanti War begins in West Africa between the Ashanti and the Fante. 1822 Brazil Independent On September 7 Dom Pedro, the Portuguese regent, declares Brazil independent from Portugal. 1822 Ecuador Free from Spain On May 24 Antonio José de Sucre, Simón Bolívar’s lieutenant, defeats the Spanish at the Battle of Mount Pichincha near Quito. 1823 French Forces Restore Ferdinand VII The French intervene in the Spanish revolution. They invade Spain and force the rebels to hand over King Ferdinand VII, whom they then restore to power. 1823 Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine issued by U.S. president James Monroe states: “The American continents are henceforth not to be considered the subjects for future colonization by any European powers.” 1824 First Anglo-Burmese War On February 24 the fi rst Anglo-Burmese War begins when the British declare war on Burma. 1825 Decembrist Uprising Young Russian aristocrats stage a brief uprising against Romanov rule. The revolt is short-lived but is a sign of things to come. 1828 Uruguay Independent Uruguay becomes independent under a peace treaty between Brazil and Argentina over Banda Oriental. 1829 Baltimore and Ohio Railroad On December 22, the fi rst passenger railroad in the United States opens for business. 1829 Treaty of Adrianople The Russian-Turkish War that had begun in 1828 ends with the Treaty of Adrianople. 1830 The July Revolution The July Revolution breaks out in Paris when Charles X, king of France, attempts to suspend the constitution to overturn the recent French election. The revolutionaries gain control of Paris and force Charles X to abdicate. 1830 Belgium Adopts a Constitution The July Revolution in France inspires Belgian revolutionaries to rise up against Dutch rule. They demand independence. In late September the Dutch are forced out of Brussels, and Belgium is declared independent. 1832 First Reform Act Passes in Britain The Reform Act of 1832 passes the House of Lords. It doubles the number of eligible voters to 1 million. This begins a series of reforms that will eventually lead to universal suffrage. 1833 The First Carlist War Begins A civil war foments in Spain when Ferdinand VII dies. 1835 Second Seminole War Under the leadership of Chief Osceola, the Seminoles refuse to move to the Oklahoma Territory. They retreat to the Florida Everglades. 1835 The Great Trek The Dutch settlers of South Africa, known as the Boers, begin a Great Trek northward. Now known as the Voortrekkers, they leave the Cape Colony to free themselves of British control. 1836 Texas Independent The settlers of Texas, a Mexican territory, declare their independence in 1836. 1837 Deere Invents Plow John Deere invents the steel plow, which greatly improves the ability of farmers to plow fi elds. 1838 First Anglo-Afghan War Begins The First Anglo-Afghan War begins when the British governor of India launches an attack on Afghanistan. He fears growing Russian infl uence in Afghanistan. 1838 Underground Railroad Begins in United States The Underground Railroad starts as a means for escaped slaves to be moved through the North until they reach sanctuary in Canada. 1839 Opium War The Opium War between China and Great Britain begins when the Chinese order the destruction of illegal opium stored by foreign merchants. The East India Company had promoted the use of opium by its Chinese workers. xx Chronology 1842 British Are Massacred A revolt against the British in Kabul forces them to agree to withdraw from the city and return to India. The Afghans instead attack the British and massacre 4,500 soldiers and 12,000 civilians. 1844 Treaty of Wanghia Under the terms of this treaty negotiated by Caleb Cushing, the United States gains the right to trade in Chinese ports as well as additional legal rights inside China. 1844 Franco-Moroccan War The French begin a war with Morocco, which had refused to recognize the French conquest of Algeria and provided refuge to the Algerian rebel leader. 1844 Telegraph Becomes National The fi rst intercity telegraph is demonstrated by Samuel Morse. A telegraph line was built for $30,000 between Washington and Baltimore. 1845 U.S. Annexes Texas After the landslide victory of James Polk, who ran on a ticket supporting annexation of Texas, the U.S. Congress approves the annexation of Texas by joint resolution. 1846 First Sikh War The First Anglo-Sikh War ends with a British victory at the Battle of Sobraon in the Punjab. 1846 Mexican War The U.S. Congress votes overwhelmingly to declare war on Mexico despite initial Whig opposition. Over the course of the two-year war, the United States defeats the Mexicans and captures the capital, Mexico City. 1846 Oregon Treaty The United States and Great Britain end disputes over the Oregon Territory with a compromise. 1847 Liberia Independent Liberia declares its independence on July 26. Former American slaves had founded Liberia. It is Africa’s fi rst independent republic. 1848 Revolution in France King Louis-Philippe of France refuses to institute political reforms and extend suffrage. In response, riots led by workers and students break out. They force the king to abdicate in February. 1848 The Viennese Revolution Viennese students and workers inspired by events in France begin in March to protest the policies of the Austrian government. Conservative elements, however, gain control and brutally put down the revolt. 1848 Guadalupe-Hidalgo Treaty The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ends the Mexican- American War. Under the terms of the treaty, the border is set at the Rio Grande. The United States gains most of California, New Mexico, Nevada, Wyoming, Colorado, and Texas. 1849 Hungarians Announce Independence In response to a repressive constitution promulgated after the failed Viennese revolution, the Hungarian Diet (parliament) on April 14 formally declares its independence from Austria. 1849 Second Sikh War The British defeat the Sikhs at Chillianwalla and Gujart. This forces the Sikhs to surrender at Rawalpindi. 1849 Gold Rush Begins In January President Polk announces that gold has been found in California. This sets off the gold rush, in which 80,000 people head for California to seek their fortunes. 1850 Taiping Rebellion The Taiping Rebellion in China begins, led by Hong Xiuquan. The revolt against the Manchus lasts for 10 years and ends in failure. The revolt takes the lives of 20 million Chinese peasants. 1850 Compromise of 1850 The Compromise of 1850 holds the Union together for another 10 diffi cult years. The dispute concerns the admittance of additional states into the Union, while maintaining the balance between free and slave states. 1852 Second Burma War The Second Burmese War begins when the Burmese oust their king, Pagan Min, after a six-year reign. The British capture Rangoon as the war begins. 1852 South African Republic The British government recognizes the independence of the Boer Republic of the Transvaal under the terms of the Sand River Convention of 1852. Chronology xxi 1854 Perry in Japan U.S. commodore Perry arrives in Japan to attempt to open trade relations, as well as provide a safe haven for shipwrecked sailors. Perry’s successful mission to Japan quickly ends the Japanese self-imposed isolation and heralds a rapid industrialization of the economy of the island nation. 1855 Livingstone Discovers Victoria Falls David Livingstone, a Scottish explorer, departs from South Africa to explore the interior of Africa. In 1855 he discovers Victoria Falls. 1856 Arrow War The second Anglo-Chinese war, known as the Arrow War, begins when the Chinese force a British- registered ship (the Arrow) to lower the British fl ag. 1857 Sepoy Mutiny The Sepoys, native Indian troops employed by the British, revolt and kill their British offi cers. The Sepoys manage to capture Delhi. 1859 John Brown Leads Revolt John Brown leads a group of 18 to attack the arsenal in Harpers Ferry. His goal is to foment a slave rebellion. The revolt is subdued by the U.S. Army under the command of Robert E. Lee. Brown is hanged. 1859 Darwin Publishes On the Origin of Species Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species, in which he posits the theory of evolution. That theory states that humans descended from apes and that only the fi ttest species survive and evolve. 1859 Italian War The Italian War starts when Austria tries to extend its already extensive control over the Italian Peninsula. On May 12 the French declare war on Austria. 1860 Second Maori War Begins The second Maori war is fought from 1860 to 1872 between British colonists and native New Zealanders on North Island. 1861 Fort Sumter Fort Sumter refuses to surrender to the Confederates. At 4:30 a.m. on April 12, General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard gives the order to open fi re. The next afternoon Major Anderson surrenders. The American Civil War begins in earnest. 1861 Battle of Bull Run In July Union troops are defeated in the fi rst major battle of the Civil War. 1862 Battle of Antietam Confederate general Robert E. Lee leads his army into Maryland in a gamble to win the war. Both sides lose an equal number of men. The smaller Confederate force withdraws. In the aftermath of the battle, President Abraham Lincoln announces the Emancipation Proclamation. 1863 Battle of Gettysburg The Battle of Gettysburg takes place in Pennsylvania, where Lee has led his army to invade the North following his success at Chancellorsville. 1865 Civil War Over In April General Lee’s surrounded army is forced to surrender to the forces of Ulysses Grant, ending the Civil War. 1865 Booth Assassinates Lincoln Just six days after the South surrenders, President Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth while attending a play at Ford’s Theatre. 1865 Thirteenth Amendment Passes On December 18 the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution is offi cially ratifi ed. This amendment states that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude can exist in the United States. 1867 Alaska Purchase Secretary of State William Seward negotiates the U.S. purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7 million. 1868 Meiji Restoration The Meiji Restoration begins when the newly established emperor, Mutsuhito, ousts the shogunate (military regime) of the Tokugawa clan that had ruled Japan in fact since 1603. 1868 Revolution in Spain On September 18 the offi cers of the Spanish fl eet foment a revolution. They march on Madrid and defeat government forces. 1869 Suez Canal Opens On November 17 the Suez Canal opens to traffi c. The canal links the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. xxii Chronology 1869 Transcontinental Railroad On May 10, at Promontory Point, Utah, a golden rail spike is struck, completing the fi rst U.S. transcontinental railroad line. 1870 Italy Is Unifi ed Italy is unifi ed when Italian troops enter Rome after the withdrawal of French troops. The Italians strip all temporal power from Pope Pius IX, whom they imprison in the Vatican. 1870 Franco-Prussian War The Franco-Prussian War begins at the instigation of Prussian minister Otto von Bismarck, who believes the war will help unify Germany. On January 28, 1871, Paris falls and the French surrender. 1871 Paris Commune When word spreads in Paris that the legislative assembly is considering restoring the monarchy, students and workers take to the streets. The Commune of Paris controls the city from March 18 until May 28. 1871 Second Reich With the German victory in France complete, the German Reichstag (parliament) proclaims the creation of the Second Reich. 1872 Second Carlist War The Second Carlist War begins in the spring of 1872 when Don Carlos III tries to reestablish the Bourbon reign in Spain. The war continues for two years until 1874 when a coalition declares Alfonso XII king. 1874 Japanese Invade Taiwan The Japanese invade Taiwan—their pretext is the killing of an Okinawan seaman after a shipwreck. 1876 War in Ottoman Empire In May the Bulgarians begin an insurrection against the Ottomans. The insurrection is brutally quelled, and thousands of Bulgarians are slain. 1876 Korean Independence Japan recognizes Korean independence from China. Under a treaty with Korea, trade between Japan and Korea opens. China does not object to the treaty. 1879 Edison Invents Electric Light Thomas Edison overcomes the obstacle to fi nding a lightbulb that will burn long enough to become commercially viable by developing a bulb based on carbonized cotton. 1879 Zulu War The Zulu nation that was founded in 1876 ends when the British defeat it in battle. On January 22 the British are defeated at the Battle of Isandhlwand. The British, however, decisively defeat the Zulu at the Battle of Ulundi. 1881 Alexander II Dies A bomb in St. Petersburg kills Alexander II, czar of Russia, on March 13. 1881 Assassin Shoots President Garfi eld U.S. president James Garfi eld is shot on July 2 as he walks through the waiting room of the Baltimore & Potomac Railroad in Washington, D.C. His assassin, Charles Guiteau, had been rejected for a position in Garfi eld’s administration. The president dies on September 19. 1881 French Invasion of Tunisia Tunisian tribesmen raid Algeria, which provides the French with a pretext for attacking Tunisia. The French withdraw after signing the Treaty of Bardo. 1882 Britain Invades Egypt The British invade Egypt in response to antiforeign riots. The British defeat the army of Arabi Pasha at Al Tell. 1882 Triple Alliance The Triple Alliance is created when Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary promise mutual support. 1883 Anglo-French Punitive Expedition The French and the British launch a punitive expedition against Sudan that is decisively defeated by Muhammad Ahmad at the Battle of El Ubbayid. 1883 Brooklyn Bridge Opens On May 25 the New York boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn are linked with the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge. 1883 Sino-French War The French and the Chinese fi ght in the Sino-French war. The French occupy most of Annam (Vietnam and Cambodia), but their trade is disrupted by Chinese in northern Vietnam. Chronology xxiii 1884 Congo Free State Belgium declares the Congo a free state, open to settlement and trade by all nations. 1885 Germany Claims Tanzania The German East Africa Company gains a charter to administer Tanzania. The same year Germany claims South-West Africa and Togoland. 1886 Anglo-Egyptian Agreement The British and the Germans agree to recognize Sayid Barghash as sultan of Zanzibar. 1887 Ethiopian-Italian War Begins The Italians are defeated in the fi rst battle of the Italian- Ethiopian War at the Battle of Dogali. 1889 Japan’s First Written Constitution Under the terms of the constitution, the emperor’s legislative power can be exercised only with the consent of the Imperial Diet. 1890 Bismarck Resigns Emperor William II of Germany forces Bismarck to resign. This ends the career of the man singlehandedly responsible for the unifi cation of Germany. 1890 Britain Occupies Uganda The Germans and the British resolve their differences in Africa when the Germans give up claims to Uganda. 1893 Panic of 1893 in the United States A growing credit shortage creates panic, resulting in a depression. Over the course of this depression, 15,000 businesses, 600 banks, and 74 railroads fail. 1895 First Sino-Japanese War The Japanese defeat both the Chinese army and navy in the Sino-Japanese War. 1895 French West Africa The French organize their territorial holdings in West Africa into French West Africa. 1895 Sun Yat-sen Revolt Sun Yat-sen organizes a secret revolutionary society in Canton in 1894. In 1895 he attempts to overthrow the Manchu dynasty. His fi rst attempt fails. 1896 Battle of Adwa (Adowa) Ethiopia defeats the Italians at the Battle of Adwa. 1896 Great Britain Captures Ghana The Ashanti capital of Kumasi is captured by a British expeditionary force. The area, which is in present- day Ghana, becomes a British protectorate. 1898 Spanish-American War The Americans decisively defeat the Spanish, capturing the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. 1898 Fashoda Incident British and French expeditions simultaneously reach Fashoda in present-day Sudan. The crisis ends when France recognizes British claims to the Nile basin, while Britain recognizes French claims to the Sahara as well as western Sudan.
Major Themes (1750 to 1900)Edit
Between the mid-18th century and the dawn of the 20th, the ancient and essential work of feeding the world was dramatically transformed to varying extents in different parts of the world. Despite astonishing changes in mechanization, transport, agricultural science, and food preservation techniques, farmers everywhere were still at the mercy of weather and pestilence. As agriculture became internationalized, farmers were also affected more than ever before by crop and price fl uctuations. The world’s overall supply of food increased spectacularly, yet many still starved or were undernourished. Most countries were still predominantly rural in 1750. In the countryside, families and communities tried, even on the tiniest plots, to grow enough food to sustain themselves. In emerging cities, most residents used available open spaces for cows, pigs, goats, or chickens and perhaps a fruit tree or vegetable patch. The wealthiest and most important people in most societies did not usually farm themselves but controlled quantities of fertile land and could compel laborers—slaves, serfs, or peasants—to farm it. Agricultural change was already afoot. In the Americas, where settlers from Spain, France, and Britain had appropriated land formerly controlled by Native peoples, commodity agriculture built wealth for the colonizers and their homelands. By 1750, Chesapeake planters who had built a thriving economy on tobacco were diversifying into grains and other crops. After the American Revolution, cotton became king in the southern states. Slaves were used to raise the crop that fed the textile mills of the Western world’s Industrial Revolution. Even as farming became commercialized, the New World’s enormous land resources seemed to promise agricultural independence to generations of farmers. U.S. president Thomas Jefferson, himself the owner of dozens of slaves, advocated an agrarian nation that would feed the world while maintaining the sturdy self-reliance of virtuous small farmers. Mexico and Central and South America remained overwhelmingly rural until the later 19th century and continued to rely almost entirely on traditional Indian crops, such as corn and squash, and agricultural methods including burning the residual stalks and roots after harvesting. Wars of Major Themes 1750 to 1900 xxv independence between 1808 and 1824, followed by frequent outbreaks of regional civil war, led to crop and livestock destruction and great instability for farmers. In the 1830s coffee beans became a wildly successful commodity. Coffee enabled many wealthy landowners, especially in Brazil, Venezuela, and Guatemala, to enlarge their holdings at the expense of small farmers, although some small farmers in Costa Rica and Colombia were able to hold their own. In Argentina, commercial beef production grew explosively late in the century. Similarly, Australia and New Zealand, settled by British immigrants, became major exporters of grain and meat. North America became a magnet for agricultural immigrants as land became scarcer in Europe due to population pressures and other political and economic factors. Millions of Scandinavian and German farmers headed to the Great Plains, helping to make the United States and Canada the world’s most bountiful source of grains such as wheat and corn. Not all rural immigrants found agricultural opportunities: Irish peasants displaced from their lands by harsh British policies and the devastating potato famine of the late 1840s mostly resettled in Canadian and American cities. In the 1890s a worldwide decline in sugar prices caused famine in Spanish-controlled Cuba and helped bring about the Spanish-American War. In China, even though acreage devoted to agriculture increased after the 17th century, the population rose much faster, tripling to 430 million by 1851, thanks to a period of internal peace, increased crop yields, and medical advances such as widespread smallpox vaccination. Since little additional land was available for cultivation and there were few opportunities for emigration, livelihood became diffi cult, leading to widespread rebellions in the mid-19th century. Japan’s population also grew rapidly in the late 19th century, straining limited land resources. The adoption of chemical fertilizers somewhat improved agricultural yields. Imperialism played an important role in reshaping agricultural economies. Subsistence farming in much of Asia, Africa, and South America was disrupted by Western demands for profi table cash crops and a growing need for cheap, nonagricultural labor. Egypt under Muhammad Ali moved away from self-suffi cient farming of foodstuffs to cash crops, especially tobacco and cotton. During the U.S. Civil War, when demand was high and production low, the Egyptian economy prospered, but once U.S. production resumed, Egypt was caught in a web of indebtedness for costly development projects begun during the short boom. In India, the British undertook many irrigation projects, especially after the opening of the Suez Canal. These improvements facilitated the cultivation and exportation of various cash crops. Famines continued to occur, but agricultural and transportation improvements lessened their severity. Over the course of the 19th century, prices of commodity crops such as wheat, corn, tobacco, sugar, and cotton fell signifi cantly. This was a boon for consumers, but diffi cult for small independent farmers. Agricultural Mechanization and New Techniques. For millennia, agricultural labor had been provided by the muscle power of men, women, and children, assisted when possible by draft animals such as horses, donkeys, oxen, water buffalo, or yaks. The number of hands and hoofs available dictated the size of most farms, which were small. Most farmers produced food required by their own families, selling any extra production locally for cash to buy what they could not grow or make. Two American innovators, John Deere and Cyrus McCormick, introduced important advances in the 1830s that made plows stronger and reapers more reliable. At fi rst this new equipment used horse or oxen power; eventually steam power would run these labor-saving machines. Although Deere and McCormick became international names in agriculture, farmers were slow to adopt the new machinery, due to expense and tradition. As more farmers after the U.S. Civil War acquired larger farmsteads on the Great Plains, they found that it was almost impossible to cultivate the prairies without the new technology, including the tougher chilled iron plow, introduced in 1869, and seed drills that promised uniform rows for crops such as wheat and corn. The “plow that broke the Plains” would have serious ecological consequences wherever it was used, leading to soil erosion and other long-term effects. By the 1880s most North American agriculture was specialized. In the arid West, barbed wire was the key invention that helped ranchers control their livestock, keeping cattle and sheep safe from both xxvi 1750 to 1900 animal and human predators. A swath of states from New York to Wisconsin and Minnesota provided most of the nation’s dairy foods. The cotton gin, a device patented in 1794 by New Englander Eli Whitney, removed seeds from cotton fi bers, making cotton a viable commodity. Cotton raised in Mississippi, Alabama, and elsewhere in the South was the United States’s most important export before the Civil War, but was challenged afterward by cotton from Egypt and India. Between 1860 and 1900 the number of active farms in the United States almost tripled, and 32 million people lived on them. Scientifi c agriculture began to reshape, if not always improve, traditional farming practices. Advances in crop rotation, new seed varieties, fertilizers, and pesticides began to help farmers overcome some traditional dangers to their livelihood, despite potential loss of variety and environmental harm. Mechanical irrigation could overcome drought, but at a high economic and ecological cost. In the United States in 1862 Congress authorized college-level agricultural education and created a federal Department of Agriculture. National efforts to educate and encourage farmers emerged even as new techniques and machinery began to make labor-intensive small farming obsolete. Lack of capital and conservative political and social policies prevented the vast agricultural lands of Russia from adopting effi cient farming methods. Agricultural Markets and Trade. As localized subsistence farming gave way in most of the world to international commercial agriculture, transportation and processing facilities took on the highest importance. For most countries, navigable waterways were the best option for moving crops to port cities. In the United States the Mississippi River played an especially important role, as barges carried farm goods to the port of New Orleans. Smaller streams could provide power to turn grain into fl our; by the 1780s automated water mills were in use in North America. In the early 1800s localities searched to create water access. The Erie Canal, a state-fi nanced project that opened in 1825, connected New York City to the Great Lakes, dramatically enhancing agricultural trade options. Canals were also widely used in Europe. Ocean shipping by clipper ships, and later steam-powered vessels, helped greatly in the worldwide distribution of agricultural products. Roads good enough to accommodate heavily loaded farm wagons under a variety of weather conditions were slow to develop, but the advent of railroads in the 1830s was a major boon to farmers and their customers, because they were more reliable and cheaper than canals or rivers. Cattle and other livestock destined for urban slaughterhouses would be delivered to railroad depots by cowboys on horseback. By the 1870s refrigerated freight cars were hauling meat and other perishable foodstuffs to distant cities. This gradual switch from food grown locally to products from the world over changed human dietary habits. Ancient preservation techniques, including smoking, salting, and pickling, were augmented by sanitary canning, developed in France and Britain in the early 1800s. French scientist Louis Pasteur’s heat treatment of milk overcame serious dangers of microbes in many foods, although mandatory pasteurization only caught on widely in the 20th century. Refrigeration and new methods for providing large quantities of ice for home use were, by the end of the 19th century, making it safe to eat foods out of season. Although these new methods promised food that was more plentiful, nutritious, and varied, standardization and new packaging had a downside. Practices that counterfeited freshness and healthfulness became endemic in the 19th century. Food-processing fi rms often cut corners in regard to hygiene and mislabeled their products. Cheap additives, artifi cial taste and coloring agents, and even known poisons made their way into packaged products. Crusades against food adulteration, led by mothers and public health professionals, gained momentum, culminating in 20th-century inspection and labeling laws in many nations. Land and Money: Agricultural Politics. Peasant unrest frequently affl icted societies across the globe; even in more developed nations, farmers were often unhappy. In the 19th century farmers facing higher machinery and transportation costs while crop prices plummeted made their grievances known. In the next century millions of them would give up farming entirely. In 1807 U.S. farmers, not for the fi rst time, experienced the instability of farming as an export business. Facing attacks on shipping by both France and England in the run-up to the War of 1812, 1750 to 1900 xxvii President Jefferson, the champion of agrarianism, persuaded Congress to include farm products in his embargo of trade with the warring European powers. Since agricultural sales were a major component of U.S. trade, this proved to be a disaster. Tobacco became almost worthless, while wheat prices fell from two dollars to 10 cents a bushel, setting off a general recession. The distribution of western lands mostly seized by the U.S. government from Indian tribes was a major issue leading up to the Civil War. In 1862 a Homestead Act was signed by President Abraham Lincoln at a time when 75 percent of Americans were farmers or lived in rural communities. It was a way to reward Union supporters during the war, although former Confederates would later share its benefi ts. The act promised 160 acres of free land in specifi ed areas to families who would spend at least fi ve years improving their new homesteads. Some 2 million families claimed free federal lands, while millions more bought surplus land from railroad companies building transcontinental lines with government assistance. Persuaded that “rain follows the plow,” many of these homesteaders would eventually give up farming after enduring droughts, blizzards, and insect infestations later in the century. After the Civil War much of southern agriculture was based on sharecropping, a system that put landless farmers to work on the large landholdings of others. Poor whites and former slaves were most likely to farm under these circumstances. Despite promises that they might someday own the land they cultivated, sharecroppers were often exploited by high-priced “company stores” and were prey to the usual disappointments of farming. Like Russia’s serfs, emancipated by Czar Alexander II in 1861, sharecroppers often found greater opportunity in urban factories than by continuing to farm lands they might never actually own. Farmer disappointment and unrest soon took political form. In the United States, the National Grange was founded in 1867. This fraternal organization encouraged rural families to support one another and create cooperative facilities such as grain silos. By the 1870s farmers were joining more overtly political farmers’ alliances. Millions of farmers in the Midwest, Great Plains, and South were politicized by uncontrolled rail freight charges, high seed costs, and agricultural price instability. In 1892 the new People’s Party ran former Iowa general James B. Weaver for president. This movement, whose members were called Populists, had some regional success and won electoral votes. But after their central issues, including currency reform, were embraced by 1896 Democratic Party nominee for president William Jennings Bryan from Nebraska, Populists gradually retreated into political oblivion, and their tentative efforts to build a biracial movement were swept away. In 1750 most of the farming population in Europe were either serfs or worked under conditions that had survived from serfdom. Political and social changes brought on by the French Revolution in 1789 would result in the emancipation of farmers in France and later across Europe. The last and largest group to achieve freedom was the rural population of the Russian Empire, in the 1860s. Peasant unrest and revolts characterized Russia throughout this period.
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS
In the 18th century Europeans, later joined by North Americans, brought about a scientifi c, technological, and social movement that reshaped work, wealth, and environments around the globe. Over this 150-year period, the Industrial Revolution changed power generation, transportation, and communication. It also generated important breakthroughs in pure science, as physicists, chemists, and biologists developed theoretical explanations for technologies often already in use. On the most basic level, what the Industrial Revolution did was replace ancient energy sources—human and animal labor, wind, fi re, and water—with new systems of power, initially the use of coal to run steam engines that were massively more powerful than hundreds of human workers. In 1765 Scotsman James Watt, building on the earlier work of Thomas Newcomen and others, developed the fi rst effi cient steam engine. Among its earliest applications were steam-powered machinery for turning wool, cotton, and fl ax into fi nished textiles, a process previously done xxviii 1750 to 1900 almost entirely by hand. This transformation of work from a home-based system to centralized factories relying on complex machinery was the central element of the Industrial Revolution. Britain’s newly automated spinning and weaving machinery quickly propelled the island nation into the forefront of economic production and soon set off efforts by competing nations, including the new United States, to equal Britain’s industrial achievements. Bribes paid to British mechanics and industrial espionage were among the tactics used. In 1793, with the invaluable assistance of British immigrant and skilled textile machinist Samuel Slater, a limited but successful textile factory opened in Rhode Island. In the early 1800s growing confl ict between Britain and the United States, resulting in the War of 1812, had the effect of making America’s home-grown industrialization even more crucial. After 1807 the number of U.S. textile mills sextupled. The most important of the new mills was Francis Cabot Lowell’s Boston Manufacturing Company of Waltham, Massachusetts, where both spinning and weaving processes were automated under a single factory roof and a workforce, consisting primarily of young women from struggling New England farm families, provided lowcost labor. In the earliest days of the Industrial Revolution, water wheels competed with the new steam engine. But as the reliability of steam power increased and its siting fl exibility became obvious, energy-dense coal became Europe’s and, later, North America’s major industrial fuel source. At the U.S. centennial celebration in Philadelphia in 1876, George H. Corliss’s steam engine, the largest in the world, was both a major attraction and sole power source for the entire exhibition. Within 40 years, steam engines would be largely replaced by electrical devices, although the electrical power these new machines used would, in most cases, still be generated by burning coal. Some of the earliest experiments with static electricity were done by American Benjamin Franklin, whose 1751 article, “Experiments and Observations on Electricity,” made him a Fellow of Britain’s Royal Society. By 1753 Franklin had developed the protective lightning rod. Between the 1780s and 1800 Italian scientists Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta would discover electrical current and how to produce electricity chemically through the medium of the battery. In 1831 Englishman Michael Faraday’s discovery of electromagnetism, scientifi cally refi ned by James Clerk Maxwell, paved the way for practical uses of electrical power. George Westinghouse, who fi rst gained fame in 1873 as the inventor of air brakes for trains, soon thereafter became fellow U.S. inventor Thomas A. Edison’s chief rival for the implementation of commercial electric power. Westinghouse’s alternating current, developed for him by Nikola Tesla, became the standard. Edison, inventor of the incandescent lightbulb and many other devices powered by electricity, lost his bid for direct current but nevertheless profi ted mightily. Spread of Industry. As the Industrial Revolution spread, the need to provide fuel and raw materials to new factories and ship their fi nished products helped set off a transportation revolution in many industrializing nations. Efforts were made in Britain and elsewhere to improve road surfaces to facilitate safer passage for wheeled vehicles, at fi rst drawn by horses or other draft animals. In 1819 Scotsman John Macadam developed a crushed stone surface, signifi cantly smoothing roadways. The United States began building a National Road, starting in Baltimore after the War of 1812, but regional squabbles and high costs meant that, after 44 years, the road project ended 65 miles short of its projected St. Louis terminus. Similarly, imperial powers in Africa, Muhammad Ali in Egypt, and the Ottoman Empire in western Asia all fi nanced projects to enlarge ports and build roads and railroads to facilitate the transport of cash crops and raw materials. In 1757 and 1764 two canals built in England made it easier to move coal to emerging factories. Other European nations and the United States soon joined in the canal-building boom. In 1825 New York State’s Erie Canal, a water route connecting New York City to the Great Lakes and beyond, became one of the most successful projects in what would prove to be the brief golden age of canal transport. The major transport successes of the early 19th century were steam-powered ships and railroads. In 1807 on the Hudson River Robert Fulton demonstrated a new kind of water-going vessel, 1750 to 1900 xxix powered by an English steam engine. Its success led to steamboats on most large U.S. rivers and the Great Lakes. In 1800 Englishman Richard Trevithick devised a much smaller, high-pressure steam engine ideal for railroad transportation. Locomotives were used for industrial freight hauling in Britain for some years before the fi rst public passenger line between Liverpool and Manchester opened in 1830. A worldwide frenzy of railroad construction ensued. With their dedicated trackage and modular assembly, railroads, powered by coal-fi red steam engines, were well suited to hauling huge loads of both goods and people. Major increases in the fabrication and use of iron and steel provided the sinews of the Industrial Revolution, especially the building of rail tracks. Developed in Britain, the Bessemer steel process was widely adopted in the United States and helped steel magnate Andrew Carnegie, a Scottish-born immigrant, become one of the world’s wealthiest men. The late 19th century saw the fi rst examples of transport based on internal combustion engines—the automobile, bus, and truck. Although the Swiss inventor Nicholas Cugnot is credited with making such a device as early as 1769, European experiments that led to workable internal combustion engines began in the 1860s. The Germans Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach, and Carl Benz produced workable prototypes in the 1880s, while France’s Peugeot fi rm began to perfect auto design in 1890. In 1897 the German Rudolf Diesel produced a new type of engine that now bears his name. By the end of the century Americans, too, were making cars, notably the 1893 Duryea. Ransom Olds’s fi rst Michigan auto factory opened in 1899, but the United States lagged behind European engineering by a decade. Instantaneous communications were essential to the business and technical needs of the Industrial Revolution. Weather events, wars, and other crises could easily disrupt, even derail, factory production. Charles Wheatstone’s early telegraph of 1837, systematized and improved in 1844 by Samuel F. B. Morse, made it possible to circulate information much faster than mail systems. By 1866 telegraph signals could be reliably sent and received across the Atlantic; by the end of the century, much of the world had access to telegraph communication. The Canadian Alexander Graham Bell displayed his telephone at the 1876 U.S. Centennial Exposition; within a few years it became an important business tool. In 1899 the Italian Guglielmo Marconi sent his fi rst radio signal across the English Channel. Both telephone and radio later made the telegraph obsolete. Mechanical Geniuses. Western science developed dramatically during the heyday of the Industrial Revolution, sparked by “untutored” mechanical geniuses like Thomas Edison, as well as growing cadres of university-trained scientists and engineers. Major breakthroughs in chemistry in the later 1700s included Frenchman Antoine Lavoisier’s and Englishman Joseph Priestley’s identifi cation of oxygen and other atmospheric components, and Russian Dmitry Mendeleyev’s development in 1869 of a systematic table of chemical elements. In physics, discoveries in thermodynamics were spearheaded by such theorists as William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, who postulated a temperature of absolute zero at which all motion would cease. Thermodynamics provided theoretical underpinnings for methods of creating and preserving cold conditions. By the 1870s refrigerated train cars were in wide use, preserving and enhancing food products traveling from farms to distant urban areas. Some important innovations in biological science, especially as applied to health and medicine, included Swede Carolus Linnaeus’s (Carl von Linne’s) 1753 classifi cation of biological organisms, a system still in use today. The discovery of anesthetic agents such as ether and chloroform in the 1830s and 1840s soon radically improved outcomes of painful and invasive surgeries. In 1896 Xrays were fi rst used to diagnose human ailments. But the two most spectacular breakthroughs in this period would be evolutionary theory and the germ theory of disease. Made public in 1858, evolution was an explanation of the diversity and complexity of living organisms, reached almost simultaneously by two English naturalists, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace. Both men had relied heavily on the early 19th-century geologic and fossil fi ndings of Charles Lyell. In 1859 Darwin published On the Origin of Species in which he postulated natural selection as the mechanism that allowed some species to survive while others disappeared. His direct challenge to most religious explanations for the development of human life, xxx 1750 to 1900 evolution, was labeled blasphemous and, outside scientifi c circles, remains embroiled in controversy to this day. In the 1870s biologists Louis Pasteur of France and Robert Koch of Germany proved that microorganisms— germs—were responsible for most human, animal, and plant diseases. This rethinking of disease transmission revolutionized medical practice and gave new credibility to the emerging practice of sanitation. Although the Industrial Revolution took place mostly in the West and helped it dominate other sections of the globe in the years between 1750 and 1900, it would be a mistake to see this burst of technological and scientifi c growth as an unchallenged success. From its inception, the new factory system was strongly criticized for making humans interchangeable and also forcing them to adapt to ever-faster and more complex machines. Opposition by a group of early challengers, the Luddites, reached its peak in England in 1812 when highly skilled workers, concentrated in the woolen industry, smashed installations of new machinery destined to implement the new factory system of production. By 1867 in their work Das Kapital, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, both Germanborn, had developed a broad critique of the Industrial Revolution and the laissez-faire capitalism that underpinned it. Engels was particularly qualifi ed to evaluate the factory system; his father was an owner of a textile factory in Manchester, England. A result of the Industrial Revolution less often mentioned during its 19th-century zenith was massive pollution created by industrial processes based on the unfettered burning of coal, soon to be supplemented with the combustion of petroleum products. It is no wonder that U.S. writer Edward Bellamy, in his 1887 utopian best seller and critique of industrialism, Looking Backward: 2000– 1887, recalled 1887 Boston as squalid and “malodorous,” and reeking of “fetid air” compared to the shiny, bright, and clean Boston of a postindustrial future.
SOCIAL AND CLASS RELATIONS
This period of world history, 1750–1900, was an age of revolutions, both military and social. Although social and class upheavals were most evident in the West, other major societies also experienced important changes that affected relationships between rulers and subjects, capitalists and workers, men, women, and children. A process of globalization, spearheaded by imperialism and huge migrations within and between nations, created new political and social interactions. The American Revolution helped bring an end to the phase of European colonialism that had begun with Spain’s 16th-century expansion into the New World. It inspired independence movements in Central and South America and eventually led to autonomy for Canada. In Europe, the republican ideas expounded in the United States’s revolution and 1789 Constitution helped spark political ferment that would produce liberalism, socialism, and communism in the 19th century. The French Revolution marked the beginning of the end of monarchical power in France, Britain, and many other Western countries, although the fi nal demise of this ancient system of hereditary rule did not occur until World War I. As deference to royalty faded, some class barriers began to come down, especially in Europe between the 1830s and 1848, when failed revolutions in France and Germany ended in repression of dissident voices. The impact of European imperialism across Asia from the Middle East to Japan would also inspire not only nationalistic awakening but also political and social revolutions that continued into the 20th century. These political changes would have been unlikely without the almost simultaneous eruption, fi rst in the West and later worldwide, of the Industrial Revolution. This dramatic economic transformation hardened existing class identities but also held out promises of greater freedom, wealth, and power for people on lower and middle rungs of the social order. This new way of fi nancing and organizing the production of goods was theoretically justifi ed by The Wealth of Nations, an antimercantilist, pro-capitalist economic philosophy articulated in 1776, the year of American independence, by Scottish thinker Adam Smith. Aristocratic French observer Alexis de Tocqueville, who toured the United States in 1831, was astonished by the relative equality of masters and (white) servants, but worried that even in this new 1750 to 1900 xxxi democracy, manufacturing might be dominated by a tiny group of capitalists who could “fi x the rate of wages as they please,” thereby oppressing their “exceedingly numerous” workers. His observation presaged the insights of German-born journalist and philosopher Karl Marx, who articulated a fundamental critique of social and class relationships. Marx and Friedrich Engels published their Manifesto of the Communist Party in 1848. The workers who poured into new factories (called “Satanic Mills” by English poet William Blake) were, said Marx, the real producers of the world’s wealth. This proletariat, he insisted, should control their work and apportion its benefi ts. Instead, he said, an emerging cadre of capitalists, assisted by a new bourgeois managerial class, were enriching themselves at the proletariat’s expense. Indeed, as people moved from farms and workshops into new industrial cities, labor unions expanded and increased in militancy. Skilled, or craft, workers, almost always men, had for years found ways to extract pay and hours concessions. Men, women, and often children working in factories, however, did less skilled work and could be easily replaced. Although Britain banned unions shortly after the French Revolution, by the 1860s coal miners and textile workers had formed powerful unions. In 1871 unions in Britain were offi cially recognized; in 1893 unionists and socialists combined to create Britain’s Labour Party. German printers and cigar makers unionized after the 1848 unrest. By 1900 strong industrial unions played important political roles in most European nations. In the United States, the path to worker organization was diffi cult. Craft workers had long been protective of their skills and membership but began to lose ground as factories proliferated. Cyclical economic downturns led to factory layoffs; assertive workers might not be rehired. Courts were hostile, seeing most union demands as restraint of trade. As immigration surged in the 1850s and after the U.S. Civil War, manufacturers had their pick of presumably docile workers. In 1869 the Knights of Labor began to organize both skilled and unskilled workers and, for their time, were unusually inclusive of workers who were female, immigrant, or nonwhite. The Knights were eclipsed in 1886 when Samuel Gompers established the craft-focused American Federation of Labor, with a 40-hour workweek as its main goal. Americans and Britons who opposed unions and other socialistic reforms often invoked the precepts of Social Darwinism to justify their defense of class inequality, including the growing gap between rich and poor. This misapplication by sociologists Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution held that in the unceasing struggle for existence only the strongest humans and human groups would survive. Simplistically, most understood this to mean that society’s richest and most powerful men had been chosen to succeed by nature’s own laws. Social Darwinism bolstered the economic tenet of laissez-faire—the idea that government must not interfere in the marketplace—and also was used to justify Western imperialism. Latin America. In Latin American societies, deep class and race inequalities from the colonial period persisted after most nations had thrown off Spanish and Portuguese rule. Absent social revolution, stark divisions between rich and poor continued well into the 19th century. New social classes did emerge eventually. In Mexico, for example, the rule of Porfi rio Díaz saw the rise of middleclass professionals, as well as consolidation of a working class, especially miners, without access to land. Massive immigration by Spaniards and Italians into Argentina created a large urban working class in Buenos Aires and other growing cities that would link Argentina to the global economy and inspire working and middle-class demands for greater political participation. Doctrines of racial and ethnic inequality blossomed during this period. Even though U.S. slavery and Russian serfdom came to an end in the 1860s, Western nations justifi ed their domination of Asia and Africa on racial grounds and gloried in assuming “the white man’s burden” to better the lot of the dominated. In the United States, the end of the Civil War produced three constitutional amendments that outlawed slavery, extended equal rights to all former slaves, and granted the right to vote to African-American men. Although some African Americans restored their families, found work, and even won public offi ce, hopes for true equality did not materialize. Instead, the federal government looked away as xxxii 1750 to 1900 former slave states (and some states outside the Confederacy) instituted new codes of inequality, known as Jim Crow laws, enforcing them with terror tactics, including lynching. Czar Alexander II’s emancipation of the serfs, who represented one-third of Russia’s population, created problems of land distribution that would feed unrest leading to revolution in 1917. Worldwide pressure on agricultural land and commodity prices pushed many millions to emigrate for economic survival. Those who continued to farm often found themselves in a spiral of debt and threatened with foreclosure. In the United States, farmer campaigns, including the Populist political movement of the 1890s, brought white and black, midwestern and southern, together to propose bold solutions to these problems—most of which required state or federal government activism. The movement ended after the elections of 1896 with recriminations over currency reform and an upsurge of racism that tore apart the fragile coalition. Anti-Jewish prejudices, long traditional in Christian Europe, intensifi ed, especially as Jews left their ghettoes to pursue education and professions long closed to them. As anti-Semitism, in the form of terror attacks called pogroms, increased in Russia and eastern Europe, thousands of Jews fl ed, mostly to the United States, where some became active in socialist movements. In France, the 1894 court-martial and deportation of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a French-Jewish army offi cer who proved later to be innocent of treason, revealed persecution of Jews amid rising nationalism. Despite these “worst of times,” as British Victorian novelist Charles Dickens described the French revolutionary era, there were also advances—for a growing middle class, for children, and for women— in Western nations. Although aggressive nationalism was an increasing problem, religious tolerance generally expanded despite such setbacks as the Dreyus affair. Victorian elites clung to a stratifi ed class structure with rigid rules of etiquette and clear divisions between upstairs and the servants below, but class relationships were changing. The Industrial Revolution fueled a major expansion of the bourgeoisie. Emerging along with a substantial professional class were greater comfort, better education, lower birthrates and infant mortality, and new respect for childhood. Calls for women’s suffrage, by both women and men, increased. Immigration, often the choice of desperate people, did offer mobility and opportunity to many millions, even if their new streets were not paved with gold. Although women and children were still viewed as property in much of the world, there were strong indications that attitudes were beginning to change. In the Ottoman Empire there was considerable upward mobility and religious tolerance; minorities fared quite well, especially in contrast to much of the rest of the world. Women in the Islamic world had property rights and legal standing, but traditional mores often took precedence over religious laws regarding women’s status. In British-ruled India, Hindu reformers began reexamining the traditional caste system. Modernizing educational practices produced Western-oriented Indian men and women, many of whom began to demand participation in their government. India’s Muslims were slower to adopt modern education. In China, failure of the Qing (Ch’ing) dynasty in the late 19th century led to the emergence of modern Chinese nationalism in opposition to the Manchu, the ethnic minority that had established its dynastic rule in 1644. Oriented toward modern Western political forms, nationalists began to demand the emancipation of women even as they struggled with incursions of Western and Japanese imperialism. In Japan, the Meiji Restoration ended the feudal system, abolished the traditional hierarchy of classes, and created universal conscription. Some male taxpayers were allowed to vote after 1889. Girls’ schooling was made mandatory, and some professions were opened to women, although they did not win the vote.
TRADE AND CULTURAL EXCHANGES
By 1750 improved transportation and aggressive exploration by Western countries had dislodged the Ottoman Empire’s long-standing monopoly on East-West land trade routes. New sea routes, established by the Portuguese and others, focused on Africa and the New World and helped to shift the economic balance of power toward Europe and away from Asia. So did the extraction of large quantities of silver and gold from the Western Hemisphere that, for a time, made Spain Europe’s wealthiest and most powerful nation. 1750 to 1900 xxxiii Trade competition led not only to new kinds of exchanges and rivalries between equals but also created opportunities for exploitation of newly encountered populations. Europeans famously tried to fool America’s Indian tribes by trading trinkets for valuable land and other resources. Not all Natives were losers in these exchanges. Such manufactured items as knives and fi rearms helped tribal groups defend themselves against settler attacks and enhanced their advantages in inter-tribal warfare. A booming trade in alcoholic beverages, however, proved especially dangerous to American Indians, causing disease and social disruption and often giving whites an advantage in trade negotiations and treaties. Slave trading between Africa and the Americas continued to decimate West African populations while enriching some African kings and traders with guns, textiles, and other manufactured goods. At least 15 percent of approximately 8 million kidnapped African men, women, and children died during the so-called Middle Passage, reduced to cargo in crowded, fi lthy ships that carried them across the Atlantic Ocean into slavery. Most were destined for Brazilian and Caribbean sugar plantations where life was brutal and short. Portugal, the Netherlands, and Britain competed for slave-trading dominance; after 1713, Britain became the world’s top merchant of slavery. The African slave trade remained legal in the United States until 1809. In 1853 Brazil became the last New World nation to end slave importation. As European nations carved out New World spheres, colonists dispatched there from home countries soon found themselves faced with both trade opportunities and restrictions. The so-called triangular trade—actually an overlapping series of trade routes connecting Europe, Africa, and the Americas—enriched both colonials and the native lands they had left. For example, the New England colonies became a center of shipbuilding and also sold fi sh, lumber, and grain to sugar plantations. Another trading triangle linked Britain, India, and China. Western demand for Chinese goods, notably porcelain, silks, and tea, and the lack of European goods desired by Chinese consumers, eventually led British entrepreneurs to grow poppy and refi ne it to opium in British-controlled India. The opium was traded to China, where it fed a growing population of addicts. The problem this trade created would lead to war between Britain and China and to growing British and European domination of the failing Qing Empire. Growing British port cities like Bristol and Liverpool, as well as colonial New York and Boston, were awash in formerly exotic and expensive goods, such as tea, silk, and china tableware, once available only to the very wealthiest people. But a series of British Navigation Acts, including the 1750 Iron Act, prohibited Americans from buying goods from other nations or making locally goods that British merchants could more profi tably sell them. At the end of the Seven Years’/French and Indian War in 1763, British colonists in North America became restless when Britain signifi cantly tightened policies that limited internal trade with Indian tribes and with other colonies and nations. Rules that required Americans to buy most products from British companies, while forbidding local manufacturing initiatives, were central issues leading up to the American Revolution. Even after independence was won, the right to trade freely continued to cause confl ict between the new nation and Britain and France, eventually becoming a major cause of the War of 1812. More Resources. In the 19th century the rapidly industrializing nations of Europe and America aggressively sought new raw materials, markets, and trading opportunities around the world. Venetians, Portuguese, Dutch, and British had traditionally traded with the countries of the Pacifi c rim. Trade-driven imperial ventures intensifi ed and also attracted the United States, which by 1848 had expanded to the Pacifi c Ocean’s eastern shore. U.S. whaling ships regularly plied the Pacifi c and required refueling stations in places like Hawaii. In 1853 and 1854 U.S. naval vessels under the command of Commodore Matthew Perry sailed into Edo (Tokyo) Bay using both diplomacy and a display of military might to persuade the Japanese to open their isolationist society to the trading nations. Japan’s embrace of industrial development and its participation in world trade were major results of this initiative. Despite the U.S. Monroe Doctrine’s dreams of dominating the Western Hemisphere, Latin American nations developed strong trade ties to many European powers. Throughout the 19th xxxiv 1750 to 1900 century Britain was a major trading partner, providing textiles and clothing. Britain, France, and Germany were especially signifi cant partners for the southern republics of Chile, Brazil, and Argentina. The United States was more dominant in Central America and northern South America, even before seizing Puerto Rico and Cuba from Spain in 1898’s Spanish-American War. Although Mexico lost territories in the Mexican War with the United States in 1848, it became linked to the U.S. economy by mining, agriculture, and railroads. Mexico maintained strong trade ties with European powers. Such Euro-American ideological imports as socialism, communism, anarchism, and syndicalism found fertile ground among Latin America’s growing working and urban classes. Imperialism had very different consequences in India and Egypt, where Britain held sway. Attempts at local industrialization were discouraged. Instead, these regions were obliged by their colonial masters to provide cheap agricultural products and other raw materials. These policies enriched quasi-private trade groups like the British East India Company and protected European and American manufacturing. During the U.S. Civil War, Egyptian cotton mostly replaced Confederate cotton in French and British textile factories, with long-term consequences for one of the United States’s most successful agricultural commodities. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 further marginalized Ottoman trade power and enhanced European infl uence and trade in the Middle East and Asia. China, the world’s most populous country, was viewed by imperial powers as a vast potential market for all manner of manufactured products. By 1900 European powers and Japan had essentially carved China into spheres of infl uence within which each country hoped to control trade and exploit natural resources. Meanwhile, enterprising traders from China and the Indian subcontinent became important agents of commerce in such regions as South Africa, the Caribbean, Indochina, and the East Indies (later Indonesia). Mohandas K. Gandhi, a London-educated lawyer, spent 20 years in South Africa, fi ghting for rights of this Indian diaspora of traders and workers before shifting his freedom quest to his own colonized nation. Cultural Imperialism. Cultural exchange accompanied growing world trade. To a great extent, Western imperial agents attempted to impose their culture and educational values on people they believed to be backward or inferior. Christian missionaries, some Roman Catholic, but most from Protestant denominations, played an important role in spreading Western culture, even when, as in China and India, they were not successful in making many converts. Among Native tribes in the Americas, and in Hawaii, the Philippines, and some African regions, groups like the YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association) spread the word of God, and, if that failed, the benefi ts of modernization and education. Although the missionaries themselves often returned home with a deeper knowledge of other cultures, it rarely translated into greater respect. “Our little brown brothers” was how Americans defi ned the Filipinos who rose up against Spanish colonialism only to fi nd themselves wards of the United States after the Spanish-American War. Missionaries and government and corporate agents of imperialism did sometimes provide useful training and information. Many Indians (like Gandhi) and a number of Africans received modern English educations in new schools and universities in India or in England. Missionaries made modern schooling available to girls in China and India for the fi rst time. After 1895 thousands of Chinese men and women chose to study in Japan because of that country’s success. Japan’s universal educational system was based on the German model, as was its constitution. Westerners also introduced modern medicine, which contributed to lowering mortality rates. In the 19th century greater wealth and mobility encouraged tourism as well as artistic and intellectual exchanges. Frenchman Alexis de Tocqueville was the most famous of the dozens of curious European observers who visited America to report back on the new nation’s progress. The transatlantic Grand Tour became a rite of passage for young Americans looking for Old World culture. More important, artists who gained fame through such media as newspapers, photography, the telegraph, and the telephone brought their talents to international audiences. Writers and musical and theatrical stars such as British novelist Charles Dickens, Hungarian pianist Franz Liszt, Swedish 1750 to 1900 xxxv soprano Jenny Lind, French actress Sarah Bernhardt, and Australian soprano Nellie Melba performed before enraptured crowds across Europe and America. World’s fairs and expositions became popular in the mid-19th century, beginning with London’s Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace on view in Hyde Park from April to October of 1851. Blending technology and art, powerful machines and homey kitchen tools, 13,000 international displays attracted more than 6 million visitors and trumpeted the achievements of the British Empire and its colonial domains. The Crystal Palace exhibition set a new standard for the promotion of trade and agriculture and inspired similar extravaganzas in Paris, Vienna, Brussels, Barcelona, Melbourne, and cities in the United States. Held in Philadelphia in 1876, America’s Centennial Exposition highlighted the nation’s manufacturing power and, indirectly, its recovery from the recent Civil War. A 40-foot Corliss steam engine, the world’s largest, powered the entire exhibition; Alexander Graham Bell introduced his new telephone to fairgoers from around the world, including the French sculptor who was in the process of crafting the Statue of Liberty. At France’s 1889 exposition in Paris, commemorating the French Revolution, the Eiffel Tower was unveiled. “Exotic” natives of colonized countries, like Samoa, or natives set apart within their own countries, like American Indians, were displayed at various fairs as examples of the progress Western civilization had made in manufacturing, trade, and culture and was now bringing to the world’s “backward” peoples.
Improvements in weapons technology, fueled by the Industrial Revolution, helped make warfare in the late 18th and 19th centuries more deadly and sophisticated. Civilians were drawn into wars more deeply than before, both as targets of enemy forces and as conscripts bound to military service. As traditional military powers, including the Ottoman Empire and China, lagged, Western nations expanded their global imperialistic aims. Although most of this period’s wars pitted nation against nation, warfare against internal foes, including America’s indigenous people and nomadic peoples and rebels in China, was also widespread. Weaponry Trends. Although the ballistics revolution did not fundamentally change the tools of Western warfare, it signifi cantly improved their effectiveness. Guns, artillery, and warships continued to be the basic components of combat, but all benefi ted from innovations linked to the developing sciences of engineering, physics, and chemistry. Smoothbore muskets began to give way to rifl ed guns that permitted much greater accuracy and impact. Cannons with rifl ed interiors and shapes that took account of air resistance could propel their payloads farther more precisely. As steam power replaced sails, and steel hulls replaced wooden ones, warships became stronger, faster, and more dependable. The development of interchangeable components by American Eli Whitney and others made it easier for even inexperienced soldiers to set up, load, fi re, and repair both cannons and guns. Gunpowder, invented much earlier in China, was also reengineered for greater force and reliability. Manpower Trends. Wars became bigger in the 18th and 19th centuries, partly because of new military and political systems for conscripting huge numbers of soldiers and supplying their battlefi eld needs. In the process, the use of cavalry—soldiers on horseback—began to wane, while the use of infantry—men on foot—expanded, as did women’s roles in supporting troops with laundry, food preparation, medical aid, and weapons repair and service. During the Crimean War, Englishwoman Florence Nightingale helped pioneer a new standard for nursing injured soldiers. Slowly, battlefi eld improvements in medical care (including anesthesia) and food safety would help reduce military casualties from causes not directly related to combat. By 1750 the feudal concept that vassals were obliged to fi ght for the interests of their overlords was already in decline, even though the British Royal Navy for many years continued to use impressment to force citizens and colonials into naval service, when volunteers fell short. In the American colonies, especially Massachusetts Bay, men aged 16 to 60 were required to join local militias during times of threat, usually from Native tribes. In the American Revolution, these milixxxvi 1750 to 1900 tias played a vital role in repulsing attacks in their home territories, even as George Washington, leader of the new Continental army, struggled to fi nd and keep volunteers. Meanwhile, Britain paid millions for the fi ghting services of 23,000 Hessians, mercenary soldiers essentially purchased from the landgrave (lord) of the German principality of Hesse-Kassel. The idea of mandatory service of limited duration grew in the 19th century. Conscription was represented as an opportunity for patriotic male citizens to respond to national threats, service that might be sweetened by sign-up and retention bonuses. If neither of these worked, threats of punishment for draft dodging and desertion were invoked. Revolutionary France was among the fi rst nations to impose a draft; later, Emperor Napoleon I used conscription as well as volunteers to fi eld some of the largest armies in history. Prussian military success in the 19th century also depended heavily on the conscription of citizen-soldiers. During the U.S. Civil War, both the Confederacy and the Union adopted draft laws, which the United States had rejected in its past wars. These were extremely unpopular, in part because wealthy men could buy exemptions from service. An 1863 antidraft riot in New York City raged for days, destroying property and causing more than 100 deaths. The increased size and changing composition of armies required offi cers and professional soldiers to create new methods of training, disciplining, supplying, and deploying their inexperienced forces. Once traditional military practices, such as marching in tight formations and retiring to quarters during the winter, gradually declined in this period, while more fl exible tactics, some of them modeled on the methods of guerrillas and tribal peoples, began to infl ect wars conducted by major national powers. 150 Years of Warfare. Four overlapping themes run through the warfare of this era. From 1754 to 1815 a series of wars to determine the future of North America altered the international balance of power. Revolutionary upheaval in France after 1789, followed by Emperor Napoleon’s military ambitions and his ultimate defeat in 1815, reshaped Europe. Civil wars throughout this period tested political and social order. Near the end of the 19th century, a European (and American) scramble for non-Western colonies touched off wars of imperialism. By 1900 the overall outcome seemed to assure the triumph of Western domination in Asia, Africa, and Oceania, as well as the pacifi cation of minority and ethnic groups that had defi ed or ignored nationalist agendas. Some historians have dubbed as a “Sixty Years’ War” the period of confl ict that began with 1754’s hostile encounter between Virginians seeking Ohio lands and French troops protecting France’s claims in North America. It ended with U.S. general Andrew Jackson’s victory over British troops at New Orleans weeks after the Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812. At stake was the future of North America, which for centuries had been a colonial possession of various European powers. When this 60-year period ended, U.S. independence was secured, and Canada’s continuing connection to the British Empire reaffi rmed. The French, who lost Québec in the French and Indian War, Haiti in an uprising begun in 1791, and sold Louisiana to the Americans in 1803, were no longer signifi cant in North America. Spain had lost all but a tiny remnant of its once-huge empire in both North and South America. North America’s Native peoples now found themselves and their lands major targets of expansionism. Napoleon’s voluntary exit from the Louisiana Territory was part of his plan to consolidate French power in Europe. In well-planned and executed battles against forces that included Britons, Austrians, Italians, Russians, and Prussians, Napoleon for a time seemed to be able to control much of Europe. But overextension and the severe Russian winter forced Napoleon’s troops to withdraw from Moscow in 1812; within two years, European forces, with crucial help from Britain’s dominant Royal Navy, had sent Napoleon into exile on an isolated Atlantic island. Between 1815 and the 1870s numerous civil confl icts created serious problems for some nations, and opportunities for others. After Napoleon’s defeat, uprisings broke out in Greece, the Italian states, Spain, and France, while militarily stronger European nations, including Austria and Russia, tried to take advantage. In China, the religiously inspired Taiping Rebellion against Manchu rule raged for 14 years, weakening China and helping Western imperialist powers to further weaken it in 1750 to 1900 xxxvii later decades. Elsewhere in the 1850s and 1860s Italian nationalism culminated in the unifi cation of Italy. Semiautonomous German states unifi ed to form a single German nation, spearheaded by Prussia. These unifi cations did not occur without confl ict from both internal and external opponents. The U.S. Civil War of 1861–65 pitted 11 seceding southern slave states against the rest of the nation. It was a total war in which more than 1 million Americans died; it also offered some tantalizing opportunities to U.S. rivals. Both Britain and France considered diplomatic recognition of the Confederacy, hoping thereby to dilute the United States’s growing industrial and political power, but were dissuaded by clear evidence that the Union was likely to prevail. Nevertheless, France, under Louis- Napoleon Bonaparte, used America’s distraction to try to gain control of Mexico. That plan failed. Prior to about 1830 many non-Western powers successfully held their own against European incursions. Even the Indian subcontinent, where Britain had established trading rights as early as 1619, did not come fully under British control until the 1850s. Some Western states collaborated with some Asian and African states by selling them superior weaponry. For example, the French helped Egypt build a modern naval fl eet. Persian leaders and the Ottoman sultans hired Westerners to train their armies. The Japanese, watching with alarm as Western navies encroached on the Pacifi c, began in the 1860s, with some help from Germany, France, and Britain, to modernize their military forces and upgrade their weaponry. These steps would help Japan escape the fate soon to befall China and make Japan an Asian imperial power. By the 1880s European competition for colonial control was at its height. In the United States, a century-long effort to “pacify” Native Americans had almost reached its goal of restricting the remaining tribes’ landholdings and occupations. Britain, with its unrivaled naval power, gained dominance in Egypt and China. The British also asserted control over great swaths of Africa, defeating the Zulus and the white Dutch-descended settlers in South Africa called the Boers, in the Boer War that began in 1899. French imperial activity focused on North Africa and the Southeast Asian region that came to be known as Indochina. Germany, Italy, and Belgium also competed for colonial opportunities in Africa. Russia was especially successful in Asia, conquering the Muslim khanates in Central Asia and acquiring lands formerly under the Qing Empire on the Pacifi c coast. With its four-month Spanish-American War in 1898, the United States acquired Spain’s remaining American colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico and the Philippines in Asia, joining Europeans in the imperial land rush by claiming new territory beyond its own borders. Sixteen years later, the rivalries the new colonialism had provoked among the great imperial powers and the seething millions they claimed the right to control would trigger the greatest war in world history to that point.
Volume V - Crisis and Achievement - 1900 to 1950 Edit
List of ArticlesEdit
Afrikaners, South Africa
Aguinaldo y Famy, Emilio
All-India Muslim League
Ambedkar, Bhim Rao
anarchist movements in Europe and America
anti-Communist encirclement campaigns in China (1930–1934)
Arab-Israeli War (1948)
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire
art and architecture (1900–1950)
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal
Australia and New Zealand
B Balfour Declaration Balkan Wars (1912–1913) Bao Dai Batista, Fulgencio Batlle, José Ben-Gurion, David Black Dragon and Japanese ultranationalist societies Boer War Bonhoeffer, Dietrich Bonus Army Bose, Subhas Chandra Boxer Rebellion Brandeis, Louis D. British mandate in Palestine Bryan, William Jennings C Cairo Conference (1921) Cairo Conference (1943) Calles, Plutarco Cárdenas, Lázaro Carranza, Venustiano Casely Hayford, Joseph Ephraim Chennault, Claire Lee ix Chiang Kai-shek Chinese Civil War (1946–1949) Chinese Communist Party (1921–1949) Churchill, Winston Clemenceau, Georges Comintern Communist Party, U.S. Communist Party of Indochina Cristero revolt Cunha, Euclides da D D-day Debs, Eugene V. Diagne, Blaise dollar diplomacy DuBois, W. E. B. dust bowl E Edison, Thomas Egyptian revolution (1919) Einstein, Albert El Alamein El Salvador/La Matanza Ellis Island environmentalism/conserving nature Espionage and Sedition Acts Estrada Cabrera, Manuel Ethiopia (Abyssinia) and Italian aggression eugenics existentialism expatriates, U.S. F fascism Federal Reserve banking system, U.S. Flint sit-down strike (1936–1937) Flores Magón, Ricardo Ford, Henry Franco, Francisco French mandate in Syria and Lebanon French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française) Freud, Sigmund Freyre, Gilberto G Galveston fl ood Gandhi, Mohandas K. Garvey, Marcus Geneva Conventions Giichi, Tanaka Gold Coast (Ghana) Goldman, Emma Gómez, Juan Vicente Gompers, Samuel Good Neighbor Policy (1933–1945) Great Depression, worldwide Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere great migrations (1900–1950) H Haganah Haitian massacre (1937) Harlem Renaissance Hashemite dynasty in Iraq Hashemite monarchy in Jordan (1914–1953) Hatta, Muhammad Haya de la Torre, Víctor Raúl Hirohito Hiroshima and Nagasaki Hitler, Adolf Holocaust, the Hoover, Herbert House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) Hu Hanmin (Hu Han-Min) Hu Shi (Hu Shih) Huerta, Victoriano I Ibn Saud, Abd al-Aziz India Act (1935) India Act, Government of (1919) India Councils Act of 1909 (Morley-Minto Reforms) Indian National Congress (1885–1947) Indian Reorganization Act, U.S. Industrial Workers of the World infl uenza pandemic (1918) International Court of Justice (ICJ) Iran-Soviet relations Iraqi rebellion (1920) Irish independence isolationism, U.S. J Japan, U.S. occupation of Japanese constitution (1947) Japanese internment Jinnah, Mohammad Ali x List of Articles K Karakhan Declaration, fi rst and second Kato Takaaki Kei Hara Kenseikai, later Minseito, and Seiyukai Parties Kerensky, Alexander Fyodorovich Khilafat movement Kikuyu Central Association King Crane Commission (1919) Kitchener, Horatio Herbert Konoe Fumimaro Ku Klux Klan Kwantung Army L LaFollette, Robert M. Lansing-Ishii Agreement (1917) Lateran Treaty (1929) Latin American cinema Latin American feminism and women’s suffrage Latin American import substitution Latin American indigenismo Latin American modernism Latin American nationalism Latin American populism Latin American U.S. interventions Laurier, Wilfrid Lawrence, T. E. League of Nations Lebanese independence and the Confessional System Lenin, Vladimir Lewis, John L. Lindbergh, Charles literature Lloyd George, David Locarno agreements (1925) Long, Huey Long March Lugard, Frederick, baron of Abinger Lutz, Bertha Luxemburg, Rosa Lyautey, Louis-Hubert Lytton Commission and report M MacArthur, Douglas Macaulay, Herbert Madero, Francisco Maginot line Manchurian incident and Manchukuo Manhattan Project Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) March on Rome Marco Polo Bridge incident Mariátegui, José Carlos Marshall in China (1945–1947) Martí, Agustín Farabundo Masaryk, Tomáš Garrigue May Fourth Movement/intellectual revolution Mexican constitution (1917) Mexican Revolution (1910–1920) Mitsui and Mitsubishi, Houses of Mongolian People’s Republic Moroccan crises motion picture industry muckraking Mukhtar, Omar Munich Pact Muslim Brotherhood Mussolini, Benito N NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Naidu, Sarojini National Congress of British West Africa Nationalist Party of Indonesia nativism, U.S. Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers’ Party) négritude Nehru, Motilal New Deal, U.S. New Economic Policy, Soviet Union Nigerian National Democratic Party Northern Expedition Nuremberg laws Nuremberg Trials Nyasaland (Malawi) O Obregón, Álvaro oil industry in the Middle East Olympic Games Open Door policy Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele Orozco, Pascual P Pahlavi dynasty and Shah Reza Khan Pakistan resolution Pan-Africanism List of Articles xi Panama Canal Pankhursts Paris Peace Conference and Treaties (1919–1920, 1923) Pearl Harbor Pentecostalism phenomenology Philippines, U.S. occupation of the Platt Amendment Porfi riato Portsmouth, Treaty of (1905) Prestes, Luís Carlos progressivism, U.S. Prohibition (North America) Q Quezon, Manuel R racial segregation and race riots, U.S. Ralaimongo, Jean rape of Nanjing (Nanking), the Red Scare (1920) reparations, World War I Rhodesia, Northern and Southern (pre-1950) Rif rebellion Rommel, Erwin Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Round Table Conferences Russian Revolution (1905) Russian Revolution and Civil War (1917–1924) S Sacco-Vanzetti trial Saionji Kimmochi Salazar, António de Oliveira San Remo Treaty (1920) Sandino, Augusto C. Sarekat Islam Schlieffen Plan Scopes trial Scottsboro Boys SEASIA (Southeast Asia) Selassie, Haile Senghor, Leopold Sédar Shandong (Shantung) Question (1919) Shaarawi, Huda Sherif Husayn–McMahon correspondence Shidehara Kijuro Sino-Japanese War Smith, Alfred E. Smuts, Jan Christiaan Somaliland Somoza García, Anastasio South African Native National Congress (pre-1950) Soviet Five-Year Plans Soviet purges Soviet society: social and cultural developments Spanish civil war SS (Schutzstaffel) Stalin, Joseph Stalingrad, Battle of (1942–1943) Stilwell mission Sudan under British rule (1900–1950) Sun Yat-sen Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916) T Taisho Tanganyika Tenente rebellion (1924) Tojo Hideki Tokyo International Court Trans-Siberian Railway Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (1911) Trotsky, Leon Trujillo, Rafael Truman, Harry S. Tunisia Turkey Twenty-one Demands (1915) Tydings-McDuffi e Act (1934) U Ubico y Castañeda, Jorge Union of South Africa United Auto Workers United Front, fi rst (1923–1927) and second (1937–1941) United Fruit Company urbanization V Valera, Éamon de Vargas, Getúlio Vasconcelos, José Vichy France Villa, Francisco “Pancho” xii List of Articles W Wafd Party (Egypt) Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei) warlord era in China (1916–1927) Washington Conference and Treaties (1921–1922) Weimar Republic Weizmann, Chaim Wilson, Woodrow women’s suffrage and rights World War I World War II X Xi’an (Sian) incident (1936) Y Yalta Conference (1945) Yamagata Aritomo Yan’an (Yenan) period of the Chinese Communist Party Young Turks Yuan Shikai (Yuan Shih-k’ai) Z Zaghlul, Sa’d Zapata, Emiliano Zelaya, José Santos Zhu De (Chu Teh) Zionism
List of MapsEdit
European Overseas Empires, 1900 M129 The British in South Asia, c.1900 M130 The U.S. and Latin America, 1900–1935 M131 Partition of China, 1895–1914 M132 Russo-Japanese War, 1904–1905 M133 The Canadian Confederation, 1905 M134 Growth of Russia, 1904–1955 M135 Urbanization of Europe, 1910 M136 The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913 M137 Colonialism in Africa, 1914 M138 Foreign Possessions in Asia, 1914 M139 Europe before World War I, 1914 M140 Europe at War, 1914–1918 M141 Russian Revolution and Civil War M142 Middle East after World War I, c.1920 M143 Europe after World War I, 1919 M144 Breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Following World War I M145 Colonialism in Africa, 1924 M146 British Empire, 1930 M147 America during the Great Depression M148 Communists in China, 1934–1949 M149 Growth of the Japanese Empire, 1931–41 M150 Expansion of Nazi Germany, 1933–1939 M151 Fascist Europe, 1942 M152 Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939 M153 World War II in Europe and the Middle East, 1939–1945 M154 World War II—Pacifi c Theater, 1941–1945 M155 The Holocaust in Europe M156 Partition of India, 1947–1949 M157 Palestine and Israel after 1948–1949 War M158 Post–World War II Occupation Zones of Germany M159 Europe after World War II, 1949 M160
1900 Boxer Rebellion The Boxers, wh o are Chinese nationalists, stage a revolt that pushes the imperial government to demand the removal of all foreigners from China. The foreigners refuse and have troops sent in to impose their will. 1900 The Boer War The Boer War is fought between Great Britain, the Boers of Transvaal (South Africa), and the nearby Orange Free State. 1901 Australia Is Created By an act of the British parliament, the Commonwealth of Australia, a federation of six self-governing colonies, comes into being. 1901 McKinley Is Assassinated While attending the Pan-American Exposition, U.S. president William McKinley is shot and killed by an anarchist. 1901 Trans-Siberian Railroad Is Completed The Russians complete the Trans-Siberian Railroad from Moscow to Port Arthur. The railroad opens large-scale access to Siberia. 1902 Anglo-Japanese Treaty On January 30 Japan and Great Britain sign a treaty of military alliance. The treaty provisions state that if either country is attacked by another country, the cosignatory will maintain a state of benevolent neutrality. 1902 South African Peace Agreement On May 31 the Boers and the British sign the Peace of Vereeniging, ending the Boer War. 1903 King and Queen of Serbia Are Murdered Alexander I Obrenovich and his wife, Draga Mashin, are assassinated in the Royal Palace in Belgrade by dissident Serbian Army offi cers. 1903 Russian Socialist Party Splits At a meeting in London, the Russian Socialist Democratic Labor Party splits between the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. 1903 Turks Massacre Bulgarians Thousands of Bulgarian men, women, and children are killed by Ottoman Turkish troops. At the time of the attack, the Turks are in the process of suppressing a rebellion in Macedonia. xix 1903 British Conquer Northern Nigeria The British capture the mud-walled city of Kano in northern Nigeria on February 3. Once Kano falls, the leaders of the various tribes of northern Nigeria agree to indirect British control. 1903 Ford’s First Model A Henry Ford begins selling the Model A automobile for $850. 1903 Panama Independent from Colombia A revolution led by Philippe Jean Bunau-Varilla, an organizer of the Panama Canal Company, declares Panama independent from Colombia. U.S. naval forces prevent the Colombians from suppressing the revolt. 1903 First Messages Are Sent over Pacifi c Cable U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt sends the fi rst message across the Pacifi c Cable. The message connects San Francisco and Manila. 1903 “Wright Flyer” Flies On December 17 the fi rst fl ight in a heavier-than-air vehicle occurrs in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. 1904–05 Russo-Japanese War The Japanese defeat the Russian fl eet and land forces in this war, which is the fi rst modern victory of an Asian power over a European power. 1904 Entente Cordiale Is Signed France and Great Britain reach an agreement that resolves all the major differences between them. This becomes the basis of the alliance among France, Russia, and Great Britain during World War I. 1904 British Forces Reach Tibet Great Britain forces the Tibetans to agree to a series of commercial agreements for the purpose of opening up Tibet to British trade. 1904 Germans Put Down Revolt in Southwest Africa On January 11 a revolt by native Africans is initiated against the German colonization of South-West Africa. The Germans ruthlessly put down the revolt. 1904 Treaty between Bolivia and Chile From 1879 to 1884, the War of the Pacifi c has taken place between Chile and Bolivia. The war ends in a truce. In 1904, a full treaty is signed. 1905 Revolt in Russia On January 22 the fi rst Russian Revolution breaks out and is put down. 1905 Sun Yat-sen Founds the United League Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Chinese Revolution, issues the San-min Chu, or the Three Principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and livelihood. He advocates overthrow of the Manchu dynasty and the establishment of a republic. 1905 First Moroccan Crisis A crisis develops between France and Germany over who should have rights in Morocco. War is feared, but it is avoided. 1905 Theory of Relativity Is Published Albert Einstein, who at the time is a German physicist living in Switzerland, publishes the theory of relativity. 1905 Russo-Japanese Treaty of Portsmouth U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt acts as the mediator in peace talks between the Russians and the Japanese to conclude the Russo-Japanese War, which Japan had won. 1906 Reform in Russia On May 6 Czar Nicholas II announces the implementation of the Fundamental Laws. 1906 Dreyfus Affair Ends The Dreyfus affair in France ends when the French court of appeals exonerates Alfred Dreyfus. The affair contributes to the decision to separate church and state in France. 1906 All-India Muslim League The Muslims of India found the All-India Muslim League. The league’s goal is to lobby for constitutional reform and protect Muslim rights. 1906 France Gains Control of Morocco After a long conference in Algeçiras to determine the future of Morocco, it is agreed that the French would have special responsibility for restoring order along the Algerian-Moroccan border. 1906 San Francisco Earthquake The most disastrous earthquake in America’s history hits San Francisco on April 18. xx Chronology 1906 U.S. Troops Occupy Cuba After a revolt breaks out in Cuba, the Cuban leader, Tomas Estrada Palama, asks the United States to intervene. 1907 Peace Conference at the Hague At the behest of President Theodore Roosevelt, leaders of all major nations meet at The Hague (Netherlands). The major issue for discussion is the attempt to reach an arms limitation agreement. 1907 New Zealand Becomes a Dominion New Zealand is granted dominion status in the British Empire and Commonwealth, uniting two self-governing colonies. 1907 Passive Resistance in the Transvaal The autonomous government of Transvaal announces a policy that requires registration and fi ngerprinting of all Asians. In response 10,000 Indian residents passively protest. 1907 French Warships Bombard Casablanca In response to the killing of nine European workers in Casablanca, French warships bombard the city on August 2. 1907 Gentlemen’s Agreement Under the Gentlemen’s Agreement, the Japanese agree to withhold passports from laborers intending to migrate to the United States. In return, the United States agrees formally not to limit Japanese immigration. 1908 Union of South Africa Is Founded On May 31 the Union of South Africa is established, a federation of four self-governing colonies in the British Empire and Commonwealth. 1908 Austria Annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina Austria unilaterally announces the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, two former Ottoman provinces. 1908 Young Turks Revolt The Turkish sultan Abdul-Hamid II is forced to accede to the demands of the Young Turks, a group of army offi cers who demand that constitutional rule be restored in Turkey. 1908 King Carlos and Crown Prince Are Assassinated Assassins kill King Carlos of Portugal, as well as his son and heir, Prince Luis Filipe. 1908 Bulgaria Declares Independence The Bulgarian Principality declares its complete independence from the Ottoman Empire. 1908 Congo Free State Becomes Belgian Congo The Congo Free State, which had been the private property of Belgian king Leopold II, becomes an offi - cial Belgian colony. 1908 First True Skyscraper Is Built In 1908 the Singer Building, in Lower Manhattan, is completed. It is the fi rst true skyscraper, reaching 47 stories. 1909 Sultan Abdul Hamid Is Deposed The Ottoman sultan Abdul Hamid II is ousted by a unanimous vote of the Turkish parliament. 1909 Revolution in Persia Revolution breaks out in Persia when the shah, Muhammad Ali, seeks to destroy the constitutional monarchy that he himself had created. 1910 Revolution in Portugal After the assassination of a prominent republican leader, a revolt breaks out against the monarchy. 1910 Japan Annexes Korea On August 22 Japan offi cially annexes Korea. It renames the country Cho-sen, and continues the occupation until the end of World War II. 1911 Tripolitan War Italy declares war on the Ottoman Empire in September in order to acquire its possession, Libya, in North Africa. 1911 Revolution in China On October 10 a revolution breaks out against the Manchu government, the central government collapses, and Sun Yat-sen becomes president of the Chinese Republic. 1912 First Balkan War Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria declare war against Turkey and quickly overrun all Turkish holdings in Europe. 1912 Sun Yat-sen Resigns as President of China In an effort to unify the country, Sun Yat-sen resigns to allow Yuan Shikai to become president of China. Chronology xxi 1912 Italy Annexes Libya The Italian-Turkish War is brought to an end by the Treaty of Ouchy, which gives Libya to Italy, though the Libyans continue to rebel against Italian domination. 1912 U.S. Marines Intervene in Nicaragua On August 14 American marines land in Nicaragua to protect American interests from a popular local revolt. 1913 Senators Elected Directly in the United States The Seventeenth Amendment is ratified, providing for the direct election of senators. 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand Is Assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro- Hungarian Empire, and his wife are assassinated in Sarajevo in Bosnia. 1914 Austria-Hungary Declares War on Serbia In the aftermath of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Austria declares war on Serbia, thus beginning World War I. 1914 Germany Declares War When the Russians come to the defense of the Serbs, the Germans declare war to defend their Austrian allies. 1914 Germany Invades Belgium When Germany invades Belgium, a neutral country, to attack France, an ally of Russia, it provokes Great Britain to declare war on Germany. 1914 Japan Declares War on Germany On August 15, Japan, an ally of Great Britain and Austria-Hungary, issues Germany an ultimatum demanding that the German fleet be withdrawn from the Far East. When they do not receive an answer, Japan declares war against Germany. 1914 Panama Canal Opens After 10 years of work, and at a cost of $366 million, the Panama Canal is completed. 1914 Battle of Mons The Battle of Mons is a series of battles that take place around the River Marne. It lasts seven days, with the result that the British and French break the German advance. 1914 First Battle of Ypres The battle lasts almost four weeks against the German army, and as a result the Allied lines hold. 1915 Second Battle of Ypres The Allies’ major counteroffensive is stopped by the German use of chlorine gas. 1915 Lusitania Sinks Some 128 American citizens are among the 1,200 passengers of the Lusitania, torpedoed by a German submarine. 1915 Battle of the Somme The British launch a major attack against the Germans, using gas for the first time. On the first day of the battle, the British lose 50,000 soldiers. The battle lasts from July 1 until November 8, and the Allies succeed in recapturing a total of 125 square miles of land. 1916 Battle of Verdun The battle between French and German forces begins in February and lasts until June. The French lose an estimated 350,000 troops in the battle. 1916 U.S. Troops Intervene in Dominican Republic After continued armed revolts, U.S. officials declare martial law in the Dominican Republic. 1916 Easter Uprising in Ireland An uprising in Dublin begins when Irish nationalists seize post offices and other installations. 1917 Allenby Takes Jerusalem British general Allenby attacks the Ottomans in Palestine. The high point in the British assault is the capture of Jerusalem in December. 1917 Russian Revolution The February Revolution begins as a series of riots protesting food shortages and the Russian suffering in World War I. Czar Nicholas II is forced to abdicate. 1917 Bolshevik Revolution On November 6, the Bolsheviks, led by the Military Revolutionary Committee, capture most of the government offices and storm the Winter Palace, overthrowing the provisional government. 1917 United States Enters World War I On April 6 the United States declares war against the xxii Chronology Central Powers (Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria). The vote is 90 to 6 in the Senate and 373 to 50 in the House. 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk A treaty is signed between the Central Powers and the Soviet government of Russia. 1918 Battle of the Marne The Battle of the Marne is a massive attempt by Germany to break through on the western front before American forces could arrive in large numbers. 1918 Battle of Argonne Forest On September 26, Allied troops begin the offensive. The German high command warns that it could no longer ensure victory, and as the German army begins mutinying, it sues for peace. 1918 Poland Declares Independence Poland declares its independence as a nation on October 6, 1918. 1918 United States and Allies Intervene in Russia The United States takes a limited role in the international force that intervenes in the Russian Civil War. 1918 Czechoslovakia Declares Independence The Prague National Council declares Czechoslovakia independent from Austria-Hungary on October 28, 1918. 1918 Armistice Is Signed in Europe On November 11, an armistice is signed, bringing World War I in Europe to a conclusion. 1919 Versailles Peace Conference On June 29, 1919, the Treaty of Versailles is signed, offi cially ending World War I. 1919 Amritsar Massacre in India On April 13 British general Reginald Dyer orders his troops to open fi re on demonstrators at Amritsar in the Punjab of India; 379 people are killed, and nearly 1,200 are wounded. 1919 Anglo-Afghan War Afghan ruler Amanullah Khan proclaims a religious war against the British and calls on the Muslim subjects of India to rise up. He leads a failed smallscale invasion of India. As a result Britain recognizes Afghan independence. 1920 Ireland Is Granted Home Rule The British parliament passes the Government Act. The act calls for the creation of separate parliaments in Northern and Southern Ireland. 1920 Gandhi Leads Indian Independence Mohandas Gandhi begins a nationwide speaking campaign to enlist support for the nonviolent, noncooperation movement against Great Britain. 1920 Palestine Becomes British Mandate Under terms agreed to at the Paris Peace Conference, the British government is given the mandate for Palestine, TransJordan, and Iraq. 1920 Syria and Lebanon Become French Mandate The Syrian National Congress declares its complete independence. The League of Nations wartime Anglo- French agreements offi cially confi rm the land of the French mandate, and French forces take Damascus by force. 1920 Prohibition Begins in the United States The Senate and House override the veto of President Woodrow Wilson and enact into law a bill outlawing the production, sale, and transportation of all forms of liquor. 1920 Participation by the United States in League of Nations Is Rejected On November 19 the U.S. Senate votes 53 to 38 against supporting the League of Nations. 1920 Women’s Suffrage in the United States With the ratifi cation of the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, women gain the right to vote. 1921 Modern Turkey Is Founded On January 20 Turk nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) adopt a set of fundamental laws that becomes the foundation of the modern state of Turkey. These laws provide for the sovereignty of the people, a parliament elected by male suffrage, and a president with extensive powers. 1921 Reza Khan Becomes Ruler of Persia Reza Khan arrives in Tehran on February 22, commanding an army of 4,000 troops. His forces topple Chronology xxiii the government, and he becomes the new leader of Persia, later named Iran. 1921 Faisal Becomes King of Iraq In June 1921, Emir Faisal, formerly the king of Syria, arrives in Iraq with British support. Faisal is soon proclaimed king of Iraq. He remains on the Iraqi throne until 1933. 1921 Washington Naval Conference The United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy meet and agree to a treaty limiting the size of their respective navies. 1922 Irish Free State Is Established An agreement is reached that provides for an independent Ireland, having the status of dominion within the British Empire. 1922 Mussolini Seizes Power in Italy As a result of large-scale demonstrations by his supporters King Victor Emmanuel III appoints Fascist leader Benito Mussolini prime minister and gives him dictatorial powers in an effort to restore order. 1922 British Give Egypt Limited Independence The British government unilaterally terminates its protectorate of Egypt but retains British troops in the country. 1923 France Occupies the Ruhr France announces on January 9 that the Germans are in default on their coal deliveries under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. On January 11, the French occupy the Ruhr district of Germany in order to force the German government into compliance. 1923 Munich Beer Hall Putsch Adolf Hitler, together with General Erich Ludendorff, attempt to overthrow the German government of the Weimar Republic. The putsch is suppressed by the government. 1923 TransJordan Is Established as a Separate Country Britain separates TransJordan from the mandate of Palestine and installs Emir Abdullah as the titular ruler. 1924 Mongolian People’s Government Is Established With the support of the Soviet Union, the Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Government is established. It becomes the fi rst Soviet satellite state. 1924 Lenin Dies The death of Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik Revolution and the Soviet Union, starts a power struggle between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky. 1924 Ibn Saud Takes Mecca Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud undertakes a campaign to unify Saudi Arabia. In October Ibn Saud captures Mecca, thereby coming close to achieving his goal. 1926 Trotsky Is Ousted Joseph Stalin wins his battle for control of the Soviet Union by ousting Leon Trotsky from the Communist Party in 1926. Trotsky is assassinated while in exile in Mexico. 1927 Chiang Kai-shek Breaks with Communists Chiang, leader of the Chinese Nationalists after the death of Sun Yat-sen, initially continues to cooperate with the Russian and Chinese Communists. In 1927, ending the alliance, Chiang sets up a separate government and turns against them. 1927 Lindbergh Crosses the Atlantic On May 27 Charles Lindbergh arrives in Paris after completing the fi rst solo nonstop fl ight between New York and Paris. 1928 First Five-Year Plan The Soviet Union launches an ambitious fi ve-year plan for economic growth under the Marxist model. 1928 Warlord Era Ends The Chinese Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek, capture Peking (Beijing), ending the Warlord era. 1928 Kellogg-Brand Pact The Kellogg-Brand Pact, started as a bilateral French- American accord, is expanded to include 62 nations. Its goal is to outlaw war. 1929 Stalin Enforces Collectivization Joseph Stalin begins a policy of forced collectivization of farms. Small farmers are forced off their land and onto collectives. 1929 Settlement of Tacna Arica Question Chile and Peru settle a longstanding border dispute. xxiv Chronology Under terms of the agreement, Chile is awarded Arica, and Peru is awarded Tacna. 1929 Stock Market Crash Between October 29, on what becomes known as “Black Tuesday,” and November 13, the U.S. stock market loses a total of 40 percent of its value. The stock market crash is the fi rst major event of the Great Depression. 1930 Nazis Win 107 Seats in Parliament The Nazi Party wins 107 seats in the election for the German Reichstag, later home of the German parliament. 1930 London Naval Accord Great Britain, the United States, and Japan sign a naval pact limiting the number of capital (major) ships. 1930 Chiang Kai-shek Attacks Communists Chiang Kai-shek begins the fi rst of fi ve military campaigns against the rebelling Chinese Communists. 1930 Peruvian President Is Ousted A rebellion breaks out in southern Peru in August. As a result, Peruvian president Ausgusto Leguioa is forced to resign. 1930 Revolt in Brazil After Conservative Julio Prestes is elected president, a revolt breaks out in the southern provinces. 1931 Japan Attacks Manchuria In violation of all its treaty obligations, Japan begins the occupation of Manchuria, a region in northeastern China, on September 18. This is the fi rst step toward World War II in Asia. 1932 Coup d’État Ends Absolute Monarchy in Siam The army stages a coup d’état in Siam (named Thailand) that ends the absolute powers of the monarchy. 1932 Japan Attacks Shanghai The Japanese continue their assault on China by attacking Shanghai but are forced to withdraw due to Chinese resistance and international mediation. 1932 War between Peru and Colombia Breaks Out Peruvians seize the Amazon border town of Leticia. This action sparks a two-year war that ends when the League of Nations restores the area to Colombian control in 1933. 1933 Hitler Becomes Chancellor of Germany Adolf Hitler becomes the chancellor (prime minister) of Germany after his Nazi Party forms a coalition with a centrist party. It is his fi rst step toward dictatorial powers. 1933 Dachau Concentration Camp Is Established The Nazis round up all potential adversaries, arresting tens of thousands of opponents and Jews. There is no place to put them in jail, so the fi rst of many concentration camps is opened. 1933 New Deal Begins The inauguration of Franklin Roosevelt as president brings with it the New Deal, which sees the creation of a multitude of government agencies and activities to combat the Great Depression in the United States. 1933 Prohibition Is Repealed One of the fi rst acts of the Roosevelt administration is the repeal of Prohibition. 1933 Western Hemisphere Agreement The nations of the Western Hemisphere enter into an agreement in which they renounce aggression. 1934 King of Yugoslavia Is Assassinated King Alexander of Yugoslavia arrives in France for a state visit on October 9. While traveling in a motorcade with French foreign minister Louis Barthou, both are killed by a Croatian assassin. 1934 Unrest in Austria, Dollfuss Is Assassinated The Nazi Party of Austria, abetted by the German Nazi Party, attempts to stage a coup in Austria. They take over the chancellery in Vienna and kill Austrian chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, but the coup fails. 1934 Stalin Begins Purges Sergei Kirov, a close associate of Joseph Stalin, is assassinated. This prompts Stalin to institute a great purge throughout the Soviet Union. 1934 Mao Sets off on Long March Continued victories by the Kuomintang Army under Chiang Kai-shek compell the Chinese Communist forces under Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) to fl ee in what becomes known as the Long March. Chronology xxv 1935 Germany Rejects Versailles Treaty Adolf Hitler announces on March 16 that he is abrogating those portions of the Versailles Treaty that limit the size and weapons of the German armed forces. 1935 Government of India Act The British parliament passes the Government of India Act. Under its terms, Burma and Aden are separated from India, and India and Burma are given greater measures of self-government. 1935 Commonwealth of Philippines Is Declared The Filipinos approve a new constitution, passed by the U.S. Congress, under which they are granted independence as a commonwealth. 1935 WPA Is Created The largest U.S. employment agency is created under President Franklin Roosevelt with the enactment of the Works Progress Administration. 1936 Italy Invades Ethiopia The League of Nations censures Italy for aggression in Ethiopia but fails to take measures to prevent the country’s conquest by Italy. 1936 Spanish Civil War Breaks Out The Spanish army, led by General Francisco Franco, begins a revolt against the democratic government of the Spanish Republic. 1936 Oil Found in Saudi Arabia Standard Oil of California discovers oil under the Saudi desert. 1936 Treaty between Egypt and Great Britain A treaty is signed in August between Egypt and Great Britain. Under the terms, Great Britain is to withdraw all but 10,000 of its troops. 1936 Arab Revolt in Palestine An Arab High Committee is formed to unite Palestinian opposition to a Jewish state in Palestine and the British mandate. 1937 Sino-Japanese War Resumes On July 7, Japanese troops clash in maneuvers with Chinese troops at the Marco Polo Bridge, 10 miles west of Peking (Beijing). Three weeks later, the Japanese invade in large numbers, beginning an all-out war between the two countries that becomes part of World War II. 1937 Partition of Palestine The Peel Commission in the United Kingdom recommends the partition of Palestine into a small Jewish state, a much larger Arab state united with TransJordan, and a small continuing British presence in Jerusalem. 1937 Somoza Family Gains Control over Nicaragua The legitimate government of Juan Sacasa is overthrown by the national guard, led by General Anastasio Somoza. 1937 Italian-German Axis Is Announced On November 11 Italy joins an Anti-Communist Pact already in force between Japan and Germany. 1938 Germany Seizes Austria in the Anschluss On March 12 German troops invade and annex Austria to Germany. 1938 Munich Agreement In a desperate attempt to avoid war, the leaders of Great Britain and France meet with Hitler and Mussolini in Munich at the end of September. During the meeting, they accede to Hitler’s demands to annex the Sudetenland, a part of Czechoslovakia, to Germany. 1939 German Forces Enter Prague In March 1939, the remaining parts of Czechoslovakia are conquered by Germany. 1939 Madrid Surrenders The Spanish civil war comes to an end in March with the surrender of Madrid and Valencia. 1939 Pact of Steel Italy and Germany enter into the Pact of Steel. The alliance pledges that each nation will support the other in case of war. 1939 The White Paper The White Paper states that since the Balfour Declaration called only for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, and since there were over 450,000 Jews in Palestine, Britain has met its responsibilities and that independence should be granted in 10 years. xxvi Chronology 1939 Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union sign a Non- Aggression Pact. 1939 Germany Invades Poland World War II begins when Germany invades Poland on September 1. On September 3, Great Britain and France declare war against Germany. 1940 Germany Invades Norway German forces invade Norway and Denmark. 1940 German Armies Invade the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg In a flanking move that makes the French Maginot Line irrelevant, the Germans attack the Low Countries. The Netherlands surrenders in four days, after massive German attacks on Rotterdam. 1940 Dunkirk Is Evacuated The British successfully extricate 200,000 British and 100,000 French troops from the beaches of Dunkirk as German forces advance on France. 1940 Paris Falls, France Surrenders On June 13, Paris is evacuated by French forces in the face of advancing German troops. France surrenders 10 days later. 1940 Battle of Britain Germany attempts to subdue Great Britain, attacking major British cities and military installations by air, but fails. 1940 Italy Invades Greece The Italians invade Greece, expecting a quick victory. 1940 British Attack Italian Forces in Egypt British troops launch a surprise attack on Italian troops that occupy parts of western Egypt, routing the Italians. 1941 German Forces Invade Greece and Yugoslavia Germany invades Yugoslavia after a coup in Belgrade that overthrows the pro-German government and replaces it with one committed to neutrality. 1941 German Forces Invade the Soviet Union Breaking the Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact, German forces invade the Soviet Union. Germany advances on a 2,000-mile-long front. 1941 Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor On December 7 the Japanese launch a surprise attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. 1942 Singapore Surrenders The British fortress at Singapore surrenders to the Japanese. 1942 Philippines Surrender On December 22, 100,000 Japanese troops land on the island of Luzon. Japanese forces converge on the capital of Manila, forcing the U.S. and Filipino defenders to retreat to the island of Corregidor. On May 6, American forces surrender. 1942 Battle of Midway The entire U.S. naval carrier force intercepts and sinks four Japanese carriers. This victory is the turning point for the United States in the Pacific war. 1942 German Troops Reach Stalingrad German troops reach the Russian city of Stalingrad, on the Volga, and besiege it. 1942 British Victory at El Alamein German forces, under the command of Erwin Rommel, meet the British forces under General Bernard Montgomery at El Alamein. Montgomery has a two-to-one advantage in tanks and is victorious. 1942 Operation Torch The invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch is designed to encircle German troops there. American troops land in French North Africa with limited opposition. 1942 Japanese Americans Are Interned On February 20, President Roosevelt issues a presidential order to intern Japanese-American residents of the West Coast. 1943 Casablanca Conference A conference is held in Casablanca, in French Morocco, January 14–24, between U.S. president Franklin Roosevelt and British prime minister Winston Churchill and their respective staffs. 1943 German Troops Surrender at Stalingrad The starving and surrounded German troops at Stalingrad surrender to Soviet forces. Chronology xxvii 1943 Quebec Conference British and American leaders meet in Quebec to coordinate war plans. At the meetings Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt discuss the upcoming landing in Italy, as well as a future summit with Joseph Stalin. 1943 Teheran Conference A three-way conference is held in Tehran between Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin. 1944 U.S. Troops Land at Anzio American forces land at Anzio, just south of Naples in Italy, in an attempt to outfl ank the Germans. 1944 Rome Is Liberated On June 4, American forces, under the command of General Mark Clark, enter Rome, ending effective Italian resistance. 1944 D-Day On June 6, 45 Allied divisions, with almost 3 million men led by U.S. general Dwight Eisenhower, begin landing on the beaches of Normandy in France. 1944 Paris Is Liberated Allied forces, led by the French Second Armored Division, liberate Paris from the Nazis on August 25. 1944 Battle of the Bulge German forces make a surprise attack against U.S. forces in Belgium—it is the last major German counteroffensive of World War II. 1945 Auschwitz Is Liberated Soviet forces liberate the largest German concentration/ death camp, Auschwitz, where Germany had killed 2,500,000 people, the great majority of whom were Jews. 1945 Yalta Conference President Franklin Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Marshal Joseph Stalin meet at Yalta in the southern Soviet Union. The agenda concerns the Soviet Union declaring war against Japan and the postwar world. 1945 Fire-Bombing of Dresden The Allied air forces bomb the city of Dresden in repeated waves. The resulting fi re storm consumes 11 square miles of the German city. 1945 San Francisco Conference On April 25 the Allied Big Four (United States, Great Britain, China, and the Soviet Union) representatives meet in San Francisco to create the United Nations. 1945 Germany Surrenders Unconditionally On May 8 German forces offi cially surrender. 1945 Atomic Bomb Is Dropped on Hiroshima On August 6 the U.S. Air Force drops an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, followed by one at Nagasaki. 1945 Japan Surrenders On September 2 the Japanese formally surrender unconditionally aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Harbor. 1946 Perón Becomes Dictator of Argentina Colonel Juan Perón is popularly elected president of Argentina. 1946 Chinese Civil War Resumes Upon the surrender of Japan, which concludes World War II, war once again breaks out between the Communists and the Nationalists in China. 1946 Republican Government Is Organized in Italy The Italian people vote in a referendum to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic. 1946 Republic of the Philippines Is Inaugurated On the July 4 the independent Republic of the Philippines is offi cially declared. 1946 Greeks Vote for Return of Monarchy In a special referendum, 70 percent of Greeks vote in favor of returning King George II to power. 1946 Verdicts at Nuremberg War Crime Trials Nine of Nazi Germany’s top leaders are hanged at the end of their trials for crimes against humanity and other charges. 1947 Truman Doctrine President Harry Truman enunciates a policy under which the United States would oppose communist advances anywhere in Europe. 1947 Revolt against France in Indochina A nationalist rebellion breaks out in Madagascar. xxviii Chronology White settlers are assaulted, plantations burned, and French garrisons attacked. It takes the French more than a year to put down the revolt. 1947 India/Pakistan Gain Independence On August 15 the two new states achieve independence, creating millions of refugees. 1947 Unrest in Palestine On November 29 the UN General Assembly meets to vote to partition Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state. 1948 Communists Take over Czechoslovakia In a bloodless coup, the Communists seize control of Czechoslovakia. 1948 Civil War in Costa Rica After incumbent president Teodora Picado attempts to annul the election won by Otilio Ulate, a civil war breaks out. 1948 Organization of American States (OAS) The Pan American Conference, held in Bogotá, Colombia, establishes the OAS as the United Nations’ regional grouping for countries in North and South America. 1948 United Nations Votes to Create Two States On May 14 the British Mandate ends, and the Jews of Palestine declare themselves independent. Neighboring Arab states respond by declaring war, which Israel wins, thereby extending its territory. 1948 South Africa Enacts Apartheid Laws The government outlaws marriages between whites and nonwhites. It also passses the Group Areas Bill that divides the country into entirely separate ethnic zones. 1948 Major Nationalist Defeat in Manchuria On October 30, Nationalist troops are defeated in Manchuria after the Communists capture the city of Mukden in their fi rst major victory in the Chinese Civil War. 1949 Soviet Union Detonates A-Bomb America’s monopoly on atomic weapons ends when President Truman announces on September 23 that the Soviet Union has successfully detonated an atomic bomb. 1949 Communist Victory in China The Nationalist army and government fall in China. The People’s Republic of China is established.
Major Themes (1900 to 1950)Edit
In the early 20th century, agricultural outputs soared, even though the number of people engaged in farming declined precipitously in industrialized nations. Famines became less common but still took the lives of millions. Processed and convenience foods gained in popularity, while urban elites became more adventurous in their eating habits, adopting cuisines from an array of nations. In poorer countries, most agriculture was still based on traditional methods. Food variety and supply remained scant, and meat was a luxury for most, reserved for holidays and feasts. Producing Food. North America enjoyed several “golden” seasons of farming between 1910 and 1914. On the Great Plains of both Canada and the United States, bountiful wheat harvests were exported to many parts of the world and briefl y attracted more farmers. With agriculture disrupted in Europe by World War I, North American farmers received government incentives to increase production and enjoyed record prices. At war’s end, the good times ended for many small farmers. In 1900, 41 percent of the U.S. population was engaged in agriculture; by 1945, just 16 percent made their living on the land. Farming was soon in decisive decline across the industrialized world. Yet farm productivity grew dramatically, thanks to new machinery, chemicals, and education. The 19th-century promise of farm machinery was fulfi lled as more versatile internal combustion engines, manufactured by Henry Ford among others, replaced bulky steam-powered farm implements. As the number of farms and farmers decreased, both the size of farms and the number of tractors, combines, and other specialized machinery soared. In 1900, American farmers owned 21.6 million work animals, mainly horses and mules. In Canada there were 22 human farmhands for each tractor or combine. By 1950, the numbers of both animal and human workers were comparatively tiny. In industrial nations, agricultural productivity was also fostered by crop specialization related to potential markets, as well as climate and soils. Plant geneticists developed improved seed stocks and varieties. Research into grains including wheat, corn, and rice helped poorer countries and would lead to a “green revolution” later in the century. African-American agricultural chemist and botanist George Washington Carver (1864–1943) introduced soil-enriching crops like sweet potatoes, peanuts, and soybeans in southern U.S. states, and engineered useful products made from these crops, as Major Themes 1900 to 1950 xxxi well as new foods. New or improved chemical fertilizers and pesticides increased yields and diminished crop damage. The downside of these scientifi c interventions included increased costs, overreliance on potentially dangerous chemicals, and monoculture—growing only one variety of corn, for example, year after year. These problems would become more pronounced after 1950. Meanwhile, fewer farmers grew and raised more food. Harsh natural conditions, aggravated by politics and war, brought about two major famines in the Soviet Union, as well as one in China in the 1920s and 30s. About 9 million people died in 1921–22 following massive crop failures caused by a complex combination of civil war and political and social revolution, atop the extraordinary devastation wrought by World War I, and exacerbated by drought. In Soviet Ukraine, an estimated 7 million people died between 1932 and 1934 as a result of a drought, made into a disaster by Joseph Stalin’s massive program to impose collective farming on the onceindependent Ukraine and sell its farm products to fi nance industrialization. In China’s Henan (Honan) province in 1940, some 2 million people died from a combination of drought and Japanese invasion. In North America, an agricultural disaster coincided with the Great Depression. Beginning in 1930, decades of poor land management in the continent’s midsection created the dust bowl. Years of severe drought worsened the situation. For six years, hot winds in the agricultural heartland periodically deposited once-fertile soil as far away as Boston. Tenant farmers and sharecroppers were the worst affected. Many of these “Okies” (so called because some were from hard-hit Oklahoma) trekked to California’s fertile Central Valley, where they were unwelcome or exploited. Depressionera programs also provided aid to the agricultural sector. Hydropower projects brought electricity and irrigation to the Tennessee Valley and the Northwest’s Columbia River region. A federal Rural Electrifi cation program extended the electric grid to widely scattered farms that had been bypassed by urban America’s electrifi cation earlier in the century. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 set a precedent for stabilizing farm prices by paying some farmers not to grow as much as they could. Consuming Food. In 1906, the U.S. Congress passed and President Theodore Roosevelt signed a sweeping law to protect consumers from shady food and drug purveyors. Many years in the making, the Pure Food and Drug Act was given its fi nal push by Upton Sinclair’s muckraking exposé, The Jungle, a novel set in the meatpacking plants of Chicago, where animals, workers, and the food itself were all abused. It was a key victory for the new consumer movement and also revealed the extent to which Americans, and urbanites in many other developed countries, now depended on foods grown on large farms and processed in factories rather than food grown locally and prepared in home kitchens. New appliances, especially home refrigerators and freezers, that began to replace regular ice delivery made food preparation easier and more varied in every season. Supermarkets and chain groceries, emerging fi rst in California, were soon able to offer more kinds of food at generally lower prices. Gerber Foods, founded in 1928, was an early processor of baby foods and formulas. Food like Spam, reconstituted eggs, Jell-O, Cotolene, and Crisco were more uniform, longer lasting, easier to use, and more colorfully packaged versions of typical American foods or food ingredients. World Fairs, such as St. Louis, Missouri’s, 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition, where ice-cream cones and cotton candy were introduced, promoted new food products to international audiences. Rationing programs imposed during both world wars tested the ingenuity of home cooks and also spurred the adoption of manufactured oils and egg and meat substitutes. During World War II, K-rations—complete canned battlefi eld meals issued to troops—were another example of convenience and indestructibility. They were also the butt of many jokes. At the same time, the globalizing tendencies of the early 20th century also produced new openness and exchange among culinary cultures. Imperialism and immigration were central forces driving the adoption and adaptation of specialized foods and methods of preparation. Immigrants to the United States and Canada from Europe helped introduce such foods as hamburgers (from Germany) and pizza (from Italy) that would soon be Americanized beyond recognition in their homelands. Some Texans and other southwesterners enlivened their diet with peppers and beans from Mexico, creating what came to be called Tex-Mex cuisine. Chinese railroad workers and other laborers also xxxii 1900 to 1950 had started restaurants in the American West in the mid-1800s. By the 1900s, this cuisine, dominated by Cantonese specialties tailored to Western tastes, was becoming familiar yet was still “exotic” in many parts of the United States. In British India, urban classes adopted some typically British habits including tea time and the hearty English breakfast. It was a two-way exchange: British who had resided in India—and many who had not—adopted curries, chutneys, and mulligatawny soup. Likewise, Indonesian foods, including rice dishes and satays, soon became popular in Holland, which had colonized the huge Asian island chain. Wealthy and urban elites in French Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia emulated French cuisine, styles, and table manners.
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS
In the early 20th century, engineers and scientists became national heroes. The earlier Industrial Revolution had focused on manufacturing infrastructure; now, consumers were the main benefi ciaries of innovations in transport, power delivery, communications, and health. Advances in science and technology tended to widen the developmental gap between the industrialized world of Europe, North America, and Japan and those regions that remained less “modern.” Large corporations and laboratories began to replace independent inventors and scientists in the creation of new products and systems. Transport. Flight was an ancient human preoccupation, but success had remained elusive. In 1901, Brazilian-born inventor Alberto Santos-Dumont piloted a gas-powered balloon around Paris’s Eiffel Tower. Samuel P. Langley, head of the Smithsonian Institution, attempted a number of wellfi nanced fl ights in his “aerodrome.” In December 1903, days after Langley’s latest crash, unpublicized Ohio brothers and bicycle fabricators Orville and Wilbur Wright managed a 12-second fl ight over an icy North Carolina beach. The Wrights obtained a patent for their invention in 1908. Meanwhile, Europeans, especially the French, were also making advances in powered fl ight. Early airplanes—fragile, low-fl ying, and hard to maneuver—were novelties at fi rst, although their potential in warfare was instantly obvious. By 1909 the Wright brothers were training Italian and U.S. aviators. Rudimentary aircraft were used in World War I for surveillance and aerial attacks. Commercial uses of aircraft followed. Germany’s fi rst commercial aviation venture in 1909 used airships, or Zeppelins, rather than airplanes. Many European nations, their railroads badly damaged in the war, established airlines after 1918. Not until the 1920s did businessmen and aviators, including Charles Lindbergh, who was, in 1927, the fi rst pilot to fl y solo across the Atlantic, begin to create viable U.S. air fl eets for crop-dusting, mail, passenger, and freight-hauling services. Several inventors, including Germany’s Carl Benz and France’s Peugeot fi rm, successfully produced automobiles in the late 19th century. These costly vehicles were mainly indulgences for the wealthy. In 1903, American Henry Ford, who, like the Wright Brothers, was a tinkerer and bicycle mechanic, founded his Ford Motor Company. Pioneering such mass production techniques as the moving assembly line, and reducing expensive custom details, Ford was able to bring the price of an automobile within the budgets of middle-class consumers. Famously, one could buy any color of his wildly successful Model T, as long as it was black. Ford paid his workers well but supervised them rigorously; he was an early adopter of effi ciency techniques, similar to those propounded in Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 Principles of Scientifi c Management. Within a few years, automobiles and trucks had reshaped urban and rural landscapes, creating a boom for road building, petroleum, and rubber tires and threatening railroads and streetcars with bankruptcy. The Panama Canal, a new example of a much older transportation technology, signifi cantly enhanced trade across the globe. This enormous project turned a narrow isthmus between North and South America into a waterway that cut some 8,000 miles off the dangerous sea voyage from New York to San Francisco. President Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt engineered a coup in 1903 that turned what had been Colombia’s northernmost province, Panama, into a U.S. client nation. Despite a storm of protest, construction went forward in a 10-mile zone deeded to the United States until 2000, when it came under Panamanian control. Completed in 1914 at a cost of $350 million and 5,609 worker lives, the canal was made possible by sophisticated project management, 1900 to 1950 xxxiii improved earth-moving equipment, and new methods for controlling Panama’s endemic tropical diseases, especially yellow fever. Power. Humans were aware of electricity long before they tried to harness it. This naturally occurring force was scientifi cally studied in the 1750s by Benjamin Franklin, inventor of the protective lightning rod. Although the telegraph, introduced in the 1840s, used electricity to transmit signals, electrifi cation remained essentially a novelty until the late 19th century. In Europe, Finland in 1877 pioneered electrifi cation for Helsinki street lighting and put its fi rst power plant into operation in 1884. In 1881, water power generated by Niagara Falls was used to provide local street lighting. In 1882, famed inventor Thomas A. Edison opened his fi rst electric power station in New York City. In the fi rst quarter of the 20th century, urban cities in Africa and Asia also slowly acquired electric power systems. For some time, electricity remained miraculous rather than commonplace. Cost and safety concerns, and arguments between advocates of direct current (like Edison) and those favoring alternating current (like Nikola Tesla and George Westinghouse) meant that gas or oil still fueled most indoor and outdoor lighting after World War I. Yet by 1900, electricity was a $200 million industry in the United States alone. Two U.S. electric utilities—Westinghouse and Edison (soon to become General Electric)—dominated the market. Although Edison had long cultivated an image of quirky independence, he was also a cagey businessman. Working with fi nancial giants like J.P. Morgan, he helped pioneer an integrated energy supply and distribution system, providing a model for other new technologies. By the 1920s, a third of homes in more prosperous American cities were wired for electricity as customers eagerly purchased a plethora of new electric appliances. It required a federally fi nanced electrifi cation project during the Great Depression for rural dwellers to share in this advance. Disrupted by World War I, Europeans saw slower but steady growth in electrifi cation. Beginning with the introduction of its fi rst Five-Year Plan, the Soviet Union also promoted rapid growth of electrifi cation. Electrifi cation also fostered the gradual growth of air conditioning, which began in 1902 as a technology designed to ensure consistent results for manufacturers of temperature- and humidity-sensitive products. By the late teens, the new motion picture industry (another Edison venture) was using air conditioning to make its “picture palaces” more appealing in summertime. In the 1930s, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who disliked air conditioning, encouraged its installation in hot Washington, D.C., hoping to make federal workers more productive in the summers of the depression. Communications. In 1900, the telegraph, with its worldwide cable connections, was still king, but it would soon lose its communications dominance. Scottish-born Canadian Alexander Graham Bell had won patent rights for his telephone in 1876 (prevailing over U.S. inventor Elisha Gray), but it took a long time for this new device, which many deemed a “useless toy,” to catch on. Adopted fi rst by businesses in major towns, the telephone gradually won favor. By 1905, Bell Telephone (by then known as American Telephone & Telegraph, and later simply AT&T) had strung fi ve times as much wire as Western Union, the telegraph giant. It was 1915 before Bell customers could place transcontinental calls; transatlantic calling was launched in 1927. By 1920, a third of urban homes were equipped with this new device. Many early European and Latin American phone installations used equipment made by Bell. Swede L. M. Ericsson began selling his own models in 1881. As telephones caught on, European phone systems were more likely to operate as government agencies. In Britain, private companies provided service starting in 1878, but by 1912 the national post offi ce took charge. France developed a hybrid public-private system. Italian Guglielmo Marconi introduced a wireless communication system, later called radio, in 1896, winning a patent for his invention in 1900 and a Nobel Prize in 1909. Although the installation of a Marconi radio communication device on the Titanic failed to save the doomed British ocean liner in 1912, his innovation soon caught on. By the 1920s, radio stations, beginning with Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania’s, KDKA, were broadcasting music and other programming to the lucky few with radio receivers. KDKA broadcast results of the 1920 U.S. presidential election across the xxxiv 1900 to 1950 eastern United States. By the 1930s, radio ownership had grown dramatically. Radio carried newly elected chancellor Adolf Hitler’s speeches to German citizens; Americans tuned in for President Roosevelt’s regular fi reside chats. Edison’s “Kinetoscope,” and his improved “Vitascope,” introduced in 1896, were forebears of what became the 20th century’s motion picture industry, as were image projection systems created by France’s Lumière brothers. First shown in amusement parks, often featuring naughty “peepshows,” these “movies” were an almost immediate novelty hit, but it took new modes of presentation—the nickelodeon and the movie house—to make fi lms an enduring entertainment choice. “Talkies”— moving pictures with coordinated sound—were introduced in 1927. Frenchman Charles Pathé, a moving image pioneer who relocated to London in 1902, became the foremost producer of newsreels shown in movie theaters. These let audiences see actual newsmakers and recent events in the days before television. The growing communications industry was a key benefi ciary of versatile new materials that would eventually be known generically as “plastics.” Most of these, including celluloid, rayon, bakelite, and nylon, were formulated to be cheaper, safer, more durable, or easier to use than traditional plant- and animal-based materials such as silk, ivory, and tortoiseshell. By 1900, most movies were projected on celluloid fi lm, an ingenious but highly fl ammable medium that was eventually replaced with safer synthetic materials. Bakelite, developed in the United States in 1907 by Belgian chemist Leo Baekeland, is considered the fi rst true plastic. It was used in Edison’s phonograph records, Bell’s telephone receivers, and cameras made by George Eastman’s Kodak company. Biology, Health, and Medicine. Nineteenth-century breakthroughs in understanding disease processes energized medical innovation in the 20th century. Ironically, Western imperialism brought new attention to the dangers of tropical diseases including malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever. The Panama Canal project was but one example. New medications and mosquito eradication helped white colonials (and many indigenous people of affl icted countries) to improve child survival rates and overall adult health. In 1901–02, Austrian physicians led by Karl Landsteiner discovered the four major human blood groups: A, B, AB, and O. This paved the way for lifesaving blood transfusions that signifi - cantly improved the survival rates in operations. Defi ciency diseases including pellagra, beri-beri, and scurvy, occurring mainly among poor populations around the world, became more treatable when the properties of certain amino acids, later named “vitamins,” were identifi ed in 1915. The fi rst half of the 20th century introduced “miracle drugs” and “magic bullets” that indeed saved many lives and increased the human life span, although not without their own medical and social side effects. Syphilis, a disabling sexually transmitted disease, was controlled by arsenicbased compounds derived in 1909 by Prussian Paul Ehrlich and Japan’s Sahachiro Hata. In 1921, Canadian scientists discovered and synthesized insulin, turning diabetes from a death sentence to a mostly manageable condition. A British team headed by Alexander Fleming in 1928 showed that a common mold could kill deadly bacteria, but this antibiotic, penicillin, did not become widely available until the 1940s. In the interim, sulfa drugs, fi rst synthesized in 1908 by an Austrian chemist, became vital weapons against bacterial infections, especially in World War II. Physical Sciences. Building on Wilhelm Roentgen’s 1896 discovery of X-rays, Polish-born French scientist Marie Curie was the fi rst woman to win Nobel Prizes for both physics (1903) and chemistry (1911) and also contributed to new knowledge in the health sciences. Her X-ray investigations, in partnership with physicists Henri Becquerel and Pierre Curie, her husband, led to the discovery of new elements, including radium and polonium, named by Curie for her native country, Poland. They also revealed properties of radiation, both healing and killing, that led to new cancer therapies, as well as atomic energy and the atom bomb. Both she and her chemist daughter Irène, who also won a Nobel with her husband, Frédéric Joliat-Curie (1935), died of ailments caused by radiation poisoning. Physics was further revolutionized in 1905, when German Albert Einstein propounded his special theory of relativity, following up 10 years later with a general theory of relativity. Einstein’s work fundamentally questioned the long-accepted physics of gravitation and other cosmic forces that were 1900 to 1950 xxxv developed in the 18th century by Sir Isaac Newton. Einstein’s insights, and new discoveries by many other physicists, led to radically new knowledge of the power stored inside individual atoms. Einstein renounced his German citizenship when Hitler became chancellor in 1933, and he then emigrated to the United States. He was a key proponent of the United States’s secret Manhattan Project, which in 1945 produced the fi rst atomic bombs. Other important theoretical physicists who participated included Italian Enrico Fermi, Dane Niels Bohr, and American J. Robert Oppenheimer. The largest research and development project in world history, the Manhattan Project cost more than $2 billion in 1940s dollars, employed 43,000 people, and became a model for doing science and technology in the second half of the 20th century and beyond.
SOCIAL AND CLASS RELATIONS
Important changes in social and class relationships, brought about by the Industrial Revolution that began in western Europe and North America during the 19th century, spread to other parts of the world during the fi rst half of the 20th century. The changes were accelerated by global upheavals caused by World Wars I and II and revolutionary and nationalist movements, especially the Marxist revolutions in Russia and China. Many momentous changes were violent and cost millions of lives. The Industrial Revolution, begun in England, had spread to western Europe and Japan by 1900. It caused domestic migrations as many people left farms and rural areas to work in factories in cities that sprang up in the industrialized nations. Millions also migrated across oceans, mainly from Europe to North America and Australasia, to seek better lives. Wide gaps separated the rich industrial nations and the agrarian ones, and within nations, they separated the wealthy industrial magnates, the middle-class professionals and white collar workers, and the lower class of factory workers and small farmers. Although the newly rich and powerful industrialists and entrepreneurs held great power in the United States, they shared power and infl uence with the hereditary aristocrats in many European countries. By the early 20th century, signifi cant improvements had taken place in the living standard of the urban working class in western Europe and the United States, especially among skilled workers. On the other hand, the lives of factory workers and miners in newly industrializing countries such as Russia, China, and India remained desperately poor. In Western countries, better nutrition and living conditions characterized the lives of many workers, whose children attended schools mandated by laws that forbade child labor and enforced compulsory education. Whereas many women had worked under harsh conditions in factories during the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, protective laws had improved their working environment in the advanced countries by 1900, and higher wages for male workers allowed their wives to stay at home to raise their children. The power of organized labor, legal in most Western nations, increased during the fi rst half of the 20th century. The spread of the Industrial Revolution to eastern Europe and parts of Asia from 1900 to 1950 also contributed to the changing social and class patterns in those regions. New Politics. In some countries, for example Great Britain and Australia, workers became strong politically by forming political parties that competed in local and national elections. Electoral success (the fi rst Labour government was formed in Australia in 1904 and in Great Britain in 1924) by labor or socialist parties allowed workers to accelerate the pace of change through the passage of legislation such as the progressive income tax that aimed at income leveling. Such government actions had the effect of blurring class differences and lessening the advantages that the upper classes had enjoyed. In the Middle East and Africa, educated urban classes led the nationalist movements and struggled for greater political and economic power from the Western imperial rulers. The most extreme reordering of social classes occurred in Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution. The Communist government of the Soviet Union brutally reorganized the social order, eliminated the nobility and much of the middle class, and later put the peasants who formed the majority of the population into collective farms. However, although the government of the Soviet Union offi cially favored the proletarian class, ordinary citizens had little say in the ordering of their lives because the Communist Party monopolized all power. Although less extreme, World xxxvi 1900 to 1950 War I and the revolutions that followed in many countries dramatically changed class relations worldwide. In Europe, monarchies were overthrown in Germany and Austria-Hungary, which led to the downfall of the once powerful aristocracy in those countries. Outside of Europe, North America, Japan, and Australasia, China underwent continuing social and political revolutions that began with the overthrow of the Qing (Ch’ing) dynasty in 1911 and culminated in the establishment of a Communist government in 1949. Race, Class, and Politics. Race was important in determining class in several parts of the world. For example, in Latin America, people of European origin enjoyed high status, followed by those of mixed-race descent, with indigenous people and the descendants of African slaves at the bottom. It was also an important factor in economic and class divisions in the United States. Similarly, class was determined by race in parts of Africa where Europeans had settled. Political and social revolutions that swept over several nations of Latin America threatened or overthrew the traditionally powerful classes and organizations. In Argentina, radicals advocating social reforms became politically active after 1912. In 1946 Juan Perón was catapulted to power on a populist ideology that combined leftwing, pro–working class rhetoric with right-wing, protofascist bureaucratic-authoritarian policies, winning electoral power on a platform ostensibly geared toward benefi tting the descamisados, or shirtless ones. In Mexico, the vast social convulsion later dubbed the Mexican Revolution (1910–20) eroded the power of the Catholic Church, foreign corporations, and large landowners, and after 1917 offered a more inclusive and democratic polity to indigenous Mexicans. In Brazil, strongmen rulers also promulgated economic and social reforms to satisfy the demand of workers. Social Engineering. The worldwide Great Depression that began in 1929 also accelerated social and political changes. In the United States it led to important social engineering in legislation called the New Deal. It led to growth of socialist parties in Europe, and contributed to the rise of Nazism in Germany. In all cases it led to a realignment of social classes, and in Germany and Nazi- conquered lands, it led to forced population displacements and the extermination of millions of Jews, gypsies, Slavs, and people with disabilities in the Holocaust. Outside Europe, the political revolution under Kemal Atatürk that overthrew the discredited Ottoman Empire also led to a social revolution that secularized Turkish society, orienting it toward the West and granting legal equality to women. In these respects Turkey presented an alternative model of society to the traditional Islamic world. In Iran the new Pahlavi dynasty attempted similar reforms with far less success. In China the revolution that overthrew the dynasty in 1911 also ushered in a wide-ranging social revolution that encompassed the quest of women for equality and that of young people from the control of their parents. Chinese women won legal equality in new codes promulgated in the 1930s, and those from the middle class made rapid advances. For example, although there were no women’s colleges in China in 1900, by 1937 a quarter of college students were women. As in the Soviet Union, the Chinese Communist Party carried out a violent and thorough social and economic revolution after it gained power in 1949. It eliminated landlords and rich peasants, fi rst distributing their land to the poor peasants and later forcing them to join collective farms. In India the caste system determined the social status of Hindus. British rule had forced forward-looking Hindu intellectuals to reexamine their traditional social system beginning in the late 19th century; many leaders, as a result, advocated reforms. After World War I, Mohandas K. Gandhi emerged as India’s leader in its struggle for political independence and social reform. Gandhi’s nonviolent protest aimed at advancing not just India’s nationalistic goals but also the causes of female emancipation and equality for the untouchables that constituted about 20 percent of Hindus. Partly as a result of his labors the constitution of newly independent India gave women equality and also abolished the discrimination suffered by untouchables. Gandhi would later be an inspiration for the Civil Rights movement in the United States and in the quest for equality by Africans in South Africa. Women and Class. The 20th century also saw remarkable advances in the position of women worldwide. Whereas in 1900 only women in Australia and New Zealand had the right to vote and enjoy many of the same rights as men, by mid-century women had won equality in many nations on all continents. For example, English suffragists had been unsuccessful in lobbying for female 1900 to 1950 xxxvii franchise, but with most men drafted to fi ght in World War I, women joined the workforce in large numbers, making important contributions to the war effort and advancing their economic independence. As a result, women in Great Britain, the United States, and many European nations won the right to vote soon after the war ended. In Asia, by the early 1920s Indian women had also won the right to vote on the same terms as men. Turkish and Egyptian women led others in the Middle East and Africa to struggle for both political and social rights. Japanese women did not win voting or other equal rights with men until after World War II. It was then mandated by the U.S. occupation authorities and guaranteed in a new constitution. However Japanese women had been able to receive a higher education and enter the professions, especially in teaching and medicine, since the end of the 19th century. Among the Westernized urban middle class in many non-Western countries women made astonishing gains. For example, Sarojini Naidu was elected president of the Indian National Congress, India’s foremost nationalist organization in the 1920s, and became India’s fi rst female provincial governor soon after. The enormous devastation and dislocation caused by World War II was truly global. The forced migrations of hundreds of millions of refugees, the tremendous destruction and demand for manpower, and the outcome of the war changed the world. Among the changes effected were all levels of social and class relationships. Women went to work in larger numbers than during World War I, including performing combat and noncombat military duties, in skilled professions, and in industrial production. Former colonies demanded and won independence and in the process empowered previously voiceless peoples. In the United States the G.I. Bill gave opportunities to millions of young war veterans to attend college and enjoy better lives. High rates of taxation (up to 95 percent in Great Britain) to fi nance the war and war-caused infl ation realigned social classes.
TRADE AND CULTURAL EXCHANGES
In the early 20th century European nations with vast empires in Africa and Asia dominated and controlled trade around the world. The United States also emerged as a major supplier of both agricultural commodities and manufactured goods. In Asia Japan emerged as an industrial and colonial power. The open door policy in China enabled Western nations and investors to dominate the Chinese economy and vastly reduced the political independence of the nation. A plethora of new consumer goods, many from the United States, coupled with aggressive marketing, helped to create consumer societies in wealthy nations and among the wealthy in poor nations. Improved transportation routes and modes of travel facilitated global trade. The Panama Canal, linking the Atlantic and Pacifi c Oceans, was begun in 1904 and opened in 1914. The Trans-Siberian Railway from St. Petersburg (Leningrad) on the Baltic coast to Vladivostok on the Russian Pacifi c coast was completed by 1917. The development of air travel opened up new and faster modes of transportation and enabled the wealthy to travel for business and pleasure over vast distances. The fi rst fl ight from London to Delhi, India, occurred in 1926. In 1927 Charles “Lucky” Lindbergh fl ew nonstop across the Atlantic from the United States to France. Henry Ford’s assembly line and the introduction of interchangeable parts made the manufacture of relatively inexpensive automobiles such as the Model T affordable to the middle class in the United States. Easier and more affordable transportation systems fostered a growing tourist industry and made the world a much smaller place. More accessible transportation systems also fostered increased movement of peoples in search of better jobs and lifestyles, especially from Europe to the Western Hemisphere. Between 1905 and 1914 over 10 million people, mostly from eastern and southern Europe, emigrated to the United States. Asians were mostly excluded by law from entry into both the United States and Australia. The 1929 Great Depression ended world prosperity and lessened international trade. Many nations, such as the United States, attempted to solve their economic problems by introducing protectionist tariffs that worsened and lengthened the depression. Others abandoned the gold xxxviii 1900 to 1950 standard to improve their international trading positions. Many nations were also caught in a web of debts incurred during World War I. Nations and regions in eastern Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and Asia that produced primarily raw materials and agricultural goods were economically devastated when demand and prices for their goods dropped. As the depression deepened, many people became profoundly disillusioned with their governments, and some turned to totalitarian dictators and international aggression to solve the problem. Many nations, including the United States, only recovered full production and employment with the advent of World War II. U.S. culture spread after World War I, especially through radio, popular music, and motion pictures, which became a major source of entertainment for people around the world. During the 1920s in New York, Paris, Cairo, and Singapore, men and women fl ocked to nightclubs to dance and drink cocktails. Urban women from Japan and elsewhere found new freedom, cut and permed their hair, and wore short dresses, giving up more modest traditional fashions and lifestyles. Profound divisions between secular and traditional religious groups also emerged. For example, after the 1917 revolution in Mexico a secular constitution was implemented in this predominantly Catholic nation. Similarly, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Turkey and Reza Shah in Iran both attempted, with various degrees of success, to limit the power and infl uence of religious authorities in their mainly Muslim nations. Secularists in Asia also questioned ancient traditions and religion. A new cultural movement in China begun after World War I was inspired by Western-educated Chinese scholars. Many also rejected the moral teachings of Confucius. Sigmund Freud and others developed modern psychiatry. Freud used psychoanalysis to probe the unconscious; he also openly discussed sexuality, a previously taboo subject in much of the world. Earlier the German Friedrich Nietzsche, who died in 1900, and later Bertrand Russell in England questioned age-old beliefs regarding spirituality and the existence of God. Religious leaders challenged not only the work of Freud but also Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, arguing that it countered the teachings of creation in the Bible. In the famous Scopes “monkey trial” in the United States, a teacher was found guilty of teaching evolution in 1925. In India the nationalist leader Mohandas K. Gandhi championed traditional Indian culture and Hinduism. However, Gandhi also preached and practiced tolerance for Indian Muslim communities, whereas other nationalist leaders sought support by rejecting tolerance for dissenters or minorities. In the West, Christian church leaders sought to establish more communication and cooperation among the various Christian sects, leading to the establishment of the World Council of Churches. The differences and hostilities between secularism and religion would be one of the major sources of tension in the 20th century. Literature, Art, and Music. In literature the novels of Ernest Hemingway refl ected a new wave of authors, many of whom became highly disillusioned about the human condition during the interwar years. Other writers sought to maintain traditions while accepting Western ways of life and technology. Léopold Senghor of Senegal, Aimé Césaire, and others wrote about négritude and the values of African traditions. Rabindranath Tagore wrote poetry in his native Bengali (a language of India), for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1913, while he also sought to return Indians to traditional ways through moral education. Modern art in its many variations drew on several African and Asian modes of artistic expression. Impressionist artists, including Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin, were heavily infl uenced by Japanese art and Polynesian life, respectively. Pablo Picasso, along with Georges Braque, was credited with founding cubism in 1907–08. Both were infl uenced by African art forms such as carved wooden masks. Many artists mixed traditional, indigenous motifs in their compositions. In Mexico, muralists Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and José Clemente Orozco all used folk infl uences and Amerindian symbolism. Music was similarly infl uenced by a wide variety of cultures. The South American tango became popular around the world. Western motifs infl uenced musicians and composers from other continents. For example, the Egyptian composer Sayyed Darweesh used a variety of traditional Arab and Western 1900 to 1950 xxxix forms in his operettas and classical pieces. His music remains popular throughout the Arab world. He also wrote about women’s rights and class differences. Jazz, a uniquely American musical art form, was a fusion of African and Western traditions largely created and popularized by African Americans. Many artists and writers worldwide, among them African-American musicians, often sought the social and artistic freedom of postwar western Europe, especially Paris, which became the cosmopolitan center of the arts, as Vienna had been before 1914. This movement ended with the Great Depression, when struggling artists could no longer afford the luxury of travel to distant locales. Organized sports, especially football (or soccer, as it was known in the United States), baseball, and tennis, became popular in most nations around the world. The World Cup in soccer was begun in the 1930s, as were international tennis tournaments. The mass media of newspapers, movies, and radio made cultural and artistic endeavors more international and accessible and led to the opening up of new cultural forms. In contrast, rural poor countries in much of Africa, South America, and Asia remained highly traditional. Many of the cultural trends pioneered in the fi rst part of the 20th century would continue and accelerate after World War II and into the 21st century.
Fueled by imperial rivalries, powerful new weapons, enlarged manufacturing capacity, and broader military conscription, the wars of the fi rst half of the 20th century included the two largest armed confl icts in world history. The Great War of 1914–18, later renamed World War I, followed by World War II (1939–45), reshaped the global order, but neither proved to be the “war to end all wars.” The years 1900 to 1914 were the high point of European and, to a lesser extent, American and Japanese colonial adventurism. Partitioning a war-weakened China into spheres of economic and political infl uence, the great powers also competed for control of many other resource- and laborrich regions of Asia, Africa, and Oceania. At the same time, European powers used their industrial might to accelerate an arms race and developed intricate agreements and alliances to protect their interests at home and in their colonial holdings. In the summer of 1914, a Serbian nationalist’s assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, set these alliances in motion and led directly to the Great War. The war pitted the Allied Powers—France, Russia, Britain, Japan, and other nations, eventually including the United States—against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the fading Ottoman Empire. New Strategies. The Great War was a fi eld laboratory for a range of new weapons and new strategies for deploying troops. For the fi rst time, aircraft played a signifi cant role. They were used by both sides for aerial reconnaissance and to drop explosives on enemy forces. Germany’s successful use of torpedo-equipped U-boats, mainly to harass enemy shipping, was the fi rst time that submarine technology, developed late in the 19th century, was taken seriously as an important tool of war. Breachloading, quick-fi ring fi eld guns made infantrymen more deadly; howitzers capable of fi ring fi ve or more rounds of shells a minute were deemed responsible for 70 percent of the war’s 9 million troop deaths. Radio, newly developed, revolutionized the ability of troops and commanders to communicate in real time. Near the end of the war, the British fi rst used internal combustion–powered armored tanks to breach German positions. Tanks were better able to protect drivers and rolled easily over barbed wire and other obstacles—they became standard equipment in subsequent confl icts. As both sides relied on massed infantry assaults and protected their men behind trenches dug into battlefi elds, stalemate became a frustrating and dangerous enemy, especially on the war’s western front. The trenches indeed protected soldiers, but they also prevented them from effectively engaging the enemy in battle. To leave the trench was to face likely attack by a sniper in the opposing trench. The trenches fi lled with water and fi lth, causing illness and injury. Chemical and biological weapons, such as deadly and debilitating chlorine gas (its use has since been outlawed under international law), were a particular threat to troops trapped in trenches. The introduction of tanks late in the war would help to overcome this standoff. xl 1900 to 1950 As the war dragged on, infl icting huge casualties in such battles as Gallipoli in 1915 and Verdun and Somme in 1916, Central Power conquests in Russia, Serbia, and Romania, combined with internal unrest, led to Russia’s withdrawal and its separate peace with Germany. As the Russian Revolution intensifi ed, Romanov czar Nicholas II abdicated in March 1917. A month later, the United States, jolted by submarine attacks and outraged by a secret German plan to help Mexico regain territory lost to the United States, declared war on the Central Powers. Although it would be 1918 before signifi cant numbers of U.S. troops began fi ghting with the Allies in Europe, the effect of fresh manpower helped bring about Kaiser Wilhelm II’s abdication on November 9, followed by the armistice on November 11, 1918, that ended the war. The Great War, ended by the controversial Treaty of Versailles with Germany and by other treaties with allies, solved few problems and almost certainly created new ones. Despite the creation of a League of Nations (which the United States declined to join) and a series of disarmament proposals and conferences, both rearmament and colonialism continued. Although Ireland would win its long-sought independence from Britain in 1921, other colonial struggles remained unsettled. In fact, Britain and France found new opportunities to dominate the Middle East in the remains of the former Ottoman Empire. Russia, now under a Communist regime, fought off a postarmistice invasion by its alarmed former Allies and set about securing what would become a two-continent Soviet Union in Europe and Asia, while leader Joseph Stalin tightened his totalitarian rule. This almost guaranteed unrest in eastern Europe and new confrontations with Japan. Germany’s new Weimar Republic struggled to recover from the lost war, and from the Versailles Treaty demands for billions in war reparations (although never collected in full). Austrian-born Adolf Hitler would brilliantly use post–Great War political and social confl ict and German bitterness and resentment to obtain power as leader of the new National Socialist, or Nazi, Party. Civil war in China in the 1920s and 1930s emboldened Japan to seize Manchuria in 1931 and launch a full-scale invasion of China in 1937. Japanese brutality toward their victims, for example, in the Rape of Nanjing (Nanking), equalled the horrors of Nazi atrocities. Meanwhile, Hitler began rebuilding German military power, in direct defi ance of treaty provisions, meeting only token resistance from the former Allies. With his Fascist ally, Benito Mussolini of Italy, Hitler tested his new weapons by intervening in the Spanish civil war on the side of Fascist insurgents led by Francisco Franco. As a new war threatened in Europe, France responded by building its Maginot Line, a system of fortifi cations. Some 3,000 Americans defi ed offi cial U.S. neutrality to fi ght against Franco in Spain. Otherwise, the predominant sentiment in France and Britain was appeasement of the aggressors. Poland Attacked. World War II in Europe began on September 1, 1939, when German panzer divisions of massed tanks and mobile artillery invaded Poland days after a nonaggression pact between Hitler and Stalin gave Hitler a free hand in eastern Europe. By June 1940, Hitler’s forces had occupied France, where they installed the Vichy government, which was subservient to Germany, and controlled most of Europe, while Britain fought virtually alone. That September, Germany, Italy, and Japan created a formal alliance known as the Axis. In June 1941, German forces invaded the Soviet Union, violating the 1939 pact. From the outset, the fi ghting forces relied heavily on tanks, especially the reliable U.S. Sherman Tank, and air power. Battleships were central to earlier confl icts; in World War II aircraft carriers became the most signifi cant fi ghting innovation because they enabled the simultaneous projection of both sea and air power. When Japanese planes bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, bringing the United States into the war, the huge loss of life and warships at the Hawaiian air base was partially offset by the fortunate deployment elsewhere of America’s aircraft carriers. Submarine warfare, especially in the Atlantic Ocean, expanded in importance for both the Allies and the Axis, infl icting huge damage on commercial shipping and enemy navies. Military aviators, including those from Britain’s Royal Air Force, Germany’s Luftwaffe, and the U.S. Army Air Force, depended on heavily armored bombers capable of fl ying long distances with heavy loads of bombs and on nimbler fi ghter planes to repel enemy attackers. Radar technology, fi rst made functional in the 1930s by 1900 to 1950 xli British and American scientists, helped the Allies detect submarines and obtain advance warning of air attacks, somewhat defusing the effectiveness of both these tools of war. Total Global War. World War II was a global war and a total war with fronts in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Pacifi c. As the Allies struggled in the early war years, the Soviet Union bore the brunt of Axis attacks in eastern Europe; Britain held out in the west, while the United States deployed most of its power against the Japanese in the Pacifi c. In 1942, the Allies began to have successes, especially at Midway Island in the Pacifi c, in North Africa, and in the USSR, where the Soviet Union, despite huge military and civilian casualties, turned back Hitler’s siege of Stalingrad in January 1943. The Allies’ “Operation Overlord” D-day invasion of Normandy beaches in June 1944 fi nally opened a second European front. It took almost a year of hard fi ghting before converging Soviet troops and British and American forces were able to force Hitler’s suicide and Germany’s surrender in May 1945. This total war claimed an unprecedented number of civilian casualties and displaced persons. Millions were killed or wounded by military action. Millions more were victims of deliberate murder, overwork, or starvation. Stalin sent millions of Soviet citizens into forced labor camps. Hitler turned much of occupied eastern Europe into a Nazi forced labor camp and deliberately exterminated “undesirables,” including 6 million Jews, in what became known as the Holocaust. Japan imposed brutal measures on occupied Asian territories, especially Korea and China. In the United States, 120,000 West Coast Japanese, most of them U.S. citizens, were forced to leave their homes and businesses for internment in rural detention camps for the duration of the war. On both sides, the war mobilized millions of volunteers and conscripts and brought more women than ever before into the industrial economy. The United States instituted its very fi rst peacetime draft in 1940. African Americans, as they had in every American war since the Revolution, fought in racially segregated units commanded by white offi cers. This changed in 1948 when U.S. president Harry Truman controversially ordered the U.S. armed forces to desegregate. Some 30,000 Japanese Americans served, but they were sent to Europe, not the Pacifi c theater. As had also been true in the Great War, political offi cials for both the Axis and the Allies created massive public relations campaigns designed to demonize their enemy, preserve home front morale, and encourage obedience to various rationing and work initiatives. During the fi nal two years of World War II, both sides would introduce controversial new kinds of weapons. Germany’s blitz of London with manned bombers was succeeded in 1944–45 by even more terrifying unmanned medium-range rockets, the V1 and V2. Allied fi re bombings of Dresden, Germany, and Tokyo incinerated large parts of both targets, killing thousands of civilians. But the most controversial weapon by far was the atomic bomb, or A-bomb, used twice on Japan by the United States in August 1945. An experimental weapon created during the war by America’s top secret Manhattan Project, this bomb could be delivered by a small plane and destroy entire cities, as it did Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Conventional bombing had killed even more people; what made the A-bomb so terrible was the radiation it emitted, sickening survivors and causing their deaths or harming unborn children weeks or even years later. After the two A-bombs were dropped, Japan surrendered in September 1945, bringing World War II to its end. Warfare continued, however, despite the creation of the United Nations, a new global peacekeeping body headquartered in New York City, and well-publicized Nuremberg War Crimes and Tokyo International Court Trials of surviving Axis leaders. In 1949, forces led by Mao Zedong, which had been nurtured during Japan’s invasion of China while the Nationalist forces were ground down, fi nally won the Chinese Civil War, defeating China’s U.S.-supported Nationalist government and installing a communist regime. Anticolonial wars threatened the remains of British, Dutch, and French colonial interests. Britain granted independence to India in 1947, but most African and Asian nations would only gain independence in the years following 1950.
Volume VI - The Contemporary World - 1950 to the Present Edit
List of ArticlesEdit
African National Congress (ANC)
Alliance for Progress
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO)
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Angola, Republic of
Arab-Israeli-Palestinian peace negotiations
Arab-Israeli War (1956)
Arab-Israeli War (1967)
Arab-Israeli War (1973)
Arab-Israeli War (1982)
Arévalo, Juan José
Argentina, Madres de Plaza de Mayo
Armenia and Azerbaijan
arms race/atomic weapons
art and architecture
Asian Development Bank
Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
Assad, Hafez al-
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Aung San Suu Kyi
Ayub Khan, Muhammad
B Ba’ath Party baby boom, U.S. Baghdad Pact/CENTO Balkans (1991–present) Baltic States (1991–present) Banda, Hastings Bandung Conference (Asian-African Conference) Bangladesh, People’s Republic of Bay of Pigs Beat movement Berlin blockade/airlift Betancourt, Rómulo Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) Bhutto, Benazir ix Bhutto, Zulfikar Biafran War (1967–1970) biblical inerrancy Black Power movement Bolivian revolution (1952–1964) Bosch, Juan Bourguiba, Habib Bracero Program (1942–1964) Brazil, military dictatorship in (1964–1985) Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich Brown v. Board of Education Bush, George H.W. Bush, George W. C Canada after 1950 Caribbean Basin Initiative Carter, Jimmy Castro, Fidel Central Asia after 1991 Chávez, Hugo Chiang Ching-kuo “Chicago Boys” (Chilean economists, 1973–1980s) China, human rights and dissidents in China, People’s Republic of Chinese-Vietnamese conflict Civil Rights movement, U.S. Clinton, Bill (1946– ) and Hillary Rodham (1947– ) cold war Colombia, La Violencia in (1946–1966) Comecon Commonwealth of Nations contra war (Nicaragua, 1980s) counterculture in the United States and Europe Cuban migration to the United States Cuban missile crisis (October 1962) Cuban revolution (1959– ) Cyprus, independence of Cyprus, Turkish invasion of D Dalai Lama, 14th (Tenzin Gyatso) Darfur Day, Dorothy Democratic Progressive Party and Chen Shui-bian (Chen Shui-pien) Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaïre) Deng Xiaoping (Teng Hsiao-p’ing) disarmament, nuclear drug wars, international Dutch New Guinea/West Irian Duvalier dictatorship (Haiti, 1957–1986) E Eastern bloc, collapse of the East Timor Ebadi, Shirin Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) ecumenical movement Egyptian revolution (1952) El Salvador, revolution and civil war in (1970s– 1990s) environmental disasters (anthropogenic) environmental problems Equal Rights Amendment Eritrea Ethiopia, Federal Democratic Republic of European Economic Community/Common Market European Union F Falklands War (1982) Falun Gong Fanon, Frantz feminism, worldwide Fonseca Amador, Carlos Ford, Gerald Free Speech Movement FRELIMO G Gaitán, Jorge Eliécer Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv, and Sonia S. Gang of Four and Jiang Qing (Chiang Ch’ing) Gaulle, Charles de gay liberation movements General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Germany (post–World War II) Ghana globalization Gorbachev, Mikhail Graham, Billy Great Leap Forward in China (1958–1961) Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China (1966–1976) Great Society (U.S.) Greek Junta Green Revolution Grenada, U.S. invasion of (1983) Guatemala, civil war in (1960–1996) List of Articles Guevara, Ernesto “Che” Gulf War, First (1991) Gulf War, Second (Iraq War) H Hamas Hável, Vaclav Hizbollah Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Horn of Africa Hu Jintao (Hu Chin-t’ao) Hu Yaobang (Hu Yao-pang) Huk Rebellion Hundred Flowers Campaign in China (1956–1957) Hungarian revolt (1956) Hussein, Saddam I India Indochina War (First and Second) Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) Indo-Pakistani Wars (Kashmir) Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) International Monetary Fund (IMF) interstate highway system, U.S. Intifada (first) Intifada, al-Aqsa Iran, contemporary Iran-contra affair Iran hostage crisis Iranian revolution Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988) Iraq revolution (1958) Iraq War Irish Republican Army (IRA) Islamist movements J Janata Party Al Jazeera Jesus movement Jiang Zemin (Chiang Tse-min) John Paul II Johnson, Lyndon B. Jordan, Hashemite monarchy in K Karmal, Babrak Karzai, Hamid Kaunda, Kenneth Kennedy, John F. Kenya Kenyatta, Jomo Khan, Liaquat Ali Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khrushchev, Nikita Kim Il Sung (1912–1994)/Kim Jong Il (1942– ) King, Martin Luther, Jr. Koizumi, Junichiro Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Korean War (1950–1953) Kubitschek, Juscelino Kurds Kuwait Kyoto Treaty L Latin American culture Latin American politics Latin American social issues Lebanese civil war Liberal Democratic Party (Japan) Liberian civil wars (1989–1996 and 1999–2003) Libya Lin Biao (Lin Piao) literature Li Zongren (Li Tsung-jen) Lumumba, Patrice M Macao (1999) Macapagal-Arroyo, Gloria Makarios III Malaysia, Federation of Malcolm X Mandela, Nelson Manley, Michael Marcos, Ferdinand and Imelda Marshall, Thurgood Marshall Plan McCarthyism Meir, Golda Menchú, Rigoberta Mexico, agrarian reform in Mobutu Sese Seko Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott Montoneros (Argentine urban guerrillas, 1970s) Morocco Mossadeq, Mohammad Mountbatten, Louis, Lord List of Articles xi Mugabe, Robert Musharraf, Pervez music N Namibia Nasser, Gamal Abdel Ne Win Nehru, Jawaharlal Nepal civil war Ngo Dinh Diem Nguyen Van Thieu Nicaraguan revolution (1979–1990) Nigeria Nixon, Richard Nkrumah, Kwame Noriega, Manuel North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Numeiri, Jaafar Nunavut Territory, Canada Nyerere, Julius O Olympics (1950–present) Organization of American States (OAS) Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) P Pakistan People’s Party Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Park Chung Hee Pathet Lao Paz Estenssoro, Victor Peace Corps, U.S. Perón, Juan Domingo Philippine revolution (1986) Pinochet Ugarte, Augusto Poland (1991–present) Pol Pot Portugal (1930–present) Prague Spring presidential impeachment, U.S. Putin, Vladimir Q Qaddafi, Muammar al-Qaeda Quebec sovereignty movement Qutb, Sayyid R Rabin, Yitzhak Rahman, Sheikh Mujibur Reagan, Ronald Rhee, Syngman Rhodesia/Zimbabwe independence movements Roe v. Wade Rosenberg, Julius and Ethel Russian Federation Rwanda/Burundi conflict S Sahel, ecological crisis in San Francisco, treaty of Sandinista National Liberation Front Saudi Arabia School of the Americas Shanghai Communiqué Shastri, Lal Bahadur Shining Path Silva, Luiz Inácio Lula da Singapore Singh, Manmohan Sino-Soviet Treaty (1950) Solidarity movement Somalia (1950–2006) South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) Southern Baptist Convention Soviet Union, dissolution of the space exploration Spain Sri Lanka St. Lawrence Seaway student movements (1960s) suburbanization, U.S. Sudanese civil wars (1970–present) Suharto, Haji Mohammad Sukarno, Ahmed T Taiwan (Republic of China) Taliban Tamil Tigers Tashkent Agreement Tlatelolco massacre (1968) Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre Teresa of Calcutta, Mother terrorism Thatcher, Margaret Third World/Global South xii List of Articles Tiananmen Square massacre Tibetan Revolt (1959) Tito, Marshal Togo Torrijos, Omar Touré, Ahmed Sékou Trudeau, Pierre Turabi, Hassan ‘abd Allah al- Turkey U Uganda (1950–present) Ukraine United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Arab Republic (UAR) United Nations U Nu U.S.-Japan Mutual Defense Treaty U.S. relations with China (Nixon) U.S.-Republic of Korea Mutual Defense Treaty U.S.-Taiwan Mutual Defense Treaty V Vajpayee, Atal Bihari Vatican II Council (1962–1965) Velasco Ibarra, José Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Republic of Vietnam War Vo Nguyen Giap Vorster, B.J. W Wajed, Sheikh Hasina Warsaw Pact Watergate scandal Wen Jiabao (Wen Chia-pao) Western Saharan War World Bank World Trade Center, September 11, 2001 Y Yahya Khan Yeltsin, Boris Yemen Yoshida Shigeru Yugoslavia, breakup and war in Z Zapatistas Zhou Enlai (Chou En-lai) Zia, Khaleda Zia-ul-Haq, Mohammad
List of MapsEdit
The Cold War, 1946–1991 M161 China—Border Disputes and the Cultural Revolution, 1948–1983 M162 Indochina War, 1946–1954 M163 The Korean War, 1950–1953 M164 Suez Canal Crisis, 1956 M165 African Independence M166 The U.S. and Latin America, 1954–2000 M167 Israel following the 1967 War M168 Racial Unrest and Segregation in America, 1965–1968 M169 South Africa under Apartheid M170 The Vietnam War M171 Return of the Sinai to Egypt, 1975–1982 M172 Governments of the Middle East and North Africa M173 The Collapse of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact, 1989–1991 M174 Persian Gulf War, 1991 M175 The United Nations and the World M176–177 Asia: Wars, Political Unrest, and Territorial Disputes, 1945–Present M178 International Organizations M179 Major Regional Trading Groups M180 The Kyoto Protocol and CO2 Emissions M181 Yugoslavia, 1945–2006 M182 Oil Supply and Demand M183 Transportation and Infrastructure in the Modern World M184 Natural and Man-Made Environmental Disasters M185 Weapons of Mass Destruction, 2007 M186 Decolonization in South and Southeast Asia, 1947–2000 M187 Religion in the Modern World M188 Major Terrorist Attacks since 1979 M189 The Spread of Democracy and Women’s Suffrage M190–191 Air Campaign in Kosovo, March 25–June 20, 1999 M192
1950 USSR and China Sign Pact China signs a 30-year Treaty of Friendship with the Soviet Union. 1950 North Korea Invades the South The Korean War begins with an attack on June 24 made by North Korean forces across the 38th parallel dividing North and South Korea. 1950 Truman Announces National Emergency To respond to the strain on economic and military resources caused by the Korean War, U.S. President Truman announces a National Emergency. 1951 King Abdullah Is Assassinated King Abdullah of Jordan (formerly Transjordan) is assassinated while praying at the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. 1951 H-Bomb On May 12, the United States detonates a hydrogen bomb on a Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific. 1951 First Electronic Computer The Remington Rand Corporation unveils the first commercial digital computer, called the UNIVAC. 1952 King George VI Dies King George VI of Great Britain dies on February 6. Elizabeth is crowned queen. 1952 Mau Mau Begin Terrorist and Nationalist Actions A state of emergency is declared by the British governor of Kenya as the Mau Mau begin an open uprising against British rule. 1952 King Farouk Abdicates Young army officers, disgusted by widespread corruption in Egypt, stage a revolt against King Farouk. The revolt is led by General Mohammed Naguib and Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser. 1952 Revolt in Bolivia A revolt takes place in Bolivia when the Movimento Nacional Revolucionario is deprived of the election of its leader as president. 1952 Polio Vaccine Is Invented A vaccine against the disease polio is developed by Jonas Salk. 1952–57 First Five-Year Plan in People’s Republic of China follows the Soviet model. xix 1953 Korean Armistice On July 27, the signing of an armistice between the United Nations and North Korea ends the fighting of the Korean War. 1953 Stalin Dies Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, dies at the age of 73. Stalin is succeeded by Georgy Malenkov and, later, Nikita Khrushchev. 1954 U.S.–South Korea Mutual Defense Treaty The United States signs a military accord with South Korea. 1954 Dien Bien Phu On May 7, Dien Bien Phu falls to Communist Vietminh forces, and with it so do French hopes of victory in Vietnam. 1954 Geneva Accords The Geneva Accords end the French war in Indochina. Under the terms, the country is divided into a communist north and noncommunist south. Laos and Cambodia also become independent. 1954 SEATO Is Formed In an additional collective security alliance, modeled on the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, eight nations form the South East Asia Treaty Organization. 1954 Republic of China–U.S. Mutual Defense Treaty The United States provides the Republic of China protection against the People’s Republic of China. 1954 Revolt in Algeria The National Liberation Front (FLN) begins a revolt against French rule. 1954 Segregation Is Ruled Illegal The U.S. Supreme Court, in the case of Brown v. Board of Education, rules that segregation is unconstitutional. 1954 U.S. Backs Coup in Guatemala The Guatemalan government of Jacobo Arbenz Guzman is overthrown by military forces led by Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas. Armas receives direct support from the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. 1955 Bandung Conference of Nonaligned Nations A conference is held in Bandung, Indonesia, under People’s Republic of China and India’s leadership. 1955 Military Coup in Argentina President Juan Perón of Argentina is ousted by the military. Following the death of his wife, Eva, he loses much of his support. 1956 Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) Launches 100 Flowers Campaign Intellectuals in China are punished for criticizing the Chinese Communist Party 1956 Soviet Troops March into Hungary Rioting against the Soviets erupts throughout Hungary. Soviet troops are called in to put down the revolt. 1956 Tunisia and Morocco Become Independent Large-scale opposition to French rule forces the French to grant independence to Morocco. 1956 Sudan Becomes Independent Sudan had been under joint Egyptian-British rule. The Sudanese vote for independence, and on January 1, the country’s independence is declared. 1956 Suez War After sustained terrorist attacks launched from Egyptian territory, Israel, in coordination with Britain and France, attack and capture the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt. At the same time, Britain and France seize the Suez Canal, which has been nationalized by Egypt. 1957 Common Market Is Formed An economic union is formed by six European countries. 1957 Britain Grants Independence to Malaysia Malaysia is granted independence from British colonial rule and becomes a centralized federation with a constitutional monarchy. 1957 Sputnik Is Launched On October 4 the Soviet Union launches the first artificial satellite into space. 1957–75 Second Indochina War A war of national liberation in the wake of World War II is fought by nationalist Vietnamese against French, American, and Chinese forces. 1957 Military Dictatorship Ends in Venezuela A nine-year military dictatorship in Venezuela is ousted in 1957. Large-scale rioting leads to its fall. xx Chronology 1958 Imre Nagy Is Executed in Hungary The Hungarian Communist regime executes Imre Nagy, the leader of the Hungarian revolution of 1956. 1958 Egypt and Syria Join United Arab Republic Gamal Abdel Nasser successfully negotiates the merger of Egypt and Syria into the United Arab Republic. 1958 U.S. Troops Land in Lebanon President Dwight Eisenhower orders 5,000 U.S. Marines to Lebanon to help maintain order after the ouster of the pro-Western Lebanese government, and the revolution in Iraq brings down a pro-British regime. 1958–60 Mao Zedong’s Great Leap Forward Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) launches an economic and social plan with the goal of transforming mainland China into a modern communist society. 1959 Singapore Gains Independence Singapore becomes an independent state in the British Commonwealth on June 3. 1959 Uprising in Tibet Fighting breaks out between Communist Chinese troops and the population in Lhasa, who are rebelling against Communist rule. Dalai Lama flees to India. 1959 Castro Seizes Power in Cuba On January 1, Fidel Castro marches into Havana after Cuban dictator Batista flees. 1960 Syngman Rhee Is Ousted President of South Korea Syngman Rhee is ousted by student protests. 1960 Sino-Soviet Split An ideological split develops between Communist China and the Soviet Union. Armed border conflict occurs between the two nations. 1960 African Independence Niger, Mauritania, Mali, French Congo, Chad, and Madagascar all become independent. 1960 Nigerian Independence On October 1, Nigeria becomes independent. 1960 Belgian Congo Independence On June 30, an independent Republic of the Congo is created, with Joseph Kasavubu as president and Patrice Lumumba as premier. A civil war subsequently breaks out when Moise Tshombe declares Kantaga Province independent. 1961 Kennedy Is Inaugurated President John Kennedy gives a brief but stirring inaugural speech that signifies the birth of a new era. 1962 Agreement Establishes Malaysia Federation An agreement is reached on the establishment of a Malaysian federation comprising Malaysia, Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei, and British Borneo. 1962 Border War Between China and India Battles break out between the two countries over disputed territory. 1962 Burundi Independence Burundi was a part of Belgian Mandated Territory. It petitions the United Nations for full independence, which is granted in 1962. 1962 Algeria Is Granted Independence On July 1 Algerians vote overwhelmingly for independence from France. On July 3 Algeria officially declares its independence. 1962 Environmental Movement Is Launched Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring is published in September. By describing the effects of the use of pesticides and other chemicals on the environment, Carson helps launch the environmental movement. 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis The Soviets secretly place medium-range missiles in Cuba. When the U.S. government finds out, it blockades Cuba. The Soviets pull out the missiles, ending the crisis. 1963 Kenya Declares Independence On December 12, Great Britain grants Kenya independence within the Commonwealth. 1963 OAU Is Founded Representatives of 30 of the 32 independent nations of Africa meet in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to form the Organization of African Unity (OAU). 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Agreement The first test ban agreement between the United States Chronology xxi and the Soviet Union is ratified by the Senate on October 10. The agreement bans the above-ground testing of nuclear weapons. 1963 March on Washington, D.C. Two hundred thousand people participate in the largest nonviolent demonstration ever held to support the passage of civil rights legislation. 1963 President Kennedy Is Assassinated On November 22 while visiting Dallas, Texas, President Kennedy is shot and killed by Lee Harvey Oswald. 1964 China Explodes A-Bomb On October 16 the Chinese explode their first atomic weapon. 1964 Nikita Khrushchev Is Ousted Nikita Khrushchev is ousted as leader of the Soviet Union and is succeeded by Leonid Brezhnev. 1964 Tonkin Gulf Resolution The U.S. Congress passes the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, which gives the president the authorization to “take all necessary steps and measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression.” It leads to increased U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam War. 1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964 After a long fight the civil rights legislation of 1964 is passed. It gives the U.S. federal government broad powers to fight racial discrimination. 1965 War Escalates in Vietnam In March the United States initiates the first sustained attacks against North Vietnam, in an action named Rolling Thunder. 1965 Indo-Pakistani War The war is the second skirmish between India and Pakistan over control of Kashmir. 1965 Gambia Gains Independence On February 18 Gambia becomes an independent country. 1965 Singapore Becomes Independent Singapore secedes from Malaysia and gains independence. 1965 Rhodesia Declares Independence Rhodesia declares its independence from Great Britain, in defiance of the British government. 1966 Botswana Gains Independence On September 30 Botswana, formerly called the Bechuanaland Protectorate, becomes independent. 1966 Lesotho Gains Independence On October 4, the British colony of Basutoland becomes independent, and is renamed Lesotho. 1966 Sukarno Resigns Sukarno resigns as president of Indonesia, after a failed coup. He is succeeded by General Suharto. 1966 Nigerian Civil War In January a series of insurrections in the Nigerian army brings chaos to the country. 1966 Great Proletarian Revolution Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) launches another effort to reform Chinese society. 1966 National Organization of Women Is Founded The National Organization of Women is founded in the United States by Betty Friedan, who becomes its first president. 1967 ASEAN Is Formed The Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) is formed by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand to aid economic growth, progress, and cultural development, and to promote peace in Southeast Asia. 1967 Military Coup in Greece The Greek military stages a coup against the civilian government. All moderate and leftist politicians are arrested. When King Constantine refuses to support the military, he is sent into exile. 1967 Six-Day War After being threatened with attack, Israel attacks its Arab neighbors. In six days it gains victory over Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. 1967 Antiwar Protests Amid growing opposition to the war in Vietnam, large-scale antiwar protests are held in New York, San Francisco, and other U.S. cities. xxii Chronology 1967 Che Guevera Is Killed in Bolivia Ernesto “Che” Guevera is killed by Bolivian troops hunting down Bolivian rebels. 1968 Rioting in France French students take to the streets, bringing Paris to a virtual standstill. Fighting breaks out between the students and the police. 1968 “Prague Spring” in Czechoslovakia Alexander Dubcˇek becomes first secretary of the Communist Party in Czechoslovakia; his reforms are crushed by Soviet-led Warsaw Pact troops. 1968 Martin Luther King, Jr., Is Assassinated On April 4, a lone assassin kills Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., America’s leading civil rights activist. 1968 Robert Kennedy Is Assassinated Robert Kennedy, brother of the late President John F. Kennedy, is killed on June 5, after winning the Democratic primary for the presidency in California. 1969 Non-Proliferation Agreement Is Signed The United States and the Soviet Union sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, which pledges the two nations would not divulge secret information that would allow additional countries to build nuclear weapons. 1969 Clashes on Soviet-Chinese Border In March the ideological rift between the Soviet Union and Communist China deteriorates into fighting along the border. Thirty Soviet soldiers are killed in one clash on a small, uninhabited island in the Ussuri River. 1969 War Between Honduras and El Salvador Rioting after a lost soccer match leads to a brief war between Honduras and El Salvador. 1969 Apollo 11 Apollo 11, with Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin Aldrin, Jr., lifts off for the Moon on July 16. Four days later Neil Armstrong sets foot on the Moon. 1970 War in Vietnam Spreads to Cambodia On April 30 President Richard Nixon announces that U.S. troops would join with South Vietnamese troops to invade the border area of Cambodia and eliminate Communist sanctuaries. 1970 Four Are Killed at Kent State American campuses erupt in protest against the Vietnam War. At Kent State University, in Ohio, National Guardsmen kill four unarmed protesters. 1970 Salvador Allende Becomes President of Chile Salvador Allende Gossens is elected president of Chile. He is the first Marxist ever elected in free elections. 1971 Communist China Joins UN, Replacing Taiwan On October 25 the United Nations approves the membership of Communist China, replacing Taiwan. 1971 Idi Amin Seizes Power in Uganda In January, while Ugandan President Milton Obote is out of the country, Colonel Idi Amin stages a coup to oust the president. 1972 Arab Terrorists Attack Israeli Olympic Team Palestinian terrorists, who are members of the Black September Organization, attack the Israeli team at the 1972 Summer Olympics. 1972 Nixon Visits China On February 21, 1972, President Richard Nixon arrives in Beijing for a seven-day stay. Although no major agreements are reached during the summit, its occurrence ushers in a new era of diplomacy for the United States. 1973 U.S. Completes Withdrawal from Vietnam On January 27 the United States and North Vietnam sign the Paris peace accords. Under the terms of the accords, U.S. troops withdraw from Vietnam. 1973 Severe Drought A seven-year drought in sub-Saharan Africa brings starvation to over 100,000 people in the countries of Chad, Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, and Burkina Faso. 1973 Fourth Arab-Israeli War On October 6, the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, the Egyptians and the Syrians launch a surprise attack against Israel to retake territory occupied since 1967. 1973 Allende Is Killed in Coup A military coup, purportedly supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, deposes President Allende of Chile and replaces him with Augusto Pinochet Ugarte. Chronology xxiii 1974 Military Government of Greece Resigns The military junta in Greece resigns, turning control of the government over to Constantine Karamanlis. Martial law is lifted, and elections are held. 1974 Military Coup in Portugal A leftist military coup takes place in Portugal. It unseats the right-wing dictatorship in power for 40 years. 1974 India Explodes Nuclear Device On May 18 the Indians detonate a nuclear bomb in an underground explosion. 1974 Emperor Haile Selassie Is Deposed in Ethiopia The 44-year reign of Haile Selassie comes to an end when he is deposed by the army. 1974 President Nixon Resigns On August 8, 1974, Richard Nixon becomes the first president in U.S. history to resign. Nixon resigns as the House of Representatives is poised to vote on the articles of impeachment against him. He is succeeded by Gerald Ford. 1974 Soyuz-Apollo Mission The meeting of the American Apollo and the Soviet Soyuz on July 19, 1975, marks the first cooperative space mission between the United States and the Soviet Union. 1975 Helsinki Accords Thirty-five nations sign the Helsinki Accords. The accords recognize the borders of Europe as they had been at the end of the World War II, thus recognizing Soviet domination of the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). 1975 Franco Dies On November 20 Francisco Franco dies. His death ends a dictatorship that had lasted since the Spanish civil war. 1975 Pol Pot in Cambodia On April 17, Communist forces capture Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. The new Communist regime is headed by Pol Pot, who commits genocide in Cambodia. 1975 Communists Defeat South Vietnam On April 30 North Vietnamese Communist forces capture Saigon, ending the Vietnam War. 1975 Mozambique Gains Independence Portugal grants independence to Mozambique on June 25. 1975 Angola Independent Angola declares its independence from Portugal. Two separate governments are proclaimed. 1975 King Faisal Is Assassinated King Faisal ibn Abd-al-Aziz of Saudi Arabia is assassinated by a family member. 1976 Mao Zedong Dies Chairman Mao dies, the Cultural Revolution ends, and the Gang of Four is ousted. 1977 First Elections Are Held in Pakistan The first general elections held under civilian rule take place on March 7. 1978 Chiang Ching-kuo Is Elected President Chiang Ching-kuo is elected president of the Republic of China, beginning democratization. 1978 Sandinista Guerrillas Seize Hostages Sandinista guerrillas capture the National Palace in Managua, Nicaragua. They seize 1,500 hostages, including members of the legislature. 1978 Deng Xiaoping in Power Deng Xiaoping comes to power in China and begins economic reforms. 1978 John Paul II Is Elected Pope. John Paul II is the first Pole to be elected pope. 1979 SALT II The SALT II Accord is reached in June, allowing both the United States and the Soviet Union to build up to 2,250 missiles, of which 1,320 could be MIRVD (Multiple Independent Re-entry Vehicles). 1979 U.S. and China Establish Relations In January 1979 the United States and Communist China establish formal diplomatic relations. 1979 Vietnamese-China War In January 1979 Vietnamese troops capture Phnom Penh in an attempt to overthrow the government of Pol Pot. In response, the Chinese invade North Vietnam. xxiv Chronology 1979 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Is Hanged A military coup led by General Zia unseats President Bhutto in Pakistan. Bhutto is charged with corruption and sentenced to death. 1979 Soviets Invades Afghanistan Soviet troops pour into Afghanistan to support Hafizullah Amin, who has recently unseated Mohammed Taraki. The Soviets quickly send 40,000 troops but are unable to put down the rebellion launched by Taraki loyalists. 1979 Idi Amin Is Overthrown The despotic rule of Idi Amin comes to an end when a joint force of Ugandan rebels and Tanzanian troops enters the Ugandan capital of Kampala. Amin flees to Saudi Arabia. 1979 War Between Somalia and Ethiopia On August 8 Somalia invades Ethiopia, the latest chapter in the ongoing dispute over the Ogaden. 1979 Southern Rhodesia Becomes Zimbabwe The white-controlled government, under Ian Smith, successfully holds against majority rule until 1976. Robert Mugabe becomes president of Zimbabwe. 1979 Shah of Iran Is Ousted On January 16, the shah leaves Iran for exile. One week later, the Ayatollah Khomeini returns from exile and forms an Islamic revolutionary government. 1979 Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel On March 26, in Washington, D.C., a peace agreement is signed between Egypt and Israel, brokered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter. 1979 Militants Seize U.S. Embassy Angered by the arrival of the shah in the United States for medical treatment, militants attack and seize the American embassy in Tehran. Forty-nine embassy employees are held hostage for 444 days. 1979 Sandinistas Revolution Triumphant A multi-class insurrection against the Somoza dictatorship results in the coming to power of the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, initiating the 11-year Sandinista revolution (1979–90). 1979 Civil War in El Salvador Civil war breaks out in El Salvador. A military coup unseats the incumbent President Carlos Humberto Romero. 1980 Strikes Across Poland Polish workers, led by Lech Wałe¸sa, strike the Gdan´sk shipyards. The workers win a major victory when the government agrees to demands made by the newly formed Solidarity Trade Union to legalize unions as well as affirm the right to strike. 1980 Gang of Four on Trial The Gang of Four, consisting of Jiang Qing (Mao’s fourth wife) and other important leaders in the Cultural Revolution, go on trial in China. The Gang of Four fell from power after Mao Zedong’s death in 1976. 1980 Libyan Troops Intervene in Chad Civil War Civil war breaks out in Chad between the forces of President Goukouni Oueddei and Prime Minister Hissène Habré. 1980 Iraq-Iran War Iraq invades Iran. The war lasts until 1988, and it is estimated that almost one million people die. 1980 Leftists Seize Embassy in Colombia Members of the Colombian April 19th movement take over the Dominican Republic’s embassy during a reception. 1981 Mitterrand Is Elected French President François Mitterrand is elected as the first French socialist president in a surprise win over incumbent Valéry Giscard d’Estaing. 1981 Martial Law in Poland Martial law is imposed in Poland by Polish leader General Wojciech Jaruzelski in an attempt to repress the Solidarity movement. 1981 Anwar Sadat Is Assassinated Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated by Muslim extremists who oppose his peace agreement with Israel and the increasingly repressive regime in Egypt. 1981 Reagan Arms Buildup President Ronald Reagan proposes a $180 billion expansion of the American military over the next six years. Chronology xxv 1981 Assassination Attempt On March 30 President Reagan is shot and gravely wounded by a lone gunman, John Hinckley, Jr. 1982 Israel invades Lebanon Israel invades Lebanon on June 6, advancing to Beirut, and continues to hold South Lebanon until 2000. 1982 War in the Falklands On April 2 the Argentinean military seizes the Falkland Islands off the coast of Argentina. On May 21, the first British troops land on the Falklands and rapidly defeat the Argentinean forces. 1983 Northern Chad Is Seized Libya continues its involvement in Chad. The government requests and receives aid from both the U.S and French governments. 1983 U.S. Invasion of Grenada Under the guise of an invitation by the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, U.S. troops intervene and take control of the island. 1984 Indira Gandhi Is Assassinated Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is killed by two of her Sikh bodyguards in revenge for her armed raid on their temple. She is succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi. 1984 United Kingdom and China Agree on Hong Kong Great Britain and the People’s Republic of China agree on terms for the return of Hong Kong to China when the 99-year lease of portions of Hong Kong expires in 1997. 1984 Poison Gas Tragedy in India Gas escapes from the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India. The gas, which is methyl isocyanate (used in the manufacture of insecticides), kills 2,000 people; 200,000 suffer long-term harm. 1984 Moderates Win Election in El Salvador Free elections held in El Salvador bring José Napoleon Duarte to power as president. Duarte is considered a moderate. 1984 AIDS Epidemic Begins French research scientists report isolating the HIV virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). 1985 Gorbachev Becomes Soviet Leader Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is named the new leader of the Soviet Union. He begins reforms and brings in Boris Yeltsin, who later replaces him. 1985 Nimeiri Is Ousted in the Sudan General Nimeiri is ousted in the Sudan after serving as the head of government since 1969. 1985 TWA Flight 847 Is Hijacked A TWA Boeing 727 is hijacked by two Shi’i terrorists; 153 people are held hostage. After Israel releases 31 of its Shi’i prisoners, the hostages are released. 1985 United States Becomes Debtor Nation For the first time since 1914, the United States owes more money to foreigners than it is owed. 1986 Nuclear Disaster at Chernobyl A Soviet nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in Ukraine not far from Kiev explodes, releasing fatal radiation to the surrounding areas. 1986 Summit at Reykjavík A two-day summit is held in Reykjavík, Iceland, between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev. At the summit, the Soviets make major concessions in negotiations on strategic arms. 1986 Marcos Is Deposed Filipino leader Ferdinand Marcos has parliament declare him the winner in a fraudulent election, even though his opponent has actually won. Mass demonstrations ensue, and Marcos is forced to flee when the army refuses to put down the demonstrations. He is succeeded by the true winner of the election, Corazon Aquino. 1986 Iran Contra The Reagan administration confirms that it has been selling arms to Iran, which is fighting a war with Iraq, in an effort to obtain the release of American hostages in Lebanon. 1987 Reagan and Gorbachev Meet The signing of the INF (Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces) treaty in 1987 marks the beginning of the end of the cold war. 1987 Libyan Troops Are Driven Out of Chad Chad takes the offensive in its civil war. The army of xxvi Chronology Chad attacks Libyan forces in the northern village of Aozou and routs them. 1987 Intifada Begins When an Israeli truck in the Gaza Strip hits and kills four people, Palestinians respond with protests. 1988 Gorbachev Announces Unilateral Troop Cuts Soviet Premier Gorbachev announces at the UN that the Soviet Union is unilaterally cutting back its conventional forces in eastern Europe by 500,000 troops. 1988 Benazir Bhutto Is Elected Benazir Bhutto is elected prime minister of Pakistan, the first woman in a Muslim country to hold the position. 1988 Soviets Out of Afghanistan The Soviets agree to remove troops from Afghanistan. 1988 Ten-Day Siege of Golden Temple Thirty-six are killed during the siege of the Sikh Golden Temple by the Indian army. 1988 Free Elections Held in Soviet Union Free elections are held in the Soviet Union for the first time in its history. Boris Yeltsin is elected president of the Russian Federation. 1989 Solidarity Wins Election in Poland On June 5 the Solidarity movement wins by an overwhelming majority in the first free election in Poland. 1989 Berlin Wall Comes Down On October 18, the regime of Erich Hoenecker, the Communist leader of East Germany, falls. It succumbs to increasing riots, as well as a flood of East Germans leaving via the open borders of Hungary. 1989 Czechoslovakia Elections The Communist regime of Czechoslovakia yields to popular demands and allowed free elections. 1989 Ceaus¸escu Ousted in Romania In the only bloody revolt in eastern Europe, Communist Romanian strongman Nicolae Ceaus¸escu is deposed. 1989 Tiananmen Square In April students in Beijing begin a series of demonstrations demanding democratization of China. They are bloodily put down by the Chinese Communist Party. 1989 U.S Troops Invade Panama When Panamanian strongman Manuel Noriega clamps down on the limited democracy existing in Panama, the United States intervenes and ousts the Noriega-led government. 1989 Chileans Vote to End Military Rule Elections held in December bring Patricio Aylwin to power as president of Chile. 1990 Lithuania Independent On March 11 the Lithuanian Parliament declares its independence from the Soviet Union. 1990 Germany Is Reunited On October 3 East and West Germany reunite, ending the division created at the end of World War II. 1990 Free Elections in Poland Lech Wałe¸sa is elected president of Poland. He receives 74 percent of the vote. 1990 Elections in Myanmar In the first free elections in 30 years, the voters of Myanmar (formerly Burma) repudiate the military government, which is ignored. 1990 Nelson Mandela Is Freed Nelson Mandela, leader of the African National Congress, is released after 27 years in prison by President F. W. de Klerk as the first step in the creation of a multiracial democracy. 1990 Namibia Independent After being occupied by South Africa for nearly 70 years, Namibia becomes independent. 1990 Gulf War Begins On August 2 Iraq attacks Kuwait. In response the United States leads an international coalition that frees Kuwait. 1991 Airlift of Ethiopian Jews to Israel In a period of 36 hours, Israel airlifts 14,500 Jews from Ethiopia to Israel. 1991 Failed Kremlin Coup On August 21, hard-line Communists stage a coup Chronology xxvii against the government of Mikhail Gorbachev. It fails when Boris Yeltsin, the leader of the Russian Federation, rallies popular support against it. 1991 Rajiv Gandhi Is Assassinated Rajiv Gandhi, prime minister of India and son of Indira Gandhi, is killed by an ethnic Tamil from Sri Lanka. 1991 Cambodian Civil War Ends Under pressure from the world’s powers, the Vietnamese- controlled Cambodian government and rebel forces reach a peace agreement. 1991 Eritrea Independent After a 30-year armed struggle against Ethiopian domination, Eritrean forces defeat the Ethiopian military and gain independence. 1991 End of the Soviet Union On December 21 representatives of 11 former Soviet Republics meet in Alma Ata and sign Declaration of the Commonwealth of Independent States. 1992 Civil War Begins in Former Yugoslavia Civil war breaks out in Yugoslavia after the fall of the Communist regime. Among its former components are Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Croatia, and Slovenia. 1992 End of Military Rule in South Korea Kim Young Sam becomes the first nonmilitary candidate to be elected president of South Korea. 1992 Security Council Votes Sanctions on Libya The UN Security Council votes to impose sanctions on Libya for refusing to surrender two suspects in the bombing of a Pan Am flight over Scotland. 1992 El Salvador Signs Peace Agreement The guerrilla movement and the El Salvador government sign an agreement, ending a 13-year civil war. 1993 Terrorists Attack World Trade Center In February a powerful bomb explodes in the World Trade Center in New York, killing seven and injuring 1,000. The bombers are Islamists. 1993 Israel and PLO Reach Accord Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization reach an accord on an Israeli withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and the West Bank town of Jericho. 1994 Mandela Is Elected President of South Africa Nelson Mandela is elected the first black leader of South Africa in its first free multiracial election. 1994 Civil War in Chechnya A civil war breaks out in the Russian province of Chechnya after Chechens demand independence. 1995 Israeli Prime Minister Is Assassinated Yitzhak Rabin, Israel’s prime minister, is assassinated on November 3 by a right-wing Israeli opponent of the peace process. 1996 Elections in Bosnia The Dayton Accords are signed, ending armed hostilities between hostile religious groups and mandating elections in Bosnia. 1996 Taliban Gains Control of Afghanistan The Taliban, a Muslim fundamentalist group, captures Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. 1996 Suicide Bombers Hit Israel A series of suicide bombings strike both Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, seriously affecting the peace process. 1997 Britain Returns Hong Kong to China British rule over Hong Kong comes to an end on July 1, with the region returning to China. China agrees to maintain extensive autonomy for Hong Kong. 1998 Northern Ireland Peace Representatives of Catholics and Protestants of Ireland, together with representatives of the Irish Republic and the United Kingdom, sign a major peace accord. 1998 U.S. Embassies Are Bombed Simultaneously On August 7 bombs explode at U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 1999 Free Parliamentary Elections in Indonesia On June 7 Indonesia holds free parliamentary elections. The opposition leader, Megawati Sukarnoputri, wins the most support. 1999 President Clinton Is Impeached U.S. President Bill Clinton is impeached by the House of Representatives but is acquitted by the Senate. 2000 Camp David Summit Fails Chances for peace between Palestinians and Israel xxviii Chronology Chronology xxix are dashed when a summit hosted by President Clinton fails. Palestinians begin another uprising against Israeli occupation. 2000 Bush Becomes U.S. President Republican George W. Bush wins a contested election against Democrat Al Gore. The U.S. Supreme Court decides in favor of Bush. 2001 9/11 Terrorist Attack Terrorists crash two planes into the World Trade Center in New York and a third into the Pentagon. 2001 U.S. Forces to Afghanistan A U.S.-led coalition invades Afghanistan, fighting against and ousting the Taliban government for giving sanctuary to Osama bin Laden, leader of the 9/11 terrorism group al-Qaeda. 2003 U.S. Invades Iraq U.S. troops invade Iraq and overthrow the regime of Saddam Hussein. Conflicts continue. 2004 Madrid Terror Attacks On March 11 a series of coordinated terrorist attacks take place, aimed at the Madrid commuter train system. The attacks kill a total of 192 people and wound 2,050. 2004 Genocide Begins in Darfur After a rebellion breaks out in western Sudan the government instigates militias and turns on the local population. 2005 Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina strikes New Orleans. One million people are forced to flee and more than 1,800 are killed. 2006 North Korea Explodes A-Bomb North Korea becomes a member of the nuclear club when it reportedly tests an atomic bomb. 2007 Iraq War Continues U.S. forces continue fighting in Iraq, a war now lasting longer than World War II.
Major Themes (1950 to the Present)Edit
Between 1950 and 2000 the world population increased from about 2.5 billion to over 6 billion people. Throughout this era food shortages and malnutrition persisted in parts of eastern and southern Asia, Central and South America, and throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Famines were caused by human factors such as war, civil strife, and failed economic and political policies, while sometimes being exacerbated by natural disasters such as drought. In the 1970s an almost decade-long drought in the Sahel region of Africa south of the Sahara contributed to the death of millions. Hundreds of thousands of others left their homes, walking long distances to neighboring countries in search of food. These refugees then became dependent on subsistence aid from governments or relief agencies. In the early 21st century, a peanut-based paste (Plumpy’nut), developed by a French scientist, André Briend, offered high nutritional value at very low cost and seemed a promising means of alleviating severe malnutrition among children in Africa. A human-made famine caused by the communist regime under Mao Zedong resulted in the deaths of 27 million people in China from 1958 to 1960. The reversal of Mao’s agricultural policies in the 1980s under Deng Xiaoping increased agricultural production by 50 percent in only eight years. Inefficiencies and waste on collective farms also resulted in food shortages in the Soviet Union. In the Middle East, some oil-rich nations such as Libya and Saudi Arabia devoted huge amounts of money to subsidize agricultural and livestock production in order to avoid total dependence on food imports. Vast agricultural projects, some using hydroponics (growth in water), irrigation, and other techniques increased production but were not cost-effective. Nations in the region with large populations and little oil, such as Egypt, were unable to adopt such expensive technologies to increase productivity. Subsistence production in Central and South America declined as commercial agriculture grew; rural producers everywhere became increasingly linked to national and international markets. Overall, imports of food increased as the 20th century progressed. United States foreign aid was often tied to the acceptance of U.S. food imports that sought to dump excess production Major Themes 1950 to the Present xxxi overseas. Most poor countries remained dependent on the export of low-priced single crops, such as coffee from Brazil, bananas and other fruits from Central America, and cocoa and peanuts from West Africa. By the 21st century, privatization and globalization had further lowered the prices of agricultural products from nations in the Global South, leading to greater rural poverty. The United States and others also sought to export wheat; hence, in Mexico and other South American nations wheat bread gradually began to undermine the popularity of the traditional corn tortillas that provided more complete nutrients. Similarly, mothers in much of the Global South were encouraged to buy manufactured milk formulas rather than nursing their infants. The degradation of the environment also made it harder for the rural poor to eke out livelihoods on depleted and deforested soils with insufficient water supplies. In contrast, heavy government subsidies and protectionist policies protected farmers and the agricultural sector in Europe, North America, and Australasia. Technological and political developments led to the increase of food production and distribution in many regions. Improved transportation and communication systems allowed food from rich agricultural nations, especially the United States, Canada, and Australia, to be distributed in poor regions. International humanitarian aid organizations and aid benefits by rock stars and others helped to provide needed relief. Scientific and technological advances and chemical fertilizers also increased the yields of vital grains per acre. However, the application of these developments was uneven. Poor countries used the least amount of fertilizers; ranging from 200 grams per hectare of arable land in the Central African Republic to 535,800 grams per hectare in South Korea. Pesticide use was similarly uneven. The “green revolution” begun in the 1960s introduced high-yielding rice, corn, and wheat; as a result of the use of these high-yield crops, the world’s rice production doubled between 1967 and 1992, and India went from being a grain-importing nation to an exporter of rice. Harvests in Mexico and other nations also increased. Thus, formerly famine-prone nations such as India, Bangladesh, China, and Mexico were able to produce sufficient food to feed their growing populations, although pockets of hunger and malnutrition remained. By the 1990s scientists had also successfully genetically modified (GM) key crops and livestock to increase production. Vast irrigation projects such as the Aswa¯n Dam in Egypt, the Three Gorges Dam in China, and the Atatürk Dam in Turkey also brought new land into agricultural production, as well as generating electrical power for civilian use and industry. Unfortunately, these projects came at high ecological and human costs. Some argued that smaller, more technologically appropriate projects might have produced the same results at lower human and economic costs. The development of new and less perishable foodstuffs was sometimes driven by wars or the military. For example, during World War II, instant eggs and Spam were adopted as rations to feed troops. After the war, many in the West adopted these products as part of their usual diets. The space program also contributed to the development of high-energy drinks and dehydrated foods. A wide variety of easily available and inexpensive frozen foods provided convenience to Western homemakers who eagerly fed TV dinners and other “fast foods” to their families. These new foodstuffs altered the eating habits of many in the West and freed homemakers, mostly women, from long hours spent in food preparation. Fast-food franchises proliferated from the West to Russia, the Middle East, India, and China. The wealthy around the world adopted Western eating styles and foodstuffs, including soft drinks, hamburgers, and pizza. Conversely, Asian cuisine from India, Thailand, and China became popular in the United States and Europe. Other new foodstuffs, including a wide variety of soft drinks, were popular worldwide. Health concerns, especially among the middle and upper classes in the West, contributed to the popularity of organic foods and eating locally grown products that were close to nature. Many also adopted the Mediterranean diet heavy with fruits and vegetables with little meat. The poor in the West and the rest of the world were generally unable to afford these more expensive foodstuffs or diets. Hence although much of the world’s population was better fed by the beginning of the 21st century, people in Europe, North America, Japan, and Australasia consumed about one-third more xxxii 1950 to the Present calories per day than people in poor nations. The discrepancy in consumption of protein, particularly meat, was even greater. Whereas obesity was an increasing problem among the wealthy, malnutrition and hunger continued to threaten the health and longevity of the poor.
Science and Technology
The pace of scientific and technological discovery surged in the second half of the 20th century and showed no sign of ebbing in the 21st. Although most discoveries further enriched the world’s wealthiest nations, as had been true since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, other countries, including China, India, South Korea, Taiwan, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and South Africa, began to pose an energetic challenge to the West and Japan. For the United States and Soviet Union, the cold war was for many years the engine that drove innovation. Both nations’ huge spending on military projects often also yielded important scientific information and an array of new consumer products. Among innovations that began in the defense sector were jet aircraft, lasers and global positioning devices, electronic computers, and the Internet. “Big Science” and “Big Technology,” carried out in government agencies, major universities, and huge corporate laboratories, created what U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower criticized in a 1961 speech as the “military-industrial complex.” Eisenhower was not the only American, or human, to fear a world led by the “scientific-technological elite.” During this period, the legitimacy of science and invention would be undercut by growing environmental degradation, chemical and atomic disasters, the emergence of dangerous new diseases, and troubling ethical questions. The Space Frontier. Both Britain and Germany flew jet-propelled airplanes into battle during World War II, but commercial use of these much faster planes grew slowly in the postwar years. By 1955, the Soviets had jets in service; an early passenger was Premier Nikita Khrushchev. The U.S. airline industry, profitably flying propeller planes, took longer to introduce jet engines. But by 1959, Pan American World Airways was flying Boeing 707 jets from New York to Paris, halving the time of the trip. Meanwhile, military pilots were testing the limits of terrestrial flight. In 1947, American pilot Chuck Yeager, piloting a Bell X-1 jet, officially exceeded Mach 1, the speed of sound (approximately 660 miles per hour). Although supersonic flight led to outer space programs, it failed commercially. Concorde, the British-French luxury passenger plane, could fly at twice the speed of sound but was expensive to operate and limited to certain airports. The Concorde fleet was withdrawn from service in 2003, three years after its only fatal crash. The Space Race began on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the world’s first artificial satellite, into earth orbit. Sputnik was no bigger than a basketball, but its successful 98-minute trip was seen by alarmed Americans as a huge Soviet victory. Within months, the United States kicked its embryonic space program into high gear. In June 1958, Congress authorized the creation of NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Although the Soviet Union and United States were the main competitors in the space program, France, under Premier Charles de Gaulle, and other nations were also motivated by Sputnik. The Soviets were first to put humans in space; only American missions set humans on the Moon, the first time in 1969. As the cold war waned, national prestige missions mostly gave way to scientific space exploration and commercial ventures. The U.S. Space Shuttle program began in 1972. The Soviet Union manned a space station, which later became an international endeavor. Europe’s Ariane program in 1980 became a private venture that marketed space opportunities, including satellite launches. In 2003, China successfully launched an astronaut. Astronomers and cosmologists sought more basic information about the universe—its age, origins, and size. American Edwin Hubble and Briton Stephen Hawking were among those seeking to define the beginning of the universe. The so-called big bang theory, now accepted by virtually all scientists, posits an explosion 10 to 15 billion years ago, with Earth’s solar system appearing about 5 billion years ago. Hubble (1889–1953) was honored in 1990 when the Hubble Space Telescope began sending back images of the universe unimpeded by Earth’s atmosphere. Unmanned missions 1950 to the Present xxxiii to the Moon, Mars, and other planets have also resulted in new information and recategorizations of planets and other heavenly bodies. Energy. Finding sufficient energy for a growing and industrializing world population proved to be a major challenge. Soon after the United States dropped its two atomic bombs in 1945, some physicists and business interests began to promote peaceful uses of atomic energy. Although hundreds of nuclear-fueled power plants are operating around the world, especially in Japan and Europe, an atomic age of abundant clean energy did not come to pass in the 20th century. Nuclear energy’s beginning as a fearful weapon that caused not only instant deaths but lingering radiation sickness did not help its image. Nor did the United States’s development of an even more destructive hydrogen bomb. In 1963, the United States and Soviet Union acknowledged some of these concerns, signing a treaty that required weapons tests underground to minimize atmospheric contamination Electric utilities using fossil fuels—coal and petroleum—produce greater air pollution than nuclear power plants, but they enjoyed several advantages. Less heavily regulated, they also did not need to store or process radioactive waste that could last for thousands of years, as spent plutonium fuel did. Nuclear plants also required constant cooling. Cooling water inevitably got hot as it circulated through reactors. Although this water was not radioactive, it could cause thermal pollution if dumped into local rivers and was implicated in the deaths of fish and other aquatic life. By the 1960s, ecologists were describing these adverse effects and enthusiasm for nuclear plants was waning. A near disaster at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979, followed in 1986 by a reactor meltdown in Chernobyl, Ukraine, that spread high levels of radiation across much of western Europe, brought new nuclear projects almost to a halt. Late in the century, evidence of global warming mounted as ice sheets in the Arctic and Antarctic began melting rapidly. Carbon dioxide levels climbed, and the protective ozone layer shrank. Although Earth had experienced cycles of abnormal warmth and cold even before humans appeared, most scientists and some political leaders feared that human activity was seriously disrupting the world’s climate. They urged energy conservation and alternatives to carbon-rich oil and coal, such as solar and wind power, hydrogen, and synthetic fuels. In 2005, 140 nations ratified the Kyoto Protocols, designed to limit destructive emissions. The United States, proportionally the world’s largest energy user, declined to sign the treaty. Chemistry and Material Science. New synthetics enabled the construction of cheaper, betterinsulated houses, taller office buildings, and safer roads and bridges. Plastics, along with resins and epoxy, came into their own in the 1950s, usually replacing traditional natural materials. From noiron polyester clothing to nonstick cookware, from fireproofing to mold-proofing, companies like Monsanto, BASF, and DuPont promised “better living through chemistry.” Pharmaceutical chemists, like Germany’s Bayer, engineered new medicines and made them easier to use. Agricultural pesticides significantly improved crop yields. But side effects rose in tandem with chemistry’s proliferating consumer and industrial applications. Nearly indestructible, plastics soon glutted landfills. In 1962, scientist Rachel Carson blamed DDT, a powerful insecticide formulated by Swiss scientists in the 1930s, for bird deaths. At Love Canal in Niagara Falls, New York, industrial wastes left behind by a chemical company were blamed in 1978 for illnesses affecting both adults and children, whose school was built atop a toxic dump. In the Indian industrial city Bhopal in 1984, a Union Carbide plant leaked the pesticide methyl isocyanate, exposing 500,000 people to sickening fumes and killing thousands. The Bhopal area was still contaminated 20 years later. The Information Age. ENIAC, the first electronic computer, was completed in 1945 at the University of Pennsylvania under a military contract. Engineer J. Presper Eckert and physicist John W. Mauchly’s enormous device was powered by 18,000 vacuum tubes and performed 5,000 calculations per second. Hungarian refugee John von Neumann soon after developed what became the basic architecture of computer systems. The invention of transistors by lab scientists at Bell Laboratories in 1948 eventually eliminated clumsy vacuum tubes and paved the way for microchips that xxxiv 1950 to the Present would make computers and many other digital devices much smaller, cheaper, and more powerful. While computers allegedly reduced paper documents, new copying and printing technologies only increased the flood. The process that would eventually be trademarked by the Xerox Corporation was invented in 1938 but did not become commercially viable until the 1960s. As computers found ways to “talk” to each other, old-line consumer businesses like Corning Glass became suppliers of fiber-optic technology, carrying millions of data and voice messages around the world. New opportunities for instant worldwide communication proved to be both a promise and a threat. Despite unequal access across national and class lines, these devices were readily adapted in most societies. It seemed that the Internet might do to printed books and newspapers what automobiles had done to railroads. Human Engineering. Deoxyribonucleic acid—DNA—might be the most important biological breakthrough in human history. Identified and decoded in 1953 by researchers James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin, this double helix composed of four protein building blocks has been used to identify criminals, trace ancestors, and pinpoint disease processes. The Human Genome was “mapped” in 2000 by multinational efforts involving both university geneticists and commercial DNA scientists. DNA holds out the promise of eradicating genetic diseases but has also raised troubling ethical issues of privacy, eugenics, and equality of medical care. New reproductive technologies are especially controversial. In Britain in 1978, the first healthy “test tube” baby was born after her father’s sperm and mother’s eggs were mixed by physicians in a laboratory. In vitro fertilization, as it is now called, became a relatively routine technique for couples struggling with infertility. Controversy grew as some fertilization techniques produced multiple births, and a few women past menopause used medical techniques to carry babies to term. Socalled boutique babies also raised ethical questions. At least theoretically, parents could choose their child’s sex or sexual orientation, their height and looks, or their IQ and mental proclivities. Some ethicists are disturbed by these developments, seeing them as a form of prenatal eugenics. In 1955 doctors Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin independently developed vaccines to end polio, a waterborne viral disease that crippled or killed. Franklin D. Roosevelt, who contracted polio in 1920, was America’s most famous victim of the prevaccine disease. A few years later, smallpox was declared eradicated. For a while, it looked as though medical advances would soon end most human disease. New drugs, including medications for mental illnesses, indeed prolonged and improved lifespans. But access to medical care was extremely inequitable, even in wealthy nations like the United States, and more so in less-developed societies. America’s “War on Cancer” made progress but found few certain cures. The shocking emergence in the 1980s of previously unknown diseases —particularly HIV/AIDS—convincingly showed that human scientific knowledge had not yet created a perfect world.
Social and Class Relations
Major social and class changes occurred around the world in the post–World War II era. In the United States, the GI Bill enabled hundreds of thousands of young veterans to attend university, thereby opening up white-collar and professional jobs for an entire generation of working class or rural youth. After the war, there was also a huge baby boom in the United States, Europe, and Australasia. In the United States, many families moved from agricultural or urban areas to the suburbs, often buying new homes with loans provided for veterans. Road systems, shopping malls, schools, and hospitals were constructed to provide services for these new residents. The same trends were followed by the peoples in western Europe, Canada, and Australia. In Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, many young people and families flocked to the cities to find work and better ways of life. Urbanization became a global phenomenon in the last half of the 20th century. By 2006 more than 8 million Chinese peasants annually were moving into cities to find work. Whereas Great Britain had five cities of over a million people, China by 2000 had 90. In Central and South America, where social and class relations were most starkly contrasted, urban populations swelled and vast slums sprang up in major cities like São Paulo, Bogotá, and Lima. Similarly 1950 to the Present xxxv large slums, inhabited mostly by migrants from rural regions, also surrounded many African and Asian cities. Higher population density also made many more people vulnerable to natural disasters such as the 2004 tsunami that devastated parts of Southeast Asia, or the periodic earthquakes that have killed tens of thousands in Turkey, Iran, and Indonesia. During the 1950s and 1960s, the struggle for independence in Asia and Africa led to the creation of a host of newly independent states that often turned toward the Soviet model of a planned economy in attempts to foster rapid development. In Central and South America working-class peoples’ organizations began to emerge in both rural and urban areas. In contrast, in industrialized nations such as the United States trade union membership dropped. With end of the cold war, most formerly Communist nations, as well as those like India that had emulated the socialist model, dismantled state-owned enterprises in favor of capitalism and privatization. After the death of Mao Zedong, China also abandoned most state-owned enterprises in favor of free-market ones. The gap between the rich and poor globally, and within many nations, widened in the later part of the 20th century. In the post–cold war era, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank often demanded privatization and opening up of markets as prerequisites for loans and assistance to African, Asian, and Latin American nations. As socialist economies in eastern Europe collapsed or were dismantled, many workers lost the social safety net that socialist states had once provided. Nations in western Europe continued to provide a wide range of social benefits including healthcare for their citizens, while some oil rich Middle Eastern nations such as Kuwait and Libya implemented sweeping welfare states to provide free education, health care, and a host of other benefits for their citizens. In contrast, although one of the richest and most powerful nations on Earth, the United States failed to implement universal health care for its citizens. By 2006 almost a billion people (out of a world total of over 6 billion)—mostly in Africa, Central and South America, and parts of Asia—lived below the extreme poverty line of $1 per day. Although wealthy European nations, the United States, and Japan talked about and implemented some debt renegotiations or cancellations, huge debts continued to burden the poorest countries. The status of women and family life also continued to undergo major changes in the second half of the 20th century. Beginning in the 1960s, women in Western nations again entered the workforce in large numbers. The development of the birth control pill and other forms of contraception in the 1950s and beyond opened new social horizons for women, while the Kinsey Report on Sex in 1948 resulted in a more open attitude on sexuality. Laws that made abortion legal were enacted in many Western nations and Japan. To prevent a continuing population explosion, China had enacted a strict one-child-per-couple rule by 1980. Abortion also became a major issue of social and political conflict in the United States and some other nations. Likewise, homosexual and lesbian demands for equal rights exacerbated political differences between liberals and conservatives, especially in the United States. New generations of feminists also demanded the extension of equal rights and fuller political and economic participation for women around the world. For example, Doria Shafik in Egypt campaigned for voting rights for women and better educational opportunities, while Simone de Beauvoir of France, Betty Friedan in the United States, and Germaine Greer from Australia called for equality in jobs, equal pay for equal work, and changes in social mores on housework and child care and other traditional female roles. Old stereotypes of “women’s” versus “men’s” work were challenged. Women also played important roles in revolutions in the developing nations, as in Vietnam and Algeria. While many women have risen to lead their governments, many others failed to gain equal rights in their post-independence countries. Women’s international congresses in Mexico, China, and elsewhere have continued to address the problems of persistent inequality of payment for work, human rights, and access to education. Women’s rights have also been set back in the United States by the failure to gain ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment and in many Muslim countries because of fundamentalist interpretations of Islam. On the positive side, Wangari Muta Maathai in Kenya, a government minister and activist, championed environmental and women’s rights; she empowered women by providing seedlings to women xxxvi 1950 to the Present to plant in public and private lands in exchange for small remuneration and won the 2004 Nobel Peace Prize. Muslim women feminists Fatima Mernissi of Morocco and Shirin Ebadi of Iran (the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize winner) both wrote about rights of Muslim women; their work provided liberal interpretations of Islamic tradition and law and promoted feminism as part of Islam. Nawal al Saddawi of Egypt and others also spoke out against crimes of honor and physical domestic abuse, which is a global problem. The Gameen Bank, begun by the economist Mohammad Yunus from Bangladesh, has made hundreds of thousands of microloans to women to empower them economically. This model has been copied in several countries, and Yunus was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006. Women have been elected as president or prime minister in Great Britain, Germany, Turkey, Pakistan, India, and a host of other nations. In 2006, Michelle Bachelet was elected as president of Chile, and Ellen Johnson Sirleaf as president in Liberia—nations whose political systems had previously been dominated by men. The populations of Western countries, Japan, and even China also became older as life spans extended, owing to better health care, lowering of birth rates, and new treatments for a host of physical problems. Japanese men and women enjoyed the longest life span worldwide. In contrast, from the 1970s on, many in Africa were condemned to early deaths that were, in part, caused by poverty, high infant mortality, and disease, especially HIV and AIDS. In Africa over a dozen nations had higher under-five infant mortality rates in 2006 than in 1990, and India had one of the highest numbers per capita of maternal deaths per year. The rights of children also continued to be imperiled in many poor nations, where they often had to work in dangerous conditions in order to provide food for their families. To ameliorate such abuses, the United Nations launched campaigns against child exploitation, while international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in the United States devoted vast sums of money to address problems of international public health, especially such diseases as polio and AIDS. In the 1960s, university students led a young people’s movement in the West that challenged old traditions in social behavior, fashion, music, and politics. The hippies of the era advocated a lifestyle of “making love not war” and urged their peers to “drop out and tune in” with drugs, rock and roll music, and sex. The civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s in the United States struggled to achieve equal rights for African Americans, long a social and economic underclass. Martin Luther King, Jr., led a nonviolent struggle against segregation and helped to achieve more equal political and legal rights. But riots and protests, coupled with mounting opposition to U.S. involvement in the war in Vietnam, polarized American society. King and other leaders were assassinated, and protesting students at Kent State University in Ohio were shot by the National Guard in the 1960s. Blacks in South Africa also waged a protracted struggle against the apartheid system of total racial segregation. The African National Congress (ANC) led by Nelson Mandela ultimately resorted to violence to dismantle apartheid; it finally gained full political and social rights in 1990s. Indigenous peoples in Latin and South America and Canada, Australia, and New Zealand also sought and often gained improved rights and status. Rigoberta Menchú was awarded the 1992 Nobel Prize for Peace for her struggle for the rights of indigenous peoples in the Western Hemisphere. Because inequities continued to exist, the struggles for social and class equality appeared certain to continue well into the 21st century.
Trade and Cultural Exchanges
World War II provided full employment and production to the U.S. economy, which allowed it to dominate world trade and industry in the war’s immediate aftermath. In contrast, the infrastructures of all of the other major manufacturing nations in Europe and Japan had been largely destroyed by the war. These factors allowed U.S.-based corporations to enjoy an almost total monopoly in the manufacturing of steel, automobiles, and a host of other consumer goods for the domestic and international markets in the 1950s. However, as Europe and Japan recovered from the effects of the war in 1950 to the Present xxxvii the 1960s, the U.S. trade advantages began to diminish. The oil shocks of the 1970s revealed U.S. energy dependency on foreign sources, while its aging industrial infrastructure made it difficult to compete with modern and more efficient manufacturers overseas. In addition to western Europe, Japan emerged as a major economic competitor, followed by the “little dragons,” namely South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan, which also began to compete for international markets. Partly in response to lower labor costs, U.S. corporations began to move production facilities from union-protected plants in the United States to plants in those countries. At the same time the European Common Market, begun after World War II, evolved by the late 1990s into the European Union (EU), which included most of the nations of western Europe. The EU became a third major economic powerhouse, along with the United States and Japan. The development and improvement of computers from the mid-1950s helped to revolutionize global trading and business. The computer revolution also made it possible for U.S. companies to outsource jobs to lower-cost English-speaking countries such as India or Ireland. The development of copiers in the 1970s and then faxes helped to facilitate trading and business transactions across vast distances. Late in the 20th century, the World Wide Web, satellites, and cell phones made business and trade communications almost instantaneous. With the end of the cold war by the early 1990s, Western capitalist countries led by the United States moved to globalize and privatize the world’s economic system. The IMF and World Bank made economic restructuring conditions for aid and loans to poor countries in the Global South. Nations seeking loans also had to lower protective tariffs and open their markets to goods from the West. This increased trade of goods from the West but often led to the further impoverishment of already poor nations. The most important world trade organization was the World Trade Organization (WTO), which included most industrialized nations, although Russia and India had not been admitted as of 2007. Important regional trading organizations promoting free trade were established; they included the EU, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Andean Group (AG), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in the former Soviet Union, and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in the Middle East. There was also a standardization of “floating currencies,” but the continued strength of the dollar favored the United States, although the growth of European currency (the euro) emerged as a possible rival in the early 21st century. Africa lagged behind the world economically. It remained a source for raw materials and sometimes was used as a dumping ground for both low-quality goods and waste products from the industrialized countries. The gap between wealthy and poor nations continued to grow in the latter part of the 20th century despite economic conferences attended by leaders of wealthy nations that called for the refinancing of global debt, especially for poor nations in Africa. In the Millennium Summit in 2000, rich nations promised assistance to help poor nations out of the cycle of poverty by increasing education and health care and eradicating hunger while fighting virulent diseases such as malaria and AIDS by working with poor nations. However, by 2006 much remained undone, while the rich continued to grow richer and the poor continued to eke out livings through trade in raw materials and inefficiently produced food products. Increasing populations continued to undermine economic growth in many nations, especially in Africa but also in some parts of Asia. However, by the early 21st century, India and China, both previously low-income nations, had emerged as new economic and manufacturing giants, exporting a wide range of goods around the world and accumulating trade surpluses. They were followed by Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia, which also enjoyed rapid economic growth. The United States, in particular, had a huge trade deficit with China. The 20th century was also marked by the globalization of Western culture. The United States led the way as American movie and television stars, music, fashion, and even advertising became increasingly popular around the world. However, film industries in Egypt and Mumbai (Bombay), India, known as Bollywood (three times larger than Hollywood production), also enjoyed great popularity for audiences in the Middle East and Asia. Beginning in the 1980s, color television, satxxxviii 1950 to the Present ellite systems, videocassettes, and cell phone networks all provided easy and relatively inexpensive access to wide a range of musical, artistic, and dramatic productions throughout the world. International hotel and fast food chains also helped to popularize Western tastes. Tourism, boosted by cheap jet airplane travel, enabled millions to see and enjoy other cultures. The 1960s was a decade of major cultural changes, especially among Western youth and the elites worldwide. The Woodstock rock festival in 1969 was a centerpiece of the hippie generation, which advocated “turning on, tuning in, and dropping out” and rock and roll music and dance. Cultural fusions were particularly apparent in music. Western rock-and-roll musicians helped to popularize Africa, Caribbean, and other traditional music and sometimes brought indigenous artists from Africa and South America to the attention of international audiences for the first time. Jazz, hip hop, Latin influences, and rai (a fusion of traditional Arabic and urban Western motifs) from North Africa attracted music lovers from around the world. Similar fusions of indigenous materials and motifs, along with eco-friendly styles, in art and architecture also became popular. While English became the universal second language, attempts were made to preserve and revitalize indigenous languages. The Nigerian author, Wole Soyinka, spoke widely on the awareness among Africans of their own rich cultural heritage. For example, the Kenyan novelist Ngugi wa Thiong’o wrote in his native language Gikuyu, which had been banned in his school while the British ruled Kenya. Similarly, Amadou Hampate Ba of Mali spoke impassionately at UNESCO to preserve African oral traditions, or, as he expressed it, “In Africa, when an old man dies, it is like a whole library burning down.” The tensions between secularism and religion apparent at the beginning of the 20th century intensified at its end. While western European societies became increasingly secular, by the 1970s militant Islamists across the Muslim world wanted to return to early Islamic practices and governments that operated under Islamic law and challenged Western cultural hegemony. Some Christian fundamentalists in the West, especially in the United States, Hindus in India, and Jews in Israel also wanted to created religiously based governments and judicial systems in their nations. Although the conflict of secular Westernization with tradition and religion promised to continue in the Islamic world, other leaders in these nations expressed their desires for the preservation of the best of their own traditional cultures with the adaptation of what they considered the best of Western civilization. Hence, ongoing and seemingly endless technological advances made the world smaller, enabling peoples to travel, trade, and communicate almost instantaneously. It also provided the means through which the rich industrialized nations could dominate and largely control world trade and communications and popularize Western culture worldwide. At the same time, peoples around the world attempted, with varying degrees of success, to preserve their ancient traditions, languages, and religions. Some sought to maintain their individual societies through divisive and sometimes violent racism, sectarianism, and ethnocentrism. However, as the 21st century progressed, many others struggled to maintain their individuality, taking the best of other cultures while sharing the best of their own.
Warfare in the second half of the 20th century was dominated by the cold war, which for 45 years pitted nuclear superpowers, the United States and Soviet Union, against one another. At the same time, this era also experienced extensive ethnic, religious, and territorial conflict. This often meant that military forces equipped with technologically advanced weapons of mass destruction found themselves in battle with guerrilla fighters armed with makeshift or outdated weapons. The wellequipped warriors did not always win. The waning days of World War II set new hostilities in motion as the Soviets competed with their Allies to be the first to liberate Axis-held territories in both Europe and Asia. At a 1945 conference at Yalta, three months before Germany surrendered, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt, and British prime minister Winston Churchill agreed to a buffer zone between the USSR and Germany. By 1946, Churchill, speaking at a Missouri college, was decrying 1950 to the Present xxxix a Soviet “Iron Curtain” that was turning eastern European nations, including the Soviet sector in eastern Germany, into satellite states while projecting communist influence around the world. The cold war was under way. although the United States and Soviet Union never directly attacked one another—hence the term “cold” war—the superpowers engaged in a costly arms race and spent blood and treasure in a series of “proxy” wars in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan. Wars of decolonization that included French Algeria, Dutch Indonesia, and French, British, Belgian, and Portuguese sub-Saharan Africa erupted in many regions still trying to throw off Western imperialism. The United States and the Soviet Union regularly used independence movements as opportunities to outdo one another by providing intelligence, arms, and covert assistance to their presumed allies. Both “proxy” and “decolonizing” wars played out in a bipolar world in which the Americans and Soviets each pressed the rest of the world’s nations to take their side. Many did so; others, including India, precariously maintained nonaligned status. Both the United States and the Soviet Union were permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, but they also took steps to secure their own allies. NATO—the North Atlantic Treaty Organization—founded in 1949, became a mutual security body prepared to respond militarily to possible Soviet incursions. Moscow responded in 1955 to NATO’s admission of West Germany by creating the Warsaw Pact, a mutual defense agreement between the Soviet Union and most eastern European nations in the Soviet orbit. The Soviet Union intervened militarily to crush revolts in Hungary (1956), Czechoslovakia (1968), and Poland (1981) and built the Berlin Wall to prevent East Germans from escaping to the West. The United States also intensified efforts to control client nations in Central America, sometimes intervening militarily to prevent the emergence there of reform movements that were, or seemed to be, inspired by communism. Cuban revolutionary leader Fidel Castro’s embrace of the Soviet Union after 1959 was a rare failure of U.S. influence in the Western Hemisphere. Arms Race. The most significant but least-used weapon of the cold war era was the nuclear bomb and its associated adaptations. After the Soviets fabricated their own A-bomb in 1949, other nations were soon preparing to join the nuclear “club.” Since then, Britain, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel, South Africa, and North Korea have built bombs or are believed to have developed bomb technology, despite international efforts to check nuclear weapons proliferation. In 1951, the United States tested an even more powerful hydrogen, or H-, bomb and began expanding its fleet of nuclear-powered submarines. As the arms race intensified, both sides turned to rocket technology to create intercontinental ballistic missile systems; virtually all of these were designed to drop nuclear warheads on enemy targets or fire them from submarines. Many historians now agree that this bilateral binge of nuclear weapons stockpiling was a major reason why the United States and the Soviet Union managed to avoid going to war with each other. The cold war weapons buildup that produced what came to be called MAD—mutually assured destruction—certainly caused anxiety. Americans were urged to build backyard fallout shelters to protect their families from radiation. During the Cuban missile crisis in 1962, U.S. President John F. Kennedy and Premier Nikita Khrushchev squared off over Soviet installation of nuclear weapons in Cuba. War was narrowly averted, but the likelihood that both nations could suffer deaths and damage of unprecedented magnitude helped to defuse the impasse. In 1963 Kennedy and Khrushchev signed a treaty banning above-ground nuclear testing; by the 1970s, the two nations were negotiating agreements to slow or even reduce nuclear weapons development After 1950, the U.S. Air Force emerged the big winner in the internal Pentagon race for respect and resources. The biggest, most expensive improvements in both offensive and defensive weaponry focused on manned and unmanned aircraft and missiles. Aircraft carriers and submarines dominated the seas, while versatile armored helicopters took on important combat roles. After the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik in 1957, the first satellite in orbit, the idea of “air” power took on an outer space dimension. Although the perceived Sputnik military threat fizzled, in 1983 Ronald xl 1950 to the Present Reagan, America’s last cold war president, proposed a strategic defense initiative, dubbed “Star Wars,” to shoot down Soviet missiles from positions in space. Proxy Wars. Three major conflicts between 1950 and 1989 demonstrated attempts by the two superpowers (and Communist China) to “win” the cold war militarily and ideologically. These were the Korean War (1950–53) and Vietnam War (1954–75), in which U.S. troops played a leading role, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979–89). None of these conflicts proved very productive for the superpowers. With the blessing of the United Nations (during a Soviet boycott of the Security Council), the United States assembled a multinational force to repel efforts by Communist North Korea to conquer pro-Western South Korea. Soon, the new Chinese Communist regime came to the aid of North Korea, complicating any chance for a United Nations–led victory. This war ended with an armistice that never became a peace treaty. Hostilities continued to break out along the DMZ (demilitarized zone) separating North and South Korea. Soviet intervention in a civil war–wracked Afghanistan ended 10 years later in a failure so profound that it became a factor in the breakup of the Soviet Union soon after. The U.S. government, interpreting the Afghan conflict through a cold war lens, provided the latest weapons, including Stinger missiles, to local warlords. A decade later, these weapons would reappear as disaffected ethnic and religious groups in Asia and the Middle East mounted anti-American and anti-Russian attacks. Vietnam was the longest of these “proxy” contests and, for a time, made Americans question national power and the U.S. role in a world of nations. As Japan withdrew from its Asian conquests at the end of World War II, the French tried to resume colonial control in Indochina. Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh, a Communist, sought independence. By the time France withdrew in 1954 after a major defeat at Dien Bien Phu, the United States had assumed the role of protecting the southern sector of politically divided Vietnam from its “red” brethren in North Vietnam. For 10 years U.S. involvement in South Vietnam drew little public attention and was carried out by relatively small numbers of military advisers and intelligence agents. These Americans were supposed to strengthen South Vietnam’s military and political structures to prevent what President Dwight D. Eisenhower called the “domino effect.” This was the idea that communism had to be contained—ideologically if possible, militarily if necessary—wherever it appeared. The U.S.-backed South Vietnamese government headed by Ngo Dinh Diem was corrupt and unpopular. In 1963 a U.S.-instigated military coup assassinated Diem. In 1964, an apparent clash between North Vietnamese vessels and a U.S. warship spying in North Vietnam’s Gulf of Tonkin gave President Lyndon B. Johnson a free hand in Vietnam, despite his having no congressional declaration of war. Militarily, Vietnam was a conflict between a massively armed superpower and guerrilla fighters known as the vietcong. Aided by regular North Vietnamese troops and outfitted with Chinese and Warsaw Pact–supplied weapons, these fighters used their knowledge of Vietnam’s terrain, jungle climate, and people to fight on, despite U.S. attacks with napalm, a deadly defoliant, and air raids that dropped 8 million tons of bombs on Vietnam, more than any other country had ever experienced. One collateral casualty of Vietnam for the United States was the end of its system of universal military service. After World War II, the United States continued mandatory military training for young men. As a result, the U.S. Army expanded to 3.5 million soldiers. As manpower needs in the undeclared war in Vietnam required more American troops—peaking at 541,000 in 1969—resistance to the war also increased. College students used generous deferment policies to postpone conscription; when that failed, a friendly doctor might issue a diagnosis of disease or mental illness. Draft protesters publicly burned their Selective Service documents, and thousands fled, mostly to Canada and Sweden, to avoid the draft. Warfare in a Postcolonial and Post–Cold War World. As the Soviet Union unraveled between 1989, when the Berlin Wall came down, and 1991, when its last premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, resigned, some thought, briefly, that a time of peace might be at hand. In fact, the demise of a world order shaped by two superpowers helped intensify existing ethnic, religious, and political rivalries 1950 to the Present xli and created new “hot spots” around the globe. As old-style colonialism collapsed, especially after 1960, new wars over boundaries and resources erupted in Africa and other formerly colonized regions where Western control had distorted national development. Tribal massacres in Rwanda and the Darfur region of Sudan were only the bloodiest outcomes of warfare also afflicting Congo, Liberia, and much of West Africa. “Ethnic cleansing” occurred in Europe, as Yugoslavia, once an independent socialist state, broke into warring religious and ethnic groups. India and Pakistan clashed over the disputed territory of Kashmir, becoming competing nuclear powers in the process. Persistent conflict between Israel, founded in 1948 as a Jewish state, and its Arab neighbors remained a major danger to world peace. Indeed, events in the oil-rich Middle East became even more central in the post–cold war years. Religious conflicts between some Islamist organizations and other world religions were at the heart of warfare conducted not by national armies but by small, dedicated groups using terrorist tactics, including suicide bombing, to achieve their aims. Terrorism was not a new method of warfare— Irish nationalists for years had used terror tactics against Britain—but it seemed especially effective against nations whose strength lay in conventional methods of warfare. Russian troops laid waste to the separatist Islamic region of Chechnya, but found that this neither ended Chechen guerrilla actions nor protected Russian civilians from terror attacks, even in Moscow. On September 11, 2001, al-Qaeda, an Islamist group based in Afghanistan, used 19 operatives, armed only with box cutters and just enough training to pilot commercial jets, to bring down New York City’s World Trade Center and seriously damage the Pentagon outside Washington, D.C. Smaller deadly attacks in Madrid and London were later perpetrated by al-Qaeda or similar nonnational terrorist groups. The U.S.-led 2003 Second Gulf War against Saddam Hussein’s regime in Iraq in 2003 was a triumph for America’s sophisticated weapons but faltered amid low-tech attacks committed by warring factions upon each other and U.S. forces. As the 21st century got under way, the rapid spread of technology and almost uncontrolled sales of arms and possible “weaponized” biological and chemical agents seemed to be changing warfare from nation-state projections of power within formal rules of engagement into a dangerous free-for-all among disgruntled nations, regions, and even small groups of individuals destabilizing the world.